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Tintometer Gmb. H Lovibond® Product Training: Water Analysis Instrumentation - Reagents - Applications presented Tintometer Gmb. H Lovibond® Product Training: Water Analysis Instrumentation - Reagents - Applications presented by Dipl. Ing. Helmut Reber

© Tintometer Gmb. H 2 © Tintometer Gmb. H 2

History Ü 1885 Joseph William Lovibond being in the brewery business started the foundation History Ü 1885 Joseph William Lovibond being in the brewery business started the foundation of the Tintometer Ltd. in Salisbury/England. He introduced the Lovibond® colour scale and the first colorimeter ever. Ü 1953 Publication of the first edition of the book "Colorimetric Chemical Analytical Methods (CCAM)". Colorimetric Analytical Equipment was introduced using reagent tablets as an alternative to the liquid chemistry. Ü 1967 Foundation of the Tintometer Gmb. H Company in Dortmund/Germany by Cay-Peter Voss. Technical backup and service together with closer contact leading to prompt supply of instrumentation to customers in Continental Europe. Ü 1982 Introduction of the first photometer systems for water analysis. Ü 1985 Centenary of The Tintometer Ltd. in Salisbury England with congratulations by Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Ü 1997 Certification according to DIN ISO 9001 by DQS. 30 years of successful activities of the Tintometer Gmb. H in Dortmund/Germany. Ü Today Research, development and equipment production of water analytical systems and reagents for various applications. Global marketing of Lovibond® products. © Tintometer Gmb. H 3 the

Methods and Products tablet count method MINIKIT speed test MINIKIT visual methods Comparator CHECKIT® Methods and Products tablet count method MINIKIT speed test MINIKIT visual methods Comparator CHECKIT® Test Kit titrimetric methods colorimetric methods photometric methods © Tintometer Gmb. H Checkit. Direct Maxi. Direct Multi. Direct Spectro. Direct 4

Principle of Photometric Measurement I 0 © Tintometer Gmb. H I 5 Principle of Photometric Measurement I 0 © Tintometer Gmb. H I 5

Electromagnetic spectrum h © Tintometer Gmb. H 6 Electromagnetic spectrum h © Tintometer Gmb. H 6

Absorption of light White light h Red h 700 nm 550 nm 450 nm Absorption of light White light h Red h 700 nm 550 nm 450 nm 700 nm Green Blue © Tintometer Gmb. H Red / Blue light STOP 550 nm 450 nm Blue 7

Absorption of light Transmission [%] T[%] Extinction [Abs] 0 10 20 30 40 50 Absorption of light Transmission [%] T[%] Extinction [Abs] 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 E[Abs] ∞ 1. 00 0. 50 0. 30 0. 15 0. 00 E = lg I 0 I I 0: Intensitiy of the entering light I: Intensitiy of the transmitted light © Tintometer Gmb. H 8

Principle of Photometric Measurement I 0 © Tintometer Gmb. H I 9 Principle of Photometric Measurement I 0 © Tintometer Gmb. H I 9

Schematic diagram of a wastewater treatment plant (activated sludge plant) Oxygen supply Waste feed Schematic diagram of a wastewater treatment plant (activated sludge plant) Oxygen supply Waste feed Effluent Aeration tank Clarifier Sludge Return © Tintometer Gmb. H Waste sludge 10

Important Wastewater Parameter Waste water treatment plant © Tintometer Gmb. H Nitrogen means: - Important Wastewater Parameter Waste water treatment plant © Tintometer Gmb. H Nitrogen means: - Ammonia - Nitrate - Nitrite 11

Principle of Maxi. Direct Detector Interference filter Measuring beam LED © Tintometer Gmb. H Principle of Maxi. Direct Detector Interference filter Measuring beam LED © Tintometer Gmb. H LED 12

Principle of Pool. Direct and Multi. Direct © Tintometer Gmb. H 13 Principle of Pool. Direct and Multi. Direct © Tintometer Gmb. H 13

Principle of Spectro. Direct Tungsten halogen lamp Microprocessor unit Movable mirror Silicon photodiode Monochromator Principle of Spectro. Direct Tungsten halogen lamp Microprocessor unit Movable mirror Silicon photodiode Monochromator © Tintometer Gmb. H Sample chamber For checking the optical system the Spectro. Direct has an integrated Didymium -filter, which is placed automatically in front of the detector during self test. 14

COD-BOD COD BOD © Tintometer Gmb. H 15 COD-BOD COD BOD © Tintometer Gmb. H 15

COD-BOD Relationship COD/ BOD 5 Relation < 1, 7 Characteristics Easy degradable / nearly COD-BOD Relationship COD/ BOD 5 Relation < 1, 7 Characteristics Easy degradable / nearly complete decomposition 1, 7 – 10 Incomplete decomposition / reasons: Ü Some of the material is not degradable Ü Inhibition because of toxic ingredients Ü Slow adaptation of microorganisms > 10 No decomposition / reasons: Ü Persistent ingredients Ü Complete inhibition because of toxic substances © Tintometer Gmb. H Ü ≈ 20 % non degradable organic material Ü ≈ 80 % degradable organic material 16

BOD - Biochemical Oxygen Demand Pressure Sensor Gasket & CO 2 Absorber Glass Bottle BOD - Biochemical Oxygen Demand Pressure Sensor Gasket & CO 2 Absorber Glass Bottle Gas Phase ∆p = BOD Measurement corresponds to the process during waste water treatment: Corg + O 2 Bacteria Organic Oxygen Materials CO 2 + Cell mass Carbon dioxide Waste Water © Tintometer Gmb. H 17

BOD 5 Ü BODn+1 > BODn (20, 6 % p. d. ) Ü BOD BOD 5 Ü BODn+1 > BODn (20, 6 % p. d. ) Ü BOD 5 70% degradation of total BOD © Tintometer Gmb. H 18

BOD-Graph Ü A: Idealised BOD-Graph Ü B: Nitrification occures (use nitrification inhibitor N-ATH) Ü BOD-Graph Ü A: Idealised BOD-Graph Ü B: Nitrification occures (use nitrification inhibitor N-ATH) Ü C: Measurement is overrange (change measuring range or dillute sample) Ü D: Measurment system is leaky or anaerobiosis occurs Ü E: Microorganisms were not pre-adapted; choose a suitable inokulum © Tintometer Gmb. H 19

p. H-Sensor Buffer solution p. H 7 Metal lead for p. H voltage (Reference p. H-Sensor Buffer solution p. H 7 Metal lead for p. H voltage (Reference Ag/Ag. Cl element) Reference Elektrolyte Reference diaphragm p. H glas diaphragm © Tintometer Gmb. H 20

p. H-Value SL_1 Potentialin m. V SL_2 p. H-value U_AS © Tintometer Gmb. H p. H-Value SL_1 Potentialin m. V SL_2 p. H-value U_AS © Tintometer Gmb. H 21

Conductivity- Sensor © Tintometer Gmb. H 22 Conductivity- Sensor © Tintometer Gmb. H 22

Oxygen-Sensor Refill opening O-Ring seal Sensor shaft Membrame cap © Tintometer Gmb. H 23 Oxygen-Sensor Refill opening O-Ring seal Sensor shaft Membrame cap © Tintometer Gmb. H 23

Principle of Turbidity Measurement © Tintometer Gmb. H 24 Principle of Turbidity Measurement © Tintometer Gmb. H 24