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Trade Facilitation: An Introduction Jan. Hoffmann@UNCTAD. org Geneva, May 2009 Trade Facilitation: An Introduction Jan. [email protected] org Geneva, May 2009

Trade Facilitation: An Introduction • • • Scope of Trade facilitation Traders’ main concerns Trade Facilitation: An Introduction • • • Scope of Trade facilitation Traders’ main concerns Key areas of work

Trade Facilitation: An Introduction • • • Scope of Trade facilitation Traders’ main concerns Trade Facilitation: An Introduction • • • Scope of Trade facilitation Traders’ main concerns Key areas of work

TRADE FACILITATION Simplification Process of eliminating all unnecessary elements and duplications in formalities, processes TRADE FACILITATION Simplification Process of eliminating all unnecessary elements and duplications in formalities, processes and procedures Harmonisation Alignment of national procedures, operations and documents with international conventions, standards and practices. Standardisation Process of developing internationally agreed formats for practices and procedures, documents and information.

TRADE FACILITATION Standardisation Process of developing internationally agreed formats for practices and procedures, documents TRADE FACILITATION Standardisation Process of developing internationally agreed formats for practices and procedures, documents and information.

International rules and standards • IMO • ISO • UN-CEFACT • WCO • WTO International rules and standards • IMO • ISO • UN-CEFACT • WCO • WTO

UN Lay-out Key (UNECE Rec. #1) UN Lay-out Key (UNECE Rec. #1)

TRADE FACILITATION Simplification Process of eliminating all unnecessary elements and duplications in formalities, processes TRADE FACILITATION Simplification Process of eliminating all unnecessary elements and duplications in formalities, processes and procedures Harmonisation Alignment of national procedures, operations and documents with international conventions, standards and practices. Standardisation Process of developing internationally agreed formats for practices and procedures, documents and information.

TRADE FACILITATION Harmonisation Alignment of national procedures, operations and documents with international conventions, standards TRADE FACILITATION Harmonisation Alignment of national procedures, operations and documents with international conventions, standards and practices.

TRADE FACILITATION Simplification Process of eliminating all unnecessary elements and duplications in formalities, processes TRADE FACILITATION Simplification Process of eliminating all unnecessary elements and duplications in formalities, processes and procedures Harmonisation Alignment of national procedures, operations and documents with international conventions, standards and practices. Standardisation Process of developing internationally agreed formats for practices and procedures, documents and information.

TRADE FACILITATION Simplification Process of eliminating all unnecessary elements and duplications in formalities, processes TRADE FACILITATION Simplification Process of eliminating all unnecessary elements and duplications in formalities, processes and procedures

TRADE FACILITATION Simplification Process of eliminating all unnecessary elements and duplications in formalities, processes TRADE FACILITATION Simplification Process of eliminating all unnecessary elements and duplications in formalities, processes and procedures Harmonisation Alignment of national procedures, operations and documents with international conventions, standards and practices. Standardisation Process of developing internationally agreed formats for practices and procedures, documents and information.

Trade Facilitation: An Introduction • • • Scope of Trade facilitation Traders main concerns Trade Facilitation: An Introduction • • • Scope of Trade facilitation Traders main concerns Key areas of work

The Trade Transaction GOODS S INFORMATION PAYMENT B The Trade Transaction GOODS S INFORMATION PAYMENT B

Company A Company B Product Supplier Manufacturer Wholesalers Retailers Customer Company A Company B Product Supplier Manufacturer Wholesalers Retailers Customer

What do traders want ? • Simple and smooth processing of formalities • Means What do traders want ? • Simple and smooth processing of formalities • Means to allow goods to proceed promptly to their final destination. No longer itineraries, no unpacking, no delays • A single control point for all public services • Standard forms, assembled into a ‘single bunch of documents’, compatible with trade documents and transport contracts • Predictable and transparent rules and procedures

Data exchange in International Trade Exportation Importation Purchase • 20 actors; • > 200 Data exchange in International Trade Exportation Importation Purchase • 20 actors; • > 200 data elements; • Manual procedures; • Multiple data systems; • > 30 documents or messages. Bill of lading, Documentation Vessel Booking Request Confirmed Line of Credit Importer’s Bank Vessel Booking Confirmation Exporter’s Bank Rated Bill of Lading Dock Receipt Original B/L, Invoice, PO, Packing List Fund Transfer Line of Credit Proforma Invoice LC Confirmation Purchase Order Proforma Invoice Letter of Instruction Invoice, PO Ocean Carrier Shipping & funding detail Release/Hol d Notice Inland Carrier Manifest Dock receipt Export Declaration AES Cargo Status Customs House Broker Pick-up & Delivery Order Freight Forwarder / NVOCC Import Terminal Operator Demurrage guarantee & payment Dock receipt Shipping & Funding Detail Marine Insurance Company Arrival Notice Export Terminal Operator Exporter Importer Release/Approval Bill of Lading Export Declaration Import Docs Cargo Status Customs ( Import ) Vessel Manifest Port Customs (Export) Importer Notice Converted Vessel Manifest Pick-up & Delivery Order Inland Carrier

Too many documents… • • • • Enquiry Order Despatch advice Collection order Payment Too many documents… • • • • Enquiry Order Despatch advice Collection order Payment order Documentary credit Forwarding instructions Forwarder's invoice Goods receipt Air waybill Road consignment note Rail consignment note Bill of lading • • • Freight invoice Cargo manifest Export licence Exchange control doc. Phytosanitary certificate Veterinary certificate Certificate of origin Consular invoice Dangerous goods declaration • Import licence • Customs delivery note • TIR carnet

PRE-ARRIVAL & ARRIVAL INFORMATION Pre-Arrival • Vessel’s characteristics or ship’s particulars, kind and tonnage PRE-ARRIVAL & ARRIVAL INFORMATION Pre-Arrival • Vessel’s characteristics or ship’s particulars, kind and tonnage of cargo, vessel’s ETA and master’s requests must be notified to the Harbour Master Department every 48 hrs, 24 hrs or at least six hours prior to vessel’s arrival at the port’s anchorage areas. Arrival • The component of the committee that performs vessel clearance consists of 10 members from Harbour Master Department, Department of Customs and Excise, Immigration Police, National Shipping Agency and Broker, and Quarantine Authorities. Ten copies of cargo manifest are required to be provided to the Department of Customs and Excise. • Entry permit (arranged by official shipping agency), • Last port clearance certificate, • 15 lists of last port of call (at least 10 last ports), • 5 declarations of vessel’s arrival, • 10 import cargo manifests, • 3 bills of loading, • 2 transit cargo manifests, • 7 crew lists, • 7 passenger lists, • 3 lists of vessel’s provisions, • 3 lists of crew personal effects, • 1 copy of health declaration certificate, • 1 copy of vaccination list, • 1 copy of drugs and narcotic list, • 1 copy of fresh water origin, • 3 cargo plans, • 1 copy of valid original ship’s certificates (to be collected only on the first call of the year of each ship), • Certificate of vessel's registration, • – – – – International load line certificate, International tonnage certificate, International oil pollution prevention certificate, Cargo vessel safety equipment certificate, Cargo vessel safety construction certificate, Cargo vessel safety radio certificate, Minimum safe manning certificate. Exemption Certificate (to be inspected by quarantine officers ).

Days to complete each stage of importing Pre-arrival documents Port and terminal handling Customs Days to complete each stage of importing Pre-arrival documents Port and terminal handling Customs and inspections Inland transport to warehouse Total time OECD high income 8 2 2 2 14 East Asia & Pacific 18 3 4 3 28 Latin America & Caribbean 24 4 5 3 36 Middle East & North Africa 25 5 9 4 43 Europe & Central Asia 25 4 7 7 43 South Asia 24 6 7 10 47 Sub-Saharan Africa 33 8 10 9 59 World 23 5 6 5 40 Region Source: World Bank Doing business 2006

Inspections Region OECD East Europe East Asia Latin America Middle East Africa South Asia Inspections Region OECD East Europe East Asia Latin America Middle East Africa South Asia % of cargo inspected (import) 5 18 31 51 63 67 69 Source: World Bank Doing Business 2006

Trade Facilitation: An Introduction • • • Scope of Trade facilitation Traders main concerns Trade Facilitation: An Introduction • • • Scope of Trade facilitation Traders main concerns Key areas of work

Functional linkages Customs Time Release Adapted H. S. Risk Assessment Customs Automation Post-audit Controls Functional linkages Customs Time Release Adapted H. S. Risk Assessment Customs Automation Post-audit Controls Single Window Standardized documentation

Sequencing Sequencing

Cooperation at the national level • Between the government institutions concerned by foreign trade: Cooperation at the national level • Between the government institutions concerned by foreign trade: Finance, Commerce, Transport • With the private sector in the trading community: importers and exporters • With service providers: transport operators, banks, insurance companies…

Cooperation at the international level Cooperation at the international level

Trade Facilitation: An Introduction Questions? • • • Scope of Trade facilitation Traders’ main Trade Facilitation: An Introduction Questions? • • • Scope of Trade facilitation Traders’ main concerns Key areas of work