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Unit 11 Presented by Nelya Bezhan Unit 11 Presented by Nelya Bezhan

Definitions : 1. An activity or the like that occupies a person's time. Employment Definitions : 1. An activity or the like that occupies a person's time. Employment 2. Positive statement or declaration, often without support or reason. 3. Group of persons sworn to rend er a verdict or true answer on a question or questions officially submitted to them. Assertion Jury

4. The examination before a judicial tribunal of the facts put in issue in 4. The examination before a judicial tribunal of the facts put in issue in cause, often including issues of law as well as those of fact. 5. The part of an image represented as being at maximum distance from the frontal plane. 6. A formally affirmed statement or promise accepted as an equivalent of an appeal to a deity or to a revered person or thing; affirmation. Trial Background Oath

Translate : Overview of the process 1. The trial process requires the prosecution to Translate : Overview of the process 1. The trial process requires the prosecution to bring evidence to prove beyond reasonable doubt that a defendant committed the alleged offence. It is not for the defendant to prove that s/he did not commit the offence as a defendant is presumed innocent until proved guilty. 2. Different offences have varying elements which must be proved, and the evidence required will vary accordingly. It is always essential to look closely at the wording of the offence to identify what the prosecution is required to prove. 3. It is also important to consider the ‘burden of proof’ and the ‘standard of proof’.

4. The burden of proof is normally on the prosecution to prove that the 4. The burden of proof is normally on the prosecution to prove that the defendant is guilty. However, in some offences 1, the burden may switch to the defence to prove (or disprove) at least some facts that are part of the offence or defence (a ‘reverse burden’). 5. The prosecution must prove the guilt of a defendant ‘beyond reasonable doubt’. However, a different standard of proof applies where the burden is on the defence. In that situation, the defence must discharge the burden ‘on the balance of probabilities’, which is the civil law standard and easier to satisfy. 6. The trial is the forum where the evidence is examined and the court considers whether it is sufficient to discharge (or satisfy) the burden of proof. 7. For further guidance, see Proving the offence.

Translate : В Україні триває процес проведення ряду демократичних реформ, серед яких значної уваги Translate : В Україні триває процес проведення ряду демократичних реформ, серед яких значної уваги приділено судово-правовій реформі з метою реального забезпечення прав та свобод людини і громадянина. Відповідно до положень Концепції судово-правової реформи в Україні, головною метою реформи виступає реальне забезпечення самостійності та незалежності судових органів; реалізація демократичних ідей правосуддя, вироблених світовою наукою і практикою; гарантування права громадянина на розгляд його справи компетентним, незалежним і неупередженим судом у змагальному процесі. Одним з важливих інструментаріїв у виконанні поставлених завдань є залучення пересічних громадян до розгляду разом з професійними суддями окремих категорій судових справ. Конституція України гарантує, що народ безпосередньо бере участь у здійсненні правосуддя через народних засідателів і присяжних.

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