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U. S. Assistance Programs for Export Control Development U. S. Assistance Programs for Export Control Development

U. S. Assistance Overview Department of State: • Export Control and Related Border Security U. S. Assistance Overview Department of State: • Export Control and Related Border Security Program (EXBS) • Biosecurity Engagement Program (BEP) • Chemical Security Engagement Program (CSP) • Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) Department of Energy: • International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) • Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports Program

The Export Control and Related Border Security (EXBS) Program United States Department of State The Export Control and Related Border Security (EXBS) Program United States Department of State Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation Office of Export Control Cooperation

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Created in the early 1990 The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Created in the early 1990 s to: · Assist foreign governments in bringing export control systems up to international standards; · Establish capabilities to detect, interdict, investigate, and prosecute illicit transfers of WMD, WMDrelated materials, and conventional weapons; · Exchange information about export control and border security “best practices”; · Support national efforts to fulfill UNSCR 1540 requirements. EXBS Training along the borders of Afghanistan and Tajikistan.

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security The EXBS Program: · Funded The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security The EXBS Program: · Funded and managed by the U. S. Department of State · Has sponsored bilateral and regional cooperative efforts worth nearly $400 million including: · Over 1, 472 technical exchanges and workshops · $216. 5 M of inspection and interdiction equipment · Regional Conferences and Seminars Interdiction Equipment Donation to Customs Officials

EXBS is active in over 60 countries with 20 resident EXBS IS ACTIVE IN EXBS is active in over 60 countries with 20 resident EXBS IS ACTIVE IN OVER 60 advisors around the world 20 COUNTRIES WITH RESIDENT ADVISORS AROUND THE WORLD

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security The EXBS program is implemented The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security The EXBS program is implemented by drawing on the expertise of international and non-governmental organizations, foreign governments, the private sector, and U. S. Government Agencies, including: U. S. Department of Commerce U. S. Department of Defense U. S. Department of Energy U. S. Department of Homeland Security • Customs and Border Protection (CBP) • Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) • U. S. Coast Guard (USCG) • U. S. Department of Justice • •

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security EXBS works on establishing and The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security EXBS works on establishing and strengthening “five pillars” of export control/border security: · Comprehensive Legal/Regulatory Frameworks · Effective Licensing Procedures and Practices · Enforcement Techniques and Equipment · Government Outreach to Industry · Interagency Coordination

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security EXBS supports workshops and exchanges The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security EXBS supports workshops and exchanges that facilitate drafting, adoption, and implementation of strong, comprehensive export control laws and regulations, including: • Basic Legal/Regulatory Workshop • Implementing Regulations Workshop • Model Law Workshop • Legislative Outreach Workshop

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Countries that have recently instituted The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Countries that have recently instituted new export control laws or regulations, or have strengthened existing laws and regulations include: · Philippines · Thailand · Vietnam · Mexico

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security EXBS gives licensing officers the The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security EXBS gives licensing officers the capacity to make well-informed decisions about which licenses to approve, through activities including: • National Control List Workshop • ASCOT (Analysis and Strategic Commodity Transfers) • Brokering Workshop • End/User Workshop (also relates to enforcement pillar)

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security The following countries have adopted The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security The following countries have adopted or are working to adopt national control lists: · Singapore · UAE · Philippines · Mexico

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Tracker Automated Export Control Licensing The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Tracker Automated Export Control Licensing System: • Deployed to 19 countries • Tracker 7. 0 to be released July 2009 • www. trackernet. org

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security EXBS works with Enforcement Agencies The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security EXBS works with Enforcement Agencies to: · Modernize border crossing points, and · Address basic and advanced customs and border enforcement techniques through: · Commodity Identification Workshop and e-Commodity Identification (e-CIT) Techniques · Land, Sea, Air, and Rail Interdiction Techniques · Targeting and Risk Management Workshop · Investigatory Techniques

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Nonintrusive Inspection Equipment Techniques International The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Nonintrusive Inspection Equipment Techniques International Air Cargo Interdiction Techniques

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security EXBS has provided state-ofthe-art imaging The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security EXBS has provided state-ofthe-art imaging and advanced x-ray screening systems to countries to detect and interdict contraband: • Backscatter vans • Vehicle and Cargo Inspection Systems (VACIS) • Pass-through x-ray systems

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security EXBS provides advanced radiation detection The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security EXBS provides advanced radiation detection and identification capabilities coupled with first-responders and incident response training: Installed or upgraded radiation portal monitors at key land crossings and sea ports in 8 countries • Developed training courses with the VINCA Institute in Serbia on nuclear and chemical materials smuggling for customs and police officers in the region •

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Success Stories: • Several scrap The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Success Stories: • Several scrap metal shipments turned back at the borders by Serbian and Macedonian Customs due to excessive radiation levels (2007 & 2008) • EXBS-provided Radiation Pagers alarmed, Customs officers stopped the shipments, isolated them and called in the experts • Chemical shipment to Iran stopped by Macedonian Customs (June 2008) • Manifest stated diesel fuel – viewed as suspicious • Customs inspection determined truck contained a toxic chemical • Customs isolated the vehicle, consulted with experts in Skopje and the U. S. , then returned the shipment

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Success Stories: Kosovo Customs intercepted The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Success Stories: Kosovo Customs intercepted ammunition smuggling (July 2008) • Stopped suspicious car at the border • Questioned driver and observed that inside back walls had been modified • Search turned up 17, 000+ rounds of ammo hidden within the back walls

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Success Stories: Inspection and detection The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Success Stories: Inspection and detection equipment and training has led to numerous interdictions and improved overall contraband seizure rates significantly. • Serbian Customs officers employed EXBS-donated inspection equipment and techniques to stop and search a cargo truck, resulting in the seizure of over 160 kg of heroin. This was the largest drug seizure in the history of Serbian Customs. • Macedonian Customs confiscated 882 pounds of cocaine using EXBS-provided x-ray vans. Valued at over 50 million Euros, the seizure was the largest in Macedonian history.

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Improving Control over Green Borders: The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Improving Control over Green Borders: • Provided equipment to develop mobile border teams in Eastern Europe and the Balkans • Deploying modular buildings along borders between crossing points in Central Asia. • Deployed border monitoring sensors in numerous partner countries • Delivered cargo scanning equipment, heavy-duty cranes, and forklifts to various Afghan border crossing points

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Government Industry Outreach: • Government The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Government Industry Outreach: • Government Industry Relations Forum • Internal Compliance Program (ICP) • Survey of Industries/Producers of Strategic and Dual Use Goods

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Export Control Resources Available Online The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Export Control Resources Available Online Soon

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Recent EXBS program-sponsored multilateral events: The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Recent EXBS program-sponsored multilateral events: • Tenth International Export Control Conference, June 2009, Turkey • South Asia 1540 Workshop, June 2009, Sri Lanka • Tracker Best Practices Conference, May 2009, Poland • MANPADS Controls Seminar, April 2009, Morocco • UN Regional 1540 Workshop, March 2009, Qatar • OSCE Mediterranean Partners Seminar on MANPADS, October 2008, Vienna • Ninth Annual International Export Control Conference, October 2008, Croatia • OAS 1540 Workshop, May 2008, Argentina • International Transshipment Conference, May, 2008, Morocco

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Looking Towards the Future: • The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Looking Towards the Future: • Promote sustainability, including through: • Development of customs academy curriculums and • Train-the-trainer training • International coordination on UNSCR 1540: • Work with other governments on third country outreach • Conduct/support UN-led regional 1540 workshops • Encourage regional cooperation • Strengthen interagency coordination

The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Contact the EXBS Program: ECC The EXBS Program Export Control and Related Border Security Contact the EXBS Program: ECC Office Website: http: //www. state. gov/t/isn/ecc/index. htm EXBS Program Website: http: //www. exportcontrol. org

Biosecurity Engagement Program (BSP) • Why: – Biological Threat Reduction • Where: – Global Biosecurity Engagement Program (BSP) • Why: – Biological Threat Reduction • Where: – Global • What: – Awareness Raising – Pathogen Security – Safe, Secure, Sustainable S&T Development – Enhance Disease Diagnosis & Surveillance • How: – Engage Scientists, Institutions, Policymakers – Best Practices in Lab Biosafety & Biosecurity – Technical & Grants Assistance to Partner Countries – Bilateral and Multilateral Collaboration BEP FY 2007 - 2009 FY 09: $28 million worldwide ~ $6 million in ASEAN Region

Biosecurity Engagement Program (BSP) BEP Engagement Why Southeast Asia? • Transnational terrorist groups • Biosecurity Engagement Program (BSP) BEP Engagement Why Southeast Asia? • Transnational terrorist groups • Requested assistance at high containment laboratories • Extensive pathogen collections • Laboratory infrastructure variable • Growing lab biosafety & biosecurity awareness/expertise • Legal/regulatory biosafety/biosecurity framework incomplete • Human/animal health needs/infectious disease burden • HPAI, ND, Anthrax, FMD, Brucellosis, Rabies, Ebola-Reston, Nipah, dengue, malaria, MDR-TB, melioidiosis , Japanese encephalitis, enteric diseases ONGOING: Indonesia Philippines Thailand Cambodia Laos Vietnam

Chemical Security Engagement Program (CSP) Mission: The Chemical Security Engagement Program (CSP) seeks to Chemical Security Engagement Program (CSP) Mission: The Chemical Security Engagement Program (CSP) seeks to deter terrorists and proliferant states from accessing chemical expertise and materials that could be used in a chemical attack. Program Goals: • Raise awareness about chemical threat, dual-use nature of chemicals. • Provide assistance to improve chemical security and safety best practices • Foster national and regional dialogue on improving chemical safety and security • Promote and strengthen scientific cooperation among chemical professionals Strategy: • Work with partner countries to assess priorities and coordinate with: – National chemistry societies – Regional chemistry societies (Federation of Asian Chemistry Societies) – International organizations (Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons)

Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) Purpose: • Strengthen cooperation/collaboration among partner nations Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) Purpose: • Strengthen cooperation/collaboration among partner nations in building and exercising collective capabilities and resources in the overall global architecture to combat nuclear terrorism • Provide the opportunity for nations to share information and expertise in a non-legally binding environment • Bring together experience and expertise from the nonproliferation, counter proliferation, and counterterrorism disciplines and from international, federal, state, and local governments and private sector

Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) U. S. and Russia Co-Chair Responsibilities: • Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) U. S. and Russia Co-Chair Responsibilities: • Set priorities for GICNT • 2008 -09: strengthen detection and forensics, deny safe haven and financing to terrorists, deter terrorist intentions to acquire and use nuclear devices • • Co-chair Plenary, Exercise Planning Group meetings Coordinate Seminars, Workshops, Exercises via the Plan of Work Assist in inviting partner nation SMEs to participate Outreach to current 75 partners and prospective partners.

International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) Department of Energy / National Nuclear Security Administration International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) Department of Energy / National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE / NNSA)

International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) • Threat – Networks of procurement agents, brokers, International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) • Threat – Networks of procurement agents, brokers, and companies systematically maneuver around and through national export control efforts to obtain commodities and technology needed for WMD development and production facilities • INECP Mission – Strengthen global efforts to prevent proliferation of WMDrelated materials, equipment, and technology INECP’s approach is based on identifying, training, and developing a cadre of technical/nonproliferation specialists in each partner country that can sustain that country’s export control system over the long term

International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) Strengthen global efforts to prevent proliferation of WMDrelated International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) Strengthen global efforts to prevent proliferation of WMDrelated materials, equipment, and technology • AREAS OF ENGAGEMENT MISSION • • • Proliferation Risk Analysis in the Licensing Process – Ensure the license review process competently assesses proliferation risks associated with end-uses and end-users, and ensure technical specialists are being utilized Government Outreach and Enterprise Compliance – Assist governments to establish outreach programs and promote enterprise compliance at key enterprises and technology holders WMD-related Commodity Identification Training and reach-back for Customs – Ensure enforcement personnel are sensitized to WMD-related materials and equipment, and have access to technical/analytical resources and support

International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP)

International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) Three Pillars of INECP activity Major Activity LICENSING International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) Three Pillars of INECP activity Major Activity LICENSING COMPLIANCE ENFORCEMENT Who Why What Licensing Officers and Need to conduct Analysts competent proliferation risk analysis in the licensing process End Use and End User Analysis Training (EUEU) Managers of public sector & legacy WMD enterprises, labs, manufacturers, etc. These major technology holders are targets of opportunity for proliferants Enterprise Outreach Customs Officers and other enforcement personnel Widespread ignorance regarding strategic commodities Commodity Identification Training (CIT)

International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) Spotlight on Enterprise Outreach • Our unique value International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) Spotlight on Enterprise Outreach • Our unique value added – Implementing compliance programs at US National Labs – Intangible technology control – Technical understanding of the control lists, commodities, WMD programs, acquisition networks • Our niche – Public sector, tertiary enterprises and legacy WMD sectors (nuclear, missile, chemical, biological)

International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) Spotlight on Commodity Identification Training (CIT) • • International Nonproliferation Export Control Program (INECP) Spotlight on Commodity Identification Training (CIT) • • CIT gives inspectors “a trained eye” by familiarizing them with the materials, components, and equipment sought by WMD procurement programs CIT simplifies export control lists by grouping items into technology “bundles” and by aiding recognition through a focus on physical appearance, using pictures and demonstration kits: • Equipment – Fabricated Parts and Components – Electronics (Components and Equipment) – Industrial Equipment – Systems and Subsystems • Materials – Structural Materials (metals and non-metals) – Special Materials (Nuclear, Chemical, Biological) • Indigenization strategy – INECP follows a disciplined indigenization approach based on our technical partnerships to establish ongoing training programs and reachback capabilities 38 CIT deployment is underway in 25 countries

U. S. Department of Energy Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports Initiative U. S. Department of Energy Second Line of Defense (SLD) Megaports Initiative

Megaports Initiative (SLD) q Misson: To provide equipment, training, and technical support to international Megaports Initiative (SLD) q Misson: To provide equipment, training, and technical support to international partners to enhance their ability to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials in the global maritime system. q Strategy: Engage high priority ports using a prioritization model that factors in threat (25%) and volume (75%) • Scan containers at high volume ports • Scan containers at high risk ports • Scan US-bound containers in conjunction with imaging operations to support DHS’ Container Security Initiative (CSI) and Secure Freight Initiative (SFI) q Goal: Screen as many containers as possible (including imports, exports, and transshipments) regardless of destination and with minimal impact to port operations

Megaports Initiative (SLD) Project Scope q Equipment operated by host country personnel q Typical Megaports Initiative (SLD) Project Scope q Equipment operated by host country personnel q Typical Activities funded by DOE/NNSA: • Radiation detection equipment and its installation - Cost share for additional ports • Associated cameras, Optical Character Recognition (OCR), License Plate Recognition (LPR) technology, and its installation, as appropriate • Computer equipment and associated communications systems for Central Alarm Systems • Installation of equipment at Regional or National training centers • Training in the use and maintenance of equipment • Technical support assistance • Maintenance and sustainability contracts Vehicle monitor with OCR Hand-held detection and identification equipment

Megaports Initiative (SLD) Project Scope q Cost-Sharing approach pursued, where feasible • Host nation/private Megaports Initiative (SLD) Project Scope q Cost-Sharing approach pursued, where feasible • Host nation/private industry pays for design, construction, and installation, and in some cases, maintenance • Megaports provides equipment (including radiation detection equipment and communications hardware), software development, training, and in some cases, limited maintenance Central Alarm Station (CAS) q Provide hands-on training and materials designed to address site-specific requirements • Develop training curriculum, operating procedures, and reference guides in hostcountry format/language • Establish indigenous training program tailored to existing capability • Promote a “Train-the-Trainer” approach Materials Detected at Megaports installations to date include contaminated scrap and sealed radioactive sources

Megaports Initiative (SLD) Progress to Date Operational Megaports (23) Bahamas (Freeport) Belgium (Antwerp) Belgium Megaports Initiative (SLD) Progress to Date Operational Megaports (23) Bahamas (Freeport) Belgium (Antwerp) Belgium (Zeebrugge) Colombia (Cartagena) Dominican Republic (Caucedo) Greece (Piraeus) *Honduras (Cortes) – SFI Pilot Israel (Haifa) – Pilot Jamaica (Kingston Mexico (Lazaro Cardenas, Veracruz) Implementation Phase (21) Special Projects & Collaboration (2) Netherlands (Rotterdam) *Oman (Salalah) – SFI Pilot *Pakistan (Qasim) – SFI Pilot Panama (Balboa and MIT) Philippines (Manila) Spain (Algeciras) Singapore (Singapore) – Pilot *South Korea (Pusan) – SFI Pilot Sri Lanka (Colombo) Thailand (Laem Chabang) *U. K. (Southampton) – SFI Bangladesh Pilot Kenya (Mombasa) (Chittagong) Lebanon (Beirut) China (Shanghai) Malaysia (Klang & TJP) *China (Hong Kong) – Mexico ( Manzanillo, SFI Altamira) Djibouti (Djibouti) Panama (Colon & Cristobal) Dubai, UAE (Jebel Ali) Portugal (Lisbon) Egypt (Alexandria) Spain (Valencia & Israel (Ashdod) Barcelona) Jordan (Aqaba) Taiwan (Kaohsiung & Keelung) Japan Qatar (Training (Yokohama) Center) Over 25 other major international seaports in several locations are under negotiation Goal: Over 100 Megaports, scanning over 70% of global shipping traffic by 2015 and approximately 83% of U. S. bound imports shipped through *SFI Port

Megaports Initiative (SLD) Summary q The Megaports Initiative enhances the ability to detect, interdict Megaports Initiative (SLD) Summary q The Megaports Initiative enhances the ability to detect, interdict and deter illicit trafficking of special nuclear and other radioactive materials by providing equipment, training, and technical support to international partners q Radiation portal monitors, handheld identification equipment, a communication network and software allow partners to unobtrusively inspect cargo, as it transits through the port, for the presence and type of radiation q At the host country port, the Megaports Initiative implementation demonstrates that the system can be used effectively without a detrimental impact on commercial operations

Thank You Yvette Wong Director, Office of Export Control Cooperation U. S. Department of Thank You Yvette Wong Director, Office of Export Control Cooperation U. S. Department of State Wong. [email protected] gov