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This presentation is brought to you by Grammar Bytes!, © 2018 by Robin L. This presentation is brought to you by Grammar Bytes!, © 2018 by Robin L. Simmons.

Parallel Structure Do I maintain parallelism with a participle? Or should I use an Parallel Structure Do I maintain parallelism with a participle? Or should I use an infinitive?

This presentation covers distinguishing between parallel and non-parallel elements. This presentation covers distinguishing between parallel and non-parallel elements.

A parallelism item on an objective test might look like this. . . A parallelism item on an objective test might look like this. . .

Sample Item Directions: Choose the sentence that has no errors in structure. A. Eileen Sample Item Directions: Choose the sentence that has no errors in structure. A. Eileen bought new shoes for the party, a gold charm for her mother, and to treat her best friend Maria to lunch. B. Eileen decided to buy new shoes for the party, purchasing a gold charm for her mother, and treating her best friend Maria to lunch. C. Eileen purchased new shoes for the party, a gold charm for her mother, and lunch Maria, her best charm for her mother, and lunch forfor Maria, her best friend.

Items in a series must have parallel structure. Parallelism looks like this: Shane , Items in a series must have parallel structure. Parallelism looks like this: Shane , , and .

Here is an example: Shane ate the pizza, wiped his lips, and burped with Here is an example: Shane ate the pizza, wiped his lips, and burped with contentment. Ate = past tense verb; wiped = past tense verb; and burped = past tense verb.

Don’t create problems b y by mi xin g grammatical ele ments. mixin elements. Don’t create problems b y by mi xin g grammatical ele ments. mixin elements. Non-parallel structure looks like this: Shane , , and .

The problem looks like this: Shane ate the pizza, wiped his lips, and burping The problem looks like this: Shane ate the pizza, wiped his lips, and burping with contentment. Now look what you’ve done! Ate and wiped = past tense verbs, but burping = present participle!

Quick Test, Part 1 Directions: In the items that follow, choose the sentence that Quick Test, Part 1 Directions: In the items that follow, choose the sentence that has no errors in structure. Let’s see how you perform!

Item 1 A. Barking dogs, kittens that were meowing, and squawking parakeets greet the Item 1 A. Barking dogs, kittens that were meowing, and squawking parakeets greet the pet shop visitors. B. Barking dogs, meowing kittens, and squawking parakeets shop the pet parakeets greet the pet greet visitors. shop C. visitors. bark, kittens that meow, and Dogs that C. parakeets bark, kittens that meow, and visitors. Dogs that squawking greet the pet shop parakeets squawking greet the pet shop visitors.

Item 2 A. During class, Samuel spent his time flirting with Brittney, candy, and Item 2 A. During class, Samuel spent his time flirting with Brittney, candy, and doodling on the Brittney, eating candy, and doodling on the assignment sheet. B. During class, Samuel spent his time flirting with Brittney, he ate candy, and doodling on the assignment sheet. C. During class, Samuel spent his time to flirt with Brittney, to eat candy, and doodling on the assignment sheet.

Item 3 A. Alex looked everywhere for his math book— under the bed, on Item 3 A. Alex looked everywhere for his math book— under the bed, on his desk, and he searched inside the refrigerator. B. Alex looked everywhere for his math book— viewing under the bed, searching on his desk, and inside the refrigerator. C. Alex looked everywhere for his math book— under the bed, on his desk, and inside thethe refrigerator.

Item 4 A. The manager wanted staff who arrived on on manager wanted staff Item 4 A. The manager wanted staff who arrived on on manager wanted staff who arrived time, smiled at the customers, and didn’t snack on the chicken nuggets. B. The manager wanted staff who arrived on time, would be smiling at the customers, and would not be snacking on the chicken nuggets. C. The manager wanted staff who arrived on time, smiled at the customers, and no snacking on the chicken nuggets.

Item 5 A. After giving Jeremy her phone number, Felicia had to tolerate his Item 5 A. After giving Jeremy her phone number, Felicia had to tolerate his late night calls, stupid conversations, her requests for her and requests for and math homework. math B. After giving Jeremy her phone number, Felicia had homework. B. to tolerate his late night phonethe fact that he had After giving Jeremy her calls, number, Felicia to tolerate stupid conversations, fact that he carried on his late night calls, theand requests for carried on stupid conversations, and requests for her math homework. C. After giving Jeremy her phone number, Felicia had her math homework. C. to tolerate being woken phone number, Felicia had After giving Jeremy her up late at night, having to tolerate being woken up late at night, requested stupid conversations, and he constantly having stupid conversations, her math homework. and he constantly requested her math homework.

Quick Test, Part 2 Directions: In the items that follow, choose the correct word Quick Test, Part 2 Directions: In the items that follow, choose the correct word or phrase within the context suggested by the sentence. Now try a different type!

Item 6 Pasta boiling in water, _____, and garlic bread baking in the oven Item 6 Pasta boiling in water, _____, and garlic bread baking in the oven welcomed Francisco as he opened the door. A. simmered tomato sauce in the pan B. tomato sauce simmering in in the pan tomato sauce simmering the pan C. tomato sauce that simmered in the pan D. saucy tomatoes that were simmering in the pan

Item 7 During our vacation in the Bahamas, we hope _____, to enjoy beautiful Item 7 During our vacation in the Bahamas, we hope _____, to enjoy beautiful sunsets, and to dance ourselves dizzy at reggae clubs. A. that we eat delicious seafood B. that eating delicious seafood occurs C. to eat delicious seafood D. eating delicious seafood

Item 8 Karen wished Ray chewed with his mouth closed, for otherwise he was Item 8 Karen wished Ray chewed with his mouth closed, for otherwise he was everything she wanted in a date; he was tall, intelligent, and _____. A. he looked good B. being good looking C. one handsome man to look at D. handsome

Item 9 To win Laurie’s love, Albert visited the florist for roses, the drugstore Item 9 To win Laurie’s love, Albert visited the florist for roses, the drugstore for a box of chocolates, and _____. A. bought an expensive gold necklace at the jewelry store B. the jeweler for an expensive gold necklace C. the jeweler where he bought an expensive gold necklace D. to buy an expensive gold necklace

Item 10 Kimberly won’t date Terry because he is too short, too noisy, and Item 10 Kimberly won’t date Terry because he is too short, too noisy, and _____. A. because he picks his teeth with his fingers B. too impolite C. is the most impolite man she has ever met D. Picking his teeth with his fingers

Grammar Bytes! provides additional handouts and exercises on parallel structure. Go to chomp. com! Grammar Bytes! provides additional handouts and exercises on parallel structure. Go to chomp. com!

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