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Описание презентации Then&Now… diseaseandtechnologythroughtheages PartII AncientGreece 776BC • по слайдам
Then&Now… diseaseandtechnologythroughtheages Part. II
Ancient. Greece 776 BC • 1 sttostudy cause ofdisease lookedfor naturalexplanations notjust divineones A ncient. Greekgodof medicine&health • madediscoveriesinscience, math& astronomy
Hippocrates , mostfamousofall ancient. Greekphysicians • basedknowledgeofanatomyon observationofexternalbody – humandissectionduringthistimewas taboo • responsibleforwritingoathofmedical ethics: Hippocratic. Oath • becameknownasthe“Fatherof. Modern Medicine”
Greekthinkersemphasizedideaof balance inallthings. • Theideaofbalancewasreflectedby beliefin fourhumors ofhumanbody: – yellowbile – blackbile – blood – phlegm
Their. Balance. Theoryfor“fours”: • theorythat four elements: – earth, air, fire&water & • the four seasons: – summer, autumn, winter&spring • werealllinkedtothe four humors inhuman body
• doctorscouldrestorebalanceby, for example, bybloodletting Cuppingvessels forbloodletting scalpels • Believedthatimbalanceinanyofthese humors, elementsorseasonscausedillness
1. Howmanyelementswereinvolved inthe“balancetheory”? . 2. Whatwasthe 1 stcodeofmedical ethicscalled? . 3. Nameoneofthebody’shumors. Check. Point
Check. Pointcont. 4. Imbalanceofthehumorsresulted in: a. badweather b. sometypeofillness c. adepletionofblood d. environmentaldisasters.
Romans 9 th. Century. BC • Learnedaboutdisease&sanitationfrom Greeks • Developedsanitationsystemofaqueductsto bringcleanwatertocities • Builtsewerstocarryoffwaste • Builtpublicbathswithfilteringsystems Marksbeginningofpublichealth&sanitation.
Aqueducts – • collected water from several natural springs, located far away from city • Water was chosen according to many factors: • position of its springs • purity of its water • its taste • alleged medical properties due to mineral salts
• Gravity moved the water towards the city. – Aqueduct acted as a continuous slope – Water had to be drawn from springs located in hilly areas, above Rome’s position
Ancient. Romanaqueduct. System
Roman Sewers – carried waste away from cities Cutaway view of typical Roman street. Shows lead water pipes & central channel for sewage under pavement
Ancient. Roman. Sewer undergroundsewers emptiedatstreams awayfromcities
Roman bath and spa—not just for bathing
• Publicbathswerecheaptoenter, soboth rich&poorcouldaffordtogooften. • Men&womenbathedinseparatefacilities. • Peopledidnotgotobathsjusttogetclean. • Bathswereaplacetomeetfriends, relaxor gamble&playgames. • Peoplewouldhaveamassage, thenhave theirbodyscrubbeddownbefore swimminginoutdoorpool.
5. The. Romanslearnedaboutdisease andhygienefrom. . 6. Romanaqueductscarried: a. cleanwatertocities b. sewageawayfromcities. Check. Point
Check. Pointcont. 7. Onlyrichpeoplecouldaffordthe Romanbaths. a. True b. False.
Dark. Age(early. Middle. Age) AD 400800& High. Middle. Ages. AD 8001400 • Beginningof. Dark. Ages – Roman. Empirewas conqueredby. Huns
Hun Empire Roman Empire
• Duringthistimechurchbegantodominate thepracticeofscience&medicine • Studyofmedicalscienceallbutstopped • Insteadofmedicalintervention, thechurch heldfasttobelief“healingthrough. Christ”
Treatmentforillduringthistime: • Prayer • Exorcism • Saintlyrelics • Superstition
Terribleepidemicsduringthisperiod: • Bubonicplague (Black. Death) • Smallpox • Syphilis • Diphtheria • Tuberculosis Bubonicplaguewasresponsiblefordeathof 60 millionpeople
The. Renaissance (AD 13501650) • Buildingofuniversities&medical schools • Searchfor newideas – (ratherthanunquestioning acceptance ofdiseaseaswillof. God)Periodwhichmarkedrebirthoflearning.
• Acceptanceofdissectionforstudy • Developmentofprintingpress& publishingbooks – (allowedmoreaccesstoknowledge fromresearch)
8. Whoconqueredthe. Romanempire? a. Greeks b. Mesopotamians c. Germans d. Huns. 9. Whydidthestudyofmedicinecometo astopduringthe. Dark. Ages? . Check. Point
Check. Pointcont. 10. Approximatelyhowmanydeaths wasthe. Bubonicplagueresponsible for? a. sixthousand b. sixmillion c. sixtymillion.
11. Whatdoestheword“Renaissance” mean? a. rebirth b. academia c. newideas d. scholar. Check. Pointcont.
Discoveriesof. Sixteenth &Seventeenth. Centuries
Leonardoda. Vinci (14521519) • Italianartist, scientist, engineer • Studiedanatomyofbodybydissection ofhumancorpses
Antonvan. Leeuwenhoek 16321723 • Dutchman • Inventedmicroscopein 1673& discovered“animacules”
• Leeuwenhoek’smicroscopewasalens mountedinatinyholeofabrassplate. • Heheldittothelighttoseehisspecimen.
12. Leonardoda. Vinci isknownas: a. anengineer b. anartist c. ascientist d. all. Check. Point
Check. Pointcont. 13. What is the name Leeuwenhoek used to describe microorganisms? a. microbes b. organelles c. animacules d. pathogens.
Discoveriesof Eighteenth. Century
Edward. Jenner (17491823) • Countrydoctorin England • Foundvaccination – protectedpeople againstsmallpox
• Jenner observed that milkmaids who caught less serious cowpox generally did not catch smallpox. • Led him to discover technique of vaccination when he deliberately infected a small boy with cowpox.
• Jenner found that this gave the child immunity against deadly smallpox.
Theword”vaccination, » madeupby. Jennerforhistreatment (comesfrom. Latin vacca , acow). Wordlateradoptedby. Pasteurfor immunizationagainstanydisease.
Rene. Laënnec (17811826) • Frenchphysician • Inventedcylinder stethoscope – Originallymadefrom paper; latermadefrom hallowwoodentube • Hailedas Fatherof Thoracic. Medicine
Whatledtoinventionofstethoscope? • Laënnec: “ In 1816, Iwasconsultedbyayoungwoman laboringundergeneralsymptomsofdiseased heart, andinwhosecasepercussionandthe applicationofthehandwereoflittleavailonthe accountofthegreatdegreeoffatness…” • “ Irolledaquireofpaper(24 sheets)intoakind ofcylinderandappliedoneendofittotheregion oftheheartandtheothertomyear. ”
14. Theword vaccination isderivedfroma Latinword, whichmeans. . ? . Check. Point 15. Laënnec’sfirststethoscopewasmadeof: a. paper b. wood c. copper c. hardenedrawhide.
Check. Pointcont. 16. Before. Laënnec’sstethoscope, howdid physicianslistentoheart&lung sounds? .
Nineteenth. Century Disease&Medicine
James. Blundell (17901877) • 1818 performed 1 stsuccessfulhuman bloodtransfusion – transfused blood from husband to his wife by means of syringe
• Blundell performed 10 transfusions up to 1830 – about half were successful • At this point, blood typing had not been developed & transfusions were risky. • In 1870’s, doctors began using milk from cows, goats & humans, as blood substitute • This was replaced with saline solution in 1880’s
William. Morton (18191868) • Dentist who developed anesthesia techniques that made surgery painless
Ether inhaler invented by William Morton, about
Florence. Nightingale (18201910) • pioneerofnursing • reformerofhospital sanitationmethods
• Althoughbedriddenformanyyears, she campaignedtirelesslytoimprovehealth standards – published 200 books, reports&pamphlets • Inrecognitionofherwork. Queen. Victoria awarded. Miss. Nightingalethe. Royal. Red Crossin 1883. • Shediedatage
MATCHING : 17. Reformedhospitals; pioneerednursing 18. Successfulblood transfusions 19. developed anesthesia techniques. Check. Point a. Morton b. Nightingale c. Snow d. Blundell
Louis. Pasteur (18221895) • Fatherof. Bacteriology • Discoveredthatmicroorganismswere everywhere • Provedthatmicrobescauseddisease
Theprocessofboilingaliquidtodestroybacteriais stillusedtoday; mostdairyproductsarepasteurized. Discoveredthatheatingofmilkkilled germshencetheterm“pasteurization”.
Pasturealsodevelopedvaccines againstanthrax&rabies. Louis’s pupil, Emile Roux, inoculating boy against rabies at Pasteur Institute
Sir. Joseph. Lister ( 18271912) • Discoveredthatcarbolic acidkilledgerms • Usedasanasepsisin surgery Carbolicacid sprayer
Lister. Introduces. Antisepsis • For six weeks, Lister had treated a boy’s compound fracture wound with carbolic acid. • When Lister removed dressings from fracture, he found wound had healed without infection—something unheard of!
Wilhelm. Roentgen (18451923) • Germanphysicist • Discoveredxrays in
Roentgen’swife, Bertha, &his xrayofherhand
Poem appeared in Photography magazine, 1895 The Röntgen Rays, the Röntgen Rays, What is this craze, The town’s ablaze, With the new phase Of X-rays ways. I’m full of daze, Shock and amaze, For nowadays, I hear they’ll gaze, Thro’ cloak & gown- and even stays, These naughty, naughty Röntgen Rays
MATCHING : 20. Developedrabies vaccine 21. Discoveredxrays 22. Used carbolic acid to kill germs . Check. Point a. Lister b. Laennec c. Pasture d. Roentgen.
Biomedicalfirstsofthe 20 thcentury: Organ transplants Pacem aker Respirators O penheartsurgery. EKGMachine M RI, CTscans. Lasersurgery
Onward to new medical advances . . . -The End-