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Topics in Artificial Intelligence prof. dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, http: //www. cs. put. Topics in Artificial Intelligence prof. dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, http: //www. cs. put. poznan. pl/jjozefowska 1/1

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Curriculum • Introduction – overview of research topics in artificial Topics in Artificial Intelligence Curriculum • Introduction – overview of research topics in artificial intelligence • Knowledge representation • Space search as a general inference model • Reasoning under uncertainty dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 2

References • Topics in Artificial Intelligence • • • • • Bolc L. , References • Topics in Artificial Intelligence • • • • • Bolc L. , Borodziewicz W. , Wójcik M. , Podstawy przetwarzania informacji niepewnej i niepełnej, PWN, Warszawa, 1991. Bolc L. , Zaremba J. , Wprowadzenie do uczenia się maszyn, Akademicka Oficyna Wydawnicza RM, Warszawa, 1992. Bolc L. , J. Cytowski, Metody przeszukiwania heurystycznego, PWN, t 1 1989, t 2 1991. Charniak E. , Mc Dermot D. , Introduction to Artificial Intelligence, Addison Wesley, 1985. Churchland P. M. , P. Smith-Churchland, Czy maszyna może myśleć? , Świat Nauki, lipiec 1991. Greenfield S. , Tajemnice mózgu, Świat Książki, Warszawa, 1998. Guida G. , C. Tasso, Design and Development of Knowledge-Based Systems, John Wiley 1994. Harel D. , Rzecz o istocie informatyki, wyd. 2, WNT Warszawa, 2000. Lugger G. , Stubblefield W. A. , Artificial Intelligence and the Design of Expert Systems, The Benjamin/Cummings Publ. Comp. Inc. , 1989. Mulawka J. , Systemy ekspertowe, Warszawa, WNT, 1996 Neural Networks and Soft Computing, L. Rutkowski, R. Tadeusiewicz (eds. ), Polish Neural Network Society, Częstochowa, 2000. Niederliński A. , Regułowe systemy ekspertowe, Wydawnictwo Pracowni Komputerowej Jacka Skalmierskiego, Gliwice 2000. Puppe F. , Systematic Introduction to Expert Systems, Springer Verlag 1993. Rich E. , Artificial Intelligence, Mc. Graw Hill, 1983. Rich E. , K. Knight, Artificial intelligence, Mc. Graw Hill, New York, 1991. Russell S. J. , Norvig P. , Artificial Intelligence. A modern approach, Prentice Hall, Inc. 1995. Scarle J. R. , Czy intelekt mózgu jest programem komputerowym? , Świat Nauki, lipiec 1991. Sieci Neuronowe, W. Duch, J. Korbicz, L. Rutkowski, R. Tadeusiewicz, Biocybernetyka i Inżynieria Medyczna 2000, t. 6, Akademicka Oficyna Wydawnicza EXIT, Warszawa 2000. Tadeusiewicz R. , Elementarne wprowadzenie do techniki sieci neuronowych z przykładowymi programami, Akademicka Oficyna Wydawnicza PLJ, Warszawa 1998. dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 3

Topics in Artificial Intelligence myths and reality dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Topics in Artificial Intelligence myths and reality dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 4

Topics in Artificial Intelligence What is human intelligence? • • Is it a single Topics in Artificial Intelligence What is human intelligence? • • Is it a single feature or a set of skills? Can one learn it? What is learning? What is creativity? What is intuition? What is consciousness? Can we build an intelligent machine? How to check if a machine is intelligent? dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 5

Topics in Artificial Intelligence has been defined by prominent researchers in the field as Topics in Artificial Intelligence has been defined by prominent researchers in the field as : Binet and Simon (1905): the ability to judge well, to understand well, to reason well. Terman (1916): the capacity to form concepts and to grasp their significance. Wechsler (1939): the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment. Gardner (1986): the ability or skill to solve problems or to fashion products which are valued within one or more cultural settings. dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 6

Linguistic intelligence • reading Topics in Artificial Intelligence • writing • speaking • understanding Linguistic intelligence • reading Topics in Artificial Intelligence • writing • speaking • understanding • creativity Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? Thou art. More lovely and more temperate: Rough winds do shake the darlings buds of May, And summer’s lease hath all too short a date; W. Shakespeare dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 7

Personal intelligence Topics in Artificial Intelligence Ma dwie odmiany: interpersonal – „people smart” intrapersonal Personal intelligence Topics in Artificial Intelligence Ma dwie odmiany: interpersonal – „people smart” intrapersonal –„self smart” dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 8

Logical-mathematical intelligence „number/reasoning smart” Topics in Artificial Intelligence • abstract, symbolic thought • sequential Logical-mathematical intelligence „number/reasoning smart” Topics in Artificial Intelligence • abstract, symbolic thought • sequential reasoning skills • inductive and deductive thinking patterns 2 c =m E dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 9

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Kinesthetic intelligence – „Body smart” manipulate objects and use a Topics in Artificial Intelligence Kinesthetic intelligence – „Body smart” manipulate objects and use a variety of physical skills dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 10

Musical intelligence is the capacity to discern pitch, rhythm, timbre, and tone. Topics in Musical intelligence is the capacity to discern pitch, rhythm, timbre, and tone. Topics in Artificial Intelligence • recognize • create • reproduce • reflect on music Słuchamy fragmentu IX symfonii Ludwiga van Beethovena dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 11

Spatial intelligence Topics in Artificial Intelligence Spatial intelligence is the ability to think in Spatial intelligence Topics in Artificial Intelligence Spatial intelligence is the ability to think in three dimensions. • • • mental imagery spatial reasoning image manipulation graphic and artistic skills an active imagination dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 12

The IQ Test and 7 types of intelligence by Gardner Topics in Artificial Intelligence The IQ Test and 7 types of intelligence by Gardner Topics in Artificial Intelligence IQ = (Mental Age) / (Chronological Age) x 100 Ølinguistic intelligence Øpersonal intelligence üinterpersonal üintrapersonal Ølogical-mathematical intelligence Økinesthetic intelligence Ømusical intelligence Øspatial intelligence Psychologist Howard Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books Paperback, 1985. Tenth Anniversary Edition with new introduction, New York: Basic Books, 1993. dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 13

Topics in Artificial Intelligence General intelligence Charles Spearman G-factor Intelligence is not a collection Topics in Artificial Intelligence General intelligence Charles Spearman G-factor Intelligence is not a collection of various aptitudes but the integration of various aptitudes into a coherent whole. Humans are smarter than computers because they can switch from Chess to Painting and see the connections between those fields, something that computers are completely unable to do. Intelligence is at least as much into the links between our various aptitudes that into the various aptitudes themselves and it is a serious mistake to reduce intelligence to the aptitudes that support it. dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 14

Topics in Artificial Intelligence General intelligence Intelligence and dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. Topics in Artificial Intelligence General intelligence Intelligence and dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP • • memory creativity imagination common sense intuition emotions morality 15

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Famous meeting Topics in Artificial Intelligence Famous meeting "Within ten years a digital computer will be the world's chess champion, " Allen Dartmouth Seminar 1956 The Newell said in 1957, "unless the rules bar it from competition. " Dartmouth College: John Mc. Carthy Marvin Minsky Claude Shannon Nathaniel Rochester Princeton: Trenchard More IBM: Arthur Samuel MIT: Ray Solomonoff Oliver Selfridge Carnegie Tech: Allen Newell Herbert Simon dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 16

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence Thinking humanly Thinking rationally Acting humanly Acting rationally Topics in Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence Thinking humanly Thinking rationally Acting humanly Acting rationally Source: Russel S. J. , Norvig P. , Artificial intelligence - a modern approach, Prentice Hall 1995. dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 17

Topics in Artificial Intelligence The Turing test ? dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. Topics in Artificial Intelligence The Turing test ? dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 18

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Criticism of the Turing test • The Test provides a Topics in Artificial Intelligence Criticism of the Turing test • The Test provides a guarantee not of intelligence but of culturally-oriented human intelligence (see French, Robert M. : Subcognition and the Limits of the Turing Test). • The test is limited to solving symbolic tasks, it is not possible to verify perception or manual abilities, although they reflect human intelligence. dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 19

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Defense of the Turing test • The only standard allowing Topics in Artificial Intelligence Defense of the Turing test • The only standard allowing to discover intelligence without defining its „true” nature. • It ignores the problem of internal computer inference mechanism and its consciousness. • The natural advantages of „living” object is reduced by the interface. dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 20

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Mental faculties flavour, test, intuition dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, Topics in Artificial Intelligence Mental faculties flavour, test, intuition dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 21

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Application domains of artificial intelligence • • Natural language processing Topics in Artificial Intelligence Application domains of artificial intelligence • • Natural language processing Image recognition Automated reasoning Games Expert systems Automatic learning Action planning and robotics dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 22

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Cognitivism or connectionism? Weak or strong artificial intelligence? dr hab. Topics in Artificial Intelligence Cognitivism or connectionism? Weak or strong artificial intelligence? dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 23

Conectionist model Cognitivist model Topics in Artificial Intelligence • How does a human brain Conectionist model Cognitivist model Topics in Artificial Intelligence • How does a human brain work? • • • Big number of identical simple units Distributed and parallel processing Failure resistance Complexity of learning dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP • How do humans solve problems? • • Symbolic knowledge representation Inference mechanism Complexity of search 24

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Physical symbol system hypothesis 1976 - Allen Newell, Herbert A. Topics in Artificial Intelligence Physical symbol system hypothesis 1976 - Allen Newell, Herbert A. Simon*) A physical symbol system consists of a set of entities, called symbols, which are physical patterns that can occur as components of another type of entity called an expression (or symbol structure). Hypothesis: A physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for general intelligent action. *)Carnegie Tech - now Carnegie Mellon University dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 25

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Knowledge representation The process and the result of formalization of Topics in Artificial Intelligence Knowledge representation The process and the result of formalization of knowledge in such a way, that it can be used automatically for problem solving. Search General technique for problem solving consisting in systematic exploration of all consecutive and alternative steps in the problem solving process. dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 26

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Automated reasoning Alfred N. Whitehead 1861 -1947 dr hab. inż. Topics in Artificial Intelligence Automated reasoning Alfred N. Whitehead 1861 -1947 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Bernard Russel 1872 -1970 27

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Logic Theorist - 1956 Allen Newell 19. 03. 1927 - Topics in Artificial Intelligence Logic Theorist - 1956 Allen Newell 19. 03. 1927 - 19. 07. 1992 dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP Herbert Simon 15. 06. 1916 - 9. 02. 2001 29

First Order Logic (FOL) Topics in Artificial Intelligence A = Z F P S First Order Logic (FOL) Topics in Artificial Intelligence A = Z F P S {(, ), , } A – set of symbols Z - variables x 1, x 2, . . . F – function symbols: F 1 n, F 2 n, . . . P – predicate symbols: P 1 n, P 2 n, . . . S – logical symbols { , , , } dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 30

Deduction Topics in Artificial Intelligence Inference method based on modus ponens dr hab. inż. Deduction Topics in Artificial Intelligence Inference method based on modus ponens dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 31

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Theory (A 1) man(X) die(X) (A 2) man(sokrates) Theorem: Dowód: Topics in Artificial Intelligence Theory (A 1) man(X) die(X) (A 2) man(sokrates) Theorem: Dowód: die(sokrates) 1. X/sokrates in A 1 (A 1’) man(sokrates) die(sokrates) 2. modus ponens man(sokrates), man(sokrates) die(sokrates) dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 32

Operations in Logic Theorist Topics in Artificial Intelligence Substitution: any variable may be substituted Operations in Logic Theorist Topics in Artificial Intelligence Substitution: any variable may be substituted by an expresion. e. g. in ( A B) (A B) we substitute A for B ( A A) (A A) (*) Replacement: an operator can be replaced by a definition. np. w wyrażeniu ( A A) A zastępujemy operator jego definicją (*) (A A) A Modus ponens (reguła odrywania): [(A B) A] B dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 33

Topics in Artificial Intelligence Logic Theorist - summary • Newella, Simona and Shawa 1956 Topics in Artificial Intelligence Logic Theorist - summary • Newella, Simona and Shawa 1956 • Proved theorems from the first chapter of Principia Mathematica • Knowledge representation: FOL • Inference: deduction • Comparison of expressions: unification • Problems: complexity dr hab. inż. Joanna Józefowska, prof. PP 34