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Transformational Leadership Presented By: Marcos Pavlovich, Brad Harr, Diego Iglesias, & Chris Chandley Transformational Leadership Presented By: Marcos Pavlovich, Brad Harr, Diego Iglesias, & Chris Chandley

Outline • • Transformational Leadership Who Developed Transformational Leadership Transformational Leaders The Transformational and Outline • • Transformational Leadership Who Developed Transformational Leadership Transformational Leaders The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model Full Range Model How to Apply Transformational Leadership Personality and Transformational Leadership Vs other types of Leadership Styles • The Big Five • Strengths and Weaknesses of Transformational Leadership • Multi factor Leadership Questionnaire

What is Transformational Leadership? What is Transformational Leadership?

Transformational Leadership • People will follow a person who inspires them. • A person Transformational Leadership • People will follow a person who inspires them. • A person with vision and passion can achieve great things. • The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy. (Jan Stewart, 2006, Colonel M. Homrig, 2001)

Transformational Theorists • James Burns – Architect of Transformational Leadership – Presidential Biographer – Transformational Theorists • James Burns – Architect of Transformational Leadership – Presidential Biographer – Scholar at Burns Academy of Leadership • Bernard Bass – Transformational & Transactional Leadership Model – Full Range Model – Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (Jan Stewart, 2006, Colonel M. Homrig, 2001)

James Mc. Gregor Burns • Specializes in the study of leadership in American political James Mc. Gregor Burns • Specializes in the study of leadership in American political life • His book, Leadership(1978), is still considered by many, the seminal work in the field of leadership studies. • In this book, he introduced the concepts of transactional and transformational leadership (Jan Stewart, 2006, Colonel M. Homrig, 2001)

James Mc. Gregor Burns • “I define leadership as leaders inducing followers to act James Mc. Gregor Burns • “I define leadership as leaders inducing followers to act for certain goals that represent the values and the motivations-the wants and needs, the aspirations and expectations-of both leaders and followers. ” • Leadership must be aligned with a collective purpose and effective leaders must be judged by their ability to make social changes. (Jan Stewart, 2006, Colonel M. Homrig, 2001)

James Mc. Gregor Burns • Transactional Leadership is based on a transaction or exchange James Mc. Gregor Burns • Transactional Leadership is based on a transaction or exchange of something of value the leader possesses or controls that the follower wants in return for his/her services. “The relations of most leaders and followers are transactional-leaders approach followers with an eye to exchanging one thing for another” (Jan Stewart, 2006, Colonel M. Homrig, 2001)

James Mc. Gregor Burns • Transformational Leadership goes beyond transactional leadership. • Transformational leadership James Mc. Gregor Burns • Transformational Leadership goes beyond transactional leadership. • Transformational leadership occurs when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality. (Jan Stewart, 2006, Colonel M. Homrig, 2001)

Transformational Leaders • Intellectual Leaders – Highly concerned about values and purposes – Combination Transformational Leaders • Intellectual Leaders – Highly concerned about values and purposes – Combination of an Analyst and a moralist – Transform society by raising social consciousness • Reformer Leaders – Require a large number of followers – Reformers try to improve different aspects of society at a time (Jan Stewart, 2006, Colonel M. Homrig, 2001)

Transformational leaders (cont. ) • Revolutionary Leaders • Ask followers for the “ultimate sacrifice” Transformational leaders (cont. ) • Revolutionary Leaders • Ask followers for the “ultimate sacrifice” • Revolutionaries try to change society as a whole • Charismatic (hero) • The ultimate form of transformational leader • Viewed as a Hero by its followers • Moses (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004, Paul Kirkbride, 2006, John E. Barbuto Jr & Lance L. Cummins, 2007

Bernard Bass’ Transformational Leadership Theory: • Bass (1985) new version of transformational leadership • Bernard Bass’ Transformational Leadership Theory: • Bass (1985) new version of transformational leadership • More attention to follower needs • Transactional and transformational leadership as a single continuum • Transformational Leaders motivates followers to do more than expected by: – Raising follower’s levels of consciousness – Getting follower’s to transcend their own self-interest – Moving followers to address high level needs (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004, Paul Kirkbride, 2006, John E. Barbuto Jr & Lance L. Cummins, 2007

The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model Factors (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004, Paul Kirkbride, 2006, The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model Factors (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004, Paul Kirkbride, 2006, John E. Barbuto Jr & Lance L. Cummins, 2007

The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model (Cont. ) • Factor 1: Idealized Influence – The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model (Cont. ) • Factor 1: Idealized Influence – – Demonstrate an inclusive vision High standards of moral and ethical conduct Respected by followers Exhibit great commitment and persistence in pursuing objectives – Develop trust and confidence among employees – “I believe that this is truly the right thing to do” (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004, Paul Kirkbride, 2006, John E. Barbuto Jr & Lance L. Cummins, 2007

The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model (Cont. ) • Factor 2: Inspirational – Communicate The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model (Cont. ) • Factor 2: Inspirational – Communicate high expectations to followers – Inspire others to perform – Create a strong sense of purpose among employees – Align individual and organizational needs – “If we focus on what this organization stands for we can achieve whatever we decide” (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004, Paul Kirkbride, 2006, John E. Barbuto Jr & Lance L. Cummins, 2007

The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model (Cont. ) • Factor 3: Intellectual Motivation – The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model (Cont. ) • Factor 3: Intellectual Motivation – Stimulate followers to be creative and innovative – Support new approaches to deal with organizational issues – Willing to take risk for potential gains and encourage the followers not to think like him/her – “If we change our assumption, then…” (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004, Paul Kirkbride, 2006, John E. Barbuto Jr & Lance L. Cummins, 2007

The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model (Cont. ) • Factor 4: Individualized Consideration – The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model (Cont. ) • Factor 4: Individualized Consideration – – – Is an “active” listener Make interpersonal connections with followers Act as a coach and adviser Promote self development “I care about you and am looking out for your best interest” (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004, Paul Kirkbride, 2006, John E. Barbuto Jr & Lance L. Cummins, 2007

The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model (Cont. ) • Factor 5: Contingent Reward – The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model (Cont. ) • Factor 5: Contingent Reward – – Recognize what needs to be accomplished Try to obtain agreement from followers Exchange process – effort for specified rewards Arrange to provide the resources needed by followers to accomplish their objectives – “If you do as we agreed, you’ll get the reward” (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004, Paul Kirkbride, 2006, John E. Barbuto Jr & Lance L. Cummins, 2007

The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model (Cont) • Factor 6: Management by Exception – The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model (Cont) • Factor 6: Management by Exception – Involves corrective criticism, negative feedback and negative reinforcement – Active Form: • Arranges to know if something has gone wrong • Attends to mistake and deviation • Remains alert for infractions of the rules – Passive form: • Takes no action unless a problem arises • Avoids unnecessary changes • Refuses to take sides in a dispute • Shows lack of interest • “Uh oh, here he/she comes again” (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004, Paul Kirkbride, 2006, John E. Barbuto Jr & Lance L. Cummins, 2007

The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model (Cont. ) • Factor 7: Laissez-Faire – – The Transformational and Transactional Leadership Model (Cont. ) • Factor 7: Laissez-Faire – – – – “Hands off – let things ride” approach Avoid making decisions Abdicate responsibility Gives no feedback Show lack of interest Do not emphasis results “That leader doesn’t care if we do or if we don’t” (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004, Paul Kirkbride, 2006, John E. Barbuto Jr & Lance L. Cummins, 2007

Full Range Leadership Model (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004, Paul Kirkbride, 2006, John E. Barbuto Full Range Leadership Model (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004, Paul Kirkbride, 2006, John E. Barbuto Jr & Lance L. Cummins, 2007

How Does the Transformational Approach Works • General steps followed by transformational leaders: – How Does the Transformational Approach Works • General steps followed by transformational leaders: – Empower followers and nurture them in change – Become strong models for their followers – Create a vision for the organization – Act as a change agent for new direction within organizations – Become social architects (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)

Transformational Leadership Applications • There is not a set of assumptions about leaders should Transformational Leadership Applications • There is not a set of assumptions about leaders should act in particular situations • Provides a general way of thinking • It can be taught to individuals at all levels • It can be used in recruitment, selection, and promotion, and training and development • It can be used in improving team development, decision making groups, quality initiatives, and reorganization (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)

Transformational Leadership vs. Charismatic Leadership • Charismatic Leadership: – “Charismatic leaders typically have a Transformational Leadership vs. Charismatic Leadership • Charismatic Leadership: – “Charismatic leaders typically have a ‘compelling vision or sense of purpose, ’ effectively communicate that vision, are consistent and focused, highly confident, and know their own strengths and weaknesses. Accordingly, they capitalize on their strengths. (2) One major question of the Charismatic Leadership theory is ‘Are charismatic leaders born or could they be trained? ’ Most theorists would argue that leaders can learn to be charismatic. ” (Bromely & Kirschner-Bromely, 2007) (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)

Transformational Leadership vs. Charismatic Leadership (Cont. ) • Charismatic Leadership founded by Robert J. Transformational Leadership vs. Charismatic Leadership (Cont. ) • Charismatic Leadership founded by Robert J. House (1976) • A Transformational Leader can be charismatic • Strong Role Models • Competency • Goals • High Expectations • Task-Relevant Motives (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)

Transformational Leadership vs. Situational Leadership • Situational Leadership: – “Situational leadership theory (SLT) asserts Transformational Leadership vs. Situational Leadership • Situational Leadership: – “Situational leadership theory (SLT) asserts that there is no one best style of leadership or way to influence people. The leader needs to respond to the situation with appropriate task and relationship behavior based on followers' readiness and this (defined as ability and willingness) interaction determines the leader's effectiveness (Hersey, 1988). In other words, as the level of followers' readiness changes, the amount of leader task and relation behavior should also change to match that level. ” (Mc. Laurin, 2006) (Blanchard & Hersey, 1996)

Transformational Leadership vs. Situational Leadership (Cont. ) • Situational Leadership founded by Hersey & Transformational Leadership vs. Situational Leadership (Cont. ) • Situational Leadership founded by Hersey & Blanchard (1969) • Four Main Leadership Styles • Revisions to Situational Leadership (Blanchard & Hersey, 1996)

Transformational Leadership vs. Servant Leadership • Servant Leadership: – “In Servant Leadership, Robert Greenleaf Transformational Leadership vs. Servant Leadership • Servant Leadership: – “In Servant Leadership, Robert Greenleaf (1991) introduces the concept of the leader as servant, an idea he credits to his reading of Herman Hesse's Journey to the East. The premise of the story is a mythical journey, sponsored by an Order. The central character is Leo, a man who accompanies the travelers and does their menial chores. Leo also provides moral support for the travelers with his spirit and his song. Although he is a servant, his presence is extraordinary, and his contribution to the journey extends well beyond the menial tasks he performs. This becomes evident when Leo disappears, the travelers fall into chaos, and the journey is terminated. ” (Vargus & Hanlon, 2007) (Cunningham, 2004, Alliance for, n. d)

Transformational Leadership vs. Servant Leadership (Cont. ) • Guiding Principals of Servant Leadership (As Transformational Leadership vs. Servant Leadership (Cont. ) • Guiding Principals of Servant Leadership (As defined by the Indiana State University Alliance for Servant Leadership (ASL)) – – – – – Agreeableness Transformation Personal Growth Enabling Environments Service Trusting Relationships Creating Commitment Community-Building Nurturing the Spirit (Cunningham, 2004, Alliance for, n. d)

Personality and Transformational Leadership • “Five Factor Model of Personality” – – – Extraversion Personality and Transformational Leadership • “Five Factor Model of Personality” – – – Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Adjustment (opposite-Neuroticism) Openness to Experience Bono, T. A. , 2000

“The Big Five” (characteristics) • Extraversion – Outgoing , active, excitement seeking – Strongly “The Big Five” (characteristics) • Extraversion – Outgoing , active, excitement seeking – Strongly predisposed to experience positive emotions. • Agreeableness – Kind, gentle, trusting, and trustworthy • Conscientiousness – Responsible, dependable, achiever Bono, T. A. , 2000

“The Big Five” (characteristics) • Emotional Adjustment – Often labeled by its opposite “Neuroticism” “The Big Five” (characteristics) • Emotional Adjustment – Often labeled by its opposite “Neuroticism” • Anxious, fearful, depressed, and moody • Openness to Experience – Creative, imaginative, perceptive, and thoughtful – Strongly related to intelligence Bono, T. A. , 2000

“The Big Five” and Transformational Leadership At first glance • Extraversion – Positively related “The Big Five” and Transformational Leadership At first glance • Extraversion – Positively related to Transformational Leadership • Agreeableness – Positively related to Transformational Leadership • Consciousness – No hypothesis Bono, T. A. , 2000

“The Big Five” and Transformational Leadership At first glance • Neuroticism – Negatively related “The Big Five” and Transformational Leadership At first glance • Neuroticism – Negatively related to transformational leadership • Openness to Experience – Positively related to transformational leadership Bono, T. A. , 2000

The Research • 456 participants from community leadership programs (i. e. Chamber of Commerce The Research • 456 participants from community leadership programs (i. e. Chamber of Commerce programs) • 3 surveys – Supervisor, participant , subordinates • 48% returned the surveys – 84% of these received supervisor surveys – 88% of these had at least one subordinate Bono, T. A. , 2000

The Results • Agreeableness and Extraversion showed significant relationship with transformational leadership • The The Results • Agreeableness and Extraversion showed significant relationship with transformational leadership • The relationship between Openness to experience, Consciousness, and Neuroticism was not significant. Bono, T. A. , 2000

Research Limitations/bias • Subordinate ratings • Ratings and outcome variances • In some cases, Research Limitations/bias • Subordinate ratings • Ratings and outcome variances • In some cases, leaders selected which subordinate to complete the survey Bono, T. A. , 2000

Transformational Leadership Strengths & Weaknesses • Strengths: • Widely Researched • Intuitive Appeal • Transformational Leadership Strengths & Weaknesses • Strengths: • Widely Researched • Intuitive Appeal • Process occurring between followers and leaders • Broad View of Leadership • Strong Emphasis on Followers’ Needs, Values & Morals (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)

Transformational Leadership Strengths and Weaknesses • Weaknesses: • Lacks Conceptual Clarity • Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership Strengths and Weaknesses • Weaknesses: • Lacks Conceptual Clarity • Transformational Leadership Measurements • Treats Leadership as a Personality Trait • Elitist and Antidemocratic • Based Primarily on Qualitative Data • Potential for Abuse (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)

Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) • Determines leader’s particular strengths and weaknesses in transformational leadership Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) • Determines leader’s particular strengths and weaknesses in transformational leadership • Measures follower’s perception of a leader’s behavior for each of the 7 factors • Pinpoints areas in which individuals could improve their leadership (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)

MLQ-6 S • Scoring – Measures your leadership on 7 factors related to transformational MLQ-6 S • Scoring – Measures your leadership on 7 factors related to transformational leadership – The score for each factor is determined by summing 3 specified items of the questionnaire – Score range: • HIGH=9 -12 • Moderate=5 -8 • Low=0 -4 (Peter G. Northhouse, 2004)

QUESTIONS? QUESTIONS?

Works Cited • Bono, T. A. (2000). Five Factor Model of Personality and Transformational Works Cited • Bono, T. A. (2000). Five Factor Model of Personality and Transformational Leadership. Journal of Applied Pyschology , 751 - 765. • Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row. • Homrig, C. M. (2001, December 21). Transformational Leadership. Retrieved Dec 27, 2008, from United States Air Force: http: //leadership. au. af. mil/documents/homrig/htm • John E Barbuto, J. (2007). Full Range Leadership. The University of Nebraska, Lincoln. • Kirkbride, P. (2006). Developing Transformational Leaders: the full range leadership model in action. Industrial and Commercial Training , 23. • Northhouse, P. G. (2004). Leadership Theory & Practice. SAGE Publications. • Stewart, J. (2006). Transformational Leadership: An Evolving Concept examined thru the work of Burns, Bass, Avolio, & Leithwood. Canadian Journal of the Educational Administration and Policy

Works Cited – Bromley, Howard R. , and Victoria A. Kirschner-Bromley. Works Cited – Bromley, Howard R. , and Victoria A. Kirschner-Bromley. "Are you a transformational leader? (Leadership)(Author abstract). " Physician Executive 33. 6 (Nov-Dec 2007): 54(4). Academic One. File. Gale. East Tennessee State Univ Library. 26 Dec. 2008 . – Mc. Laurin, J. Reagan. "The role of situation in the leadership process: a review and application. (Manuscripts). " Academy of Strategic Management Journal 5 (Annual 2006): 97(18). Academic One. File. Gale. East Tennessee State Univ Library. 26 Dec. 2008 . – Vargas, Pamela A. , and Jim Hanlon. "Celebrating a profession: the servant leadership perspective. (Reflections). " Journal of Research Administration 38. 1 (Spring 2007): 45(5). Academic One. File. Gale. East Tennessee State Univ Library. 26 Dec. 2008 . – Blanchard, Kenneth H. , and Paul Hersey. "Great ideas revisited. " Training & Development 50. n 1 (Jan 1996): 42(6). Academic One. File. Gale. East Tennessee State Univ Library. 30 Dec. 2008 . – Cunningham, Robert. "Servant leadership--an introduction. " Global Virtue Ethics Review 5. 3 -4 (July 2004): 2(5). Academic One. File. Gale. East Tennessee State Univ Library. 30 Dec. 2008 .