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Tourist Satisfaction and Destination Competitiveness Perspective of Tourists Prof. Haiyan Song The Hong Kong Polytechnic University P. R. China
Outline § § § § Background Research Objectives Literature Review Methodology Main Results and Comparisons Further development of the Project Conclusion and Implications
Overview of Hong Kong Tourism § Hong Kong is situated on the southeastern coast of China including 262 outlying islands and the climate is sub-tropical. § The unique blend of eastern and western influences, matched by diverse attractions and stunning countryside, has made Hong Kong the Asia's prime tourist destination.
Source: Hong Kong Tourism Board
Source: Hong Kong Tourism Board
Source: Hong Kong Tourism Board
Top Tourism Source Markets of Hong Kong in 2012 Source: Hong Kong Tourism Board
Research Background § Increased tourist satisfaction is likely to § enhance the reputation of tourism product providers and of the whole destination § increase tourist loyalty § reduce price elasticities § reduce the cost of future transactions and improve productivity (Swanson & Kelley, 2001) § However, there is a lack of systematic and continuous assessment of tourist satisfaction.
Research Objectives § To develop a systematic approach to tourist satisfaction assessment. § To provide useful quantitative information of service performance of relevant tourism sectors and implications for service quality improvement. § To inform the stakeholders of the tourism industry about the competitiveness of the tourism related sectors and of the whole destination.
Literature Review Tourism related satisfaction studies: § Overall destination (Alegre & Cladera 2006; Kozak 2001; Yu & Goulden 2006); § Accommodation (Hsu et al. , 2003); § Restaurants (Chadee & Mattsson, 1996); § Attractions (Dorfman, 1979); § Travel agencies (Leblanc, 1992); § Retail shops (Reisinger & Turner, 2002). § The linkage between sectoral TS and overall TS has not been well established.
Literature Review Consumer/Tourism satisfaction models: § Expectation-Perception Gap (Duke & Persia (1996); § Expectancy-Disconfirmation (Pizam & Milman, 1993): often applied CS and TS model; § Performance-Only (Pizam et al. , 1978); § Congruity (Chon, 1990, 1992; Chon & Olsen, 1991).
Literature Review Consumer satisfaction index (CSI) studies: § Swedish CSI (Fornell, 1992); American CSI (Fornell et al. , 1996); Hong Kong CSI (Chan et al. , 2003). § Only cover domestically consumed and paid goods and services, and satisfaction aggregation relies on product expenditure. There has not been any Tourist Satisfaction Index. § Innovation is necessary for a TSI system regarding the aggregation scheme because of non-paid tourism services.
Methodology § The developed TSI system conducts a twostage evaluation at the sectoral and destination levels. § The theoretical framework integrates alternative approaches and captures multiple dimensions of tourist satisfaction. § The sectoral-level tourist satisfaction evaluation is a structural equation model in which tourists’ satisfaction is evaluated with relevant antecedents and consequences.
Sectoral-Level TSI Model Overall performance Customization Reliability Perceived Performance Intentions to complain to employee Intentions to complain to others Complaint Intentions Tourist Satisfaction Assessed Value Overall satisfaction Comparison with expectations Comparison with ideal Price given quality Quality given price Loyalty Overall expectations Customization Reliability Expectations Revisit intentions Recommendation to others
Sectoral TSI Calculation Sectoral TSI where y 31, y 32 and y 33 are measures of TS, and ωs are factor loadings from the estimated SEM as weights.
Methodology § Six tourism service sectors are included: hotels, restaurants, retail shops, attractions, transportation and immigration/custom services. § TSI at the sectoral level is directly comparable because each sector is measured by the same set of indicators. § The destination-level TSI is derived from an innovative aggregation scheme based on a multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) model.
Aggregation Model of TSI Attractions Overall Satisfaction Hotels Immigration Aggregate Service Satisfaction Overall Destination Satisfaction Expectations Restaurants Retails Shops Transportation Compared to Ideal
Aggregation Model of TSI § Aggregate Service Satisfaction vs Overall Destination Satisfaction § The gap reflects the influences of nonservice attributes of a destination on tourists’ satisfaction with their overall experience. § Both indexes are weighted averages, with the weighting schemes derived from the estimated MIMIC model.
Methodology § Partial least square (PLS) based variance estimation method instead of maximum likelihood (ML) based covariance structure analysis method was employed for SEM estimation. § PLS method has advantages of avoiding problems of improper solutions, factor indeterminacy and violations of distribution assumptions (Chan, et al. , 2003). § Smart PLS computing programme was used.
Sampling and Sample Size § A quota sampling method was employed and the quotas were set up in line with HKTB statistics. Sample size by source market (Poly. U TSI, 2012) Source Market N % Americas 302 13 Australia, New Zealand & Pacific 302 13 Europe, Africa & Middle East 360 15 Japan & Korea 330 14 Mainland China 455 19 South & Southeast Asia 290 12 Taiwan & Macau 298 13 2, 337 100 Total
Main Results The Poly. U Tourist Satisfaction Index : Hong Kong 2009 -2012
Estimated Sector-Level Model Overall performance Customization Reliability Intentions to complain to employee Intentions to complain to others Perceived Performance Complaint Intentions --Tourist Satisfaction Assessed Value Price given quality Quality given price Overall satisfaction Comparison with expectations Comparison with ideal -Loyalty Overall expectations Customization Reliability Expectations Revisit intentions Recommendation to others
Diagnostic Tests: Attraction-Sector Model § The proposed models were all well specified and guaranteed rigorous results.
The Poly. U Tourist Satisfaction Index (2009– 2012) 77 76 75. 07 75 73. 94 74 73 72 72. 65 72. 61 71 70 2009 2010 2011 2012
Overall Tourist Satisfaction Index by Source Market (2009– 2012) 100 80 60 40 20 0 Americas 2009 2010 2011 2012 78. 43 80. 38 78. 04 79. 90 Australia, New South & Southeast Zealand & Pacific Asia 76. 22 71. 28 79. 36 72. 97 77. 93 71. 09 78. 17 Europe, Africa & Middle East 75. 04 76. 74 74. 12 77. 95 Mainland China Taiwan & Macau Japan & Korea 74. 32 71. 54 73. 65 72. 08 66. 33 72. 41 68. 25 70. 12 66. 27 64. 53 64. 43 70. 11
Variation from Average Tourist Satisfaction Index by Source Market (2009– 2012)
Overall Tourist Satisfaction Index by Service Sector (2009– 2012)
Variation from Average Tourist Satisfaction Index by Service Sector (2009– 2012)
Comparison of Tourist Satisfaction Index by Destination (2009– 2012)
The Estimated TSI Aggregation Model
Further Development: Tourism Service Quality Index • Theoretical support The SERVQUAL Model (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, & Berry, 1985) Service quality Tangibles Responsiv eness Reliability Assurance Empathy The Brady-Cronin Model (Brady & Cronin, 2001; Grönroos, 1984) Service quality Interaction quality Attitude Behavio r Outcome quality Physical environmental quality Expertise Ambient conditions Design Social factors Waiting time Tangibles Valence
Further Development: Tourism Service Quality Index • Models of Tourism Service Quality Index § Sector-Level Model
Further Development: Tourism Service Quality Index • Models of Tourism Service Quality Index § Aggregation Model
Main Results The Poly. U Tourism Service Quality Index: Hong Kong 2012
2012 Poly. U Tourism Service Quality Index 75. 37 0. 1584158 0. 1980198 Attraction Hotel 0. 1089108 9109 Immigration 0. 1584158 0. 1485148 5149 Restaurant Retail Shop Transportation 0. 22
Overall Tourist Satisfaction Index by Source Market (2012)
Overall Tourist Satisfaction Index by Service Sector (2012)
Comparison of Tourism Service Quality Index and Tourist Satisfaction Index by Source Market (2012)
Comparison of Tourism Service Quality Index and Tourist Satisfaction Index by Service Sector (2012)
Conclusion and Implications § A systematic approach to assessing Hong Kong’s competitiveness as an international tourism destination. § It can be used as benchmark for tourism related organizations in both private and public sectors. § It is a reliable performance indicator of tourism -related firms, sectors and that of the whole tourism industry, and is useful to monitor the dynamic changes.
Key Publications § Li, G. , Song, H. , Chen, J. C. and Wu, D. C. (2012). Comparing Mainland Chinese Tourists’ Satisfaction with Hong Kong and the UK Using Tourist Satisfaction Index. Journal of China Tourism Research, 8: 371– 392. § Song, H. , van der Veen, R. , Li, G. and Chen, J. L. (2012) Hong Kong Tourist Satisfaction Index. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(1): 459 -479. § Song, H. , Li, G. , van der Veen, R. and Chen, J. (2011). Assessing Mainland Chinese Tourists’ Satisfaction with Hong Kong Using the Tourist Satisfaction Index, International Journal of Tourism Research, 13(1): 82 -96. § Song, H. , Li, G. , van der Veen, R. and Chen, J. C. (2009). Assessing Mainland Chinese Tourists’ Satisfaction with Hong Kong Using the Tourist Satisfaction Index, in A. Fyall, M. Kozak, L. Andreu, J. Gnoth and S. S. Lebe (eds). Marketing Innovations for Sustainable Destinations, pp 113 -122. Oxford: Goodfellow Publishing.
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