UNICEF Strategies to guarantee quality learning protective environments

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UNICEF Strategies to guarantee quality learning, protective environments and peaceful coexistence for adolescents in UNICEF Strategies to guarantee quality learning, protective environments and peaceful coexistence for adolescents in urban areas Brazil, August/2007

Violence Prevention Strategies: Guarantees to rights and life-skill development for adolescents Nancy Cardia, Vice-Coordinator Violence Prevention Strategies: Guarantees to rights and life-skill development for adolescents Nancy Cardia, Vice-Coordinator Centre for the Study of Violence, University of São Paulo

Diagnosis: What violence? What risks? Interventions: What successful prevention initiatives ? Diagnosis: What violence? What risks? Interventions: What successful prevention initiatives ?

Victimization Ever in your life. . . – > 20 years 4, 1% 4, Victimization Ever in your life. . . – > 20 years 4, 1% 4, 6% Close relative kidnapped – < 20 years 22, 2% 25, 4% Close relative murdered 22, 7% Close relative wounded by knife 35, 8% 24, 4% You or close relative life threatened 34, 1% 16, 7% Someone asked where to buy drugs 37, 0% 24, 5% Someone offered you drugs 45, 7% 0, 0% 5, 0% 10, 0% 15, 0% 20, 0% 25, 0% 30, 0% 35, 0% 40, 0% 45, 0% 50, 0%

Victimization Ever in your life. . . 10, 1% Physically assaulted or ill treated Victimization Ever in your life. . . 10, 1% Physically assaulted or ill treated by police – < 20 years 24, 3% Extortion by police or authority – > 20 years 6, 1% 6, 9% 45, 8% Suffered verbal aggression 61, 8% 19, 6% Victim of physical assault Was wounded by firearm 29, 5% 1, 6% 0, 6% 7, 3% 5, 8% Victim of armed robbery (knife) 26, 3% Victim of armed robbery (guns) 15, 6% 0, 0% 10, 0% 20, 0% 30, 0% 40, 0% 50, 0% 60, 0% 70, 0%

Positive youth development • i. e, successful transition to adulthood avoid problems, school failure, Positive youth development • i. e, successful transition to adulthood avoid problems, school failure, use of substances and delinquency How? Through their emotional, cognitive and behavioral development

Changes in prevention • A new perception: skills, abilities, capacity, for recovery and for Changes in prevention • A new perception: skills, abilities, capacity, for recovery and for change • New approach to prevention: evaluation + contributions from developmental studies, • From focus on a single behavior or context (family, school, community, peer group): to multiple behaviors and contexts. • Universal rather than targeted to a group

Changes (cont) Language changes: • Search for opportunities for growth. Key elements seek to Changes (cont) Language changes: • Search for opportunities for growth. Key elements seek to promote: • attachment (bonding) • youth and families, schools, community, peer group, culture • resilience, • social, emotional, cognitive, moral and behavioral competence • self esteem and self reliance • trust in the future.

Probability of being alive by 25 70, 0% Very high/high average 60, 0% 50, Probability of being alive by 25 70, 0% Very high/high average 60, 0% 50, 0% 60, 7% Low/very low 49, 3% 51, 7% 40, 0% 30, 0% 29, 2% 26, 2% 23, 6% 20, 0% 15, 0% 10, 0% 9, 7% 11, 5% 0, 0% 2001 2003 2006

The role of agents of socialization is highlighted Families Schools Communities Work Religion The role of agents of socialization is highlighted Families Schools Communities Work Religion

When to start prevention? As early as possible Attachment = trust: Home Visitation Social When to start prevention? As early as possible Attachment = trust: Home Visitation Social skills - life skills: pre-schools + families

Families key to protection and for risks Affection/Warmth Support Positive disciplining Monitoring and supervision Families key to protection and for risks Affection/Warmth Support Positive disciplining Monitoring and supervision Role models

Obstacles I- Amount and quality of time spent together Parents working more and longer Obstacles I- Amount and quality of time spent together Parents working more and longer hours 240 hs more per year than in 1989 In the last 30 years 13% less time with children 10 to 12 hs less per week

Obstacles II- Costs of programs involving families More complex Lasting longer Obstacles II- Costs of programs involving families More complex Lasting longer

Successful programs involving families • Nurse Home Visitation/ Healthy Families • Parent Training Program Successful programs involving families • Nurse Home Visitation/ Healthy Families • Parent Training Program - The Incredible Years Parenting Program • Functional Family Therapy and MST -Multisystemic Therapy • Triple P: Media (TV series + radio and newspaper) • Health services, Schools, Work place, Other institutions in the community • GREAT families

Successful programs • Lengthy • Adapted to cultural needs • Adapted to the risks Successful programs • Lengthy • Adapted to cultural needs • Adapted to the risks and protections developmental stage • Change family dynamics/organization/patterns of communication/monitoring and supervision • Start early on • Identify the obstacles to the active aprticipation of families and remove them.

Successful programs • Are interactive, • Delivered in a welcoming (nonthreatening) environment, • Delivered Successful programs • Are interactive, • Delivered in a welcoming (nonthreatening) environment, • Delivered by highly trained professionals.

Successful community programs • Supervised games in playgrounds and in pre-schools • CTC – Successful community programs • Supervised games in playgrounds and in pre-schools • CTC – Communities That Care • Mentoring - a Big Brother/Big Sister • Voluntary group work in the community Promoted by schools: Crèches, Old people’s homes, Local health facility

Successful community programs Leisure and sports • Reduce anti-social behavior • Promote social skills Successful community programs Leisure and sports • Reduce anti-social behavior • Promote social skills

Successful community programs Challenges: • in violent communities children and youth are not encoraged Successful community programs Challenges: • in violent communities children and youth are not encoraged to use in public spaces. • Poorest children do not take part • Avoid competition-aggression promote adventure • To improve: cooperation, trust, problem solving skills.

Successful School programs Teach how • to interact • to contribute to /cooperate with Successful School programs Teach how • to interact • to contribute to /cooperate with their community, families and peers • i. e social skills.

Successful School programs Change school climate • Competition for resources • Teacher’s stress • Successful School programs Change school climate • Competition for resources • Teacher’s stress • General incivility

Examples • Resolving Conflict Creatively Program • Life Skills Training Program • GREAT Schools: Examples • Resolving Conflict Creatively Program • Life Skills Training Program • GREAT Schools: Teachers and Students

GREAT • • • Diagnosis of the school Climate in school – Pattern of GREAT • • • Diagnosis of the school Climate in school – Pattern of Interactions Physical characteristics lighting cleanness graffitti broken windows bars shops selling arms

Successful programs • Change behavior • Are theory based combining risks and protection factors Successful programs • Change behavior • Are theory based combining risks and protection factors • Evidence based • Involve multiple partners • Last longer • Tailored to the developmental and cultural needs of the child • Promote development through social and emotional skills and ethical values adapted to their daily lives • Involve families communities and schools- public policies and institutional practices. • Recruit and maintain skilled staff

Successful programs • Tailored to the developmental and cultural needs of the child. • Successful programs • Tailored to the developmental and cultural needs of the child. • Promote development through social and emotional skills and ethical values adapted to their daily lives. • Involve families communities and schoolspublic policies and institutional practices. • Recruit and maintain skilled staff.




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