Then&Now… diseaseandtechnologythroughtheages PartII AncientGreece 776BC •

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Then&Now… diseaseandtechnologythroughtheages Part. II Then&Now… diseaseandtechnologythroughtheages Part. II

Ancient. Greece 776 BC • 1 sttostudy cause ofdisease lookedfor naturalexplanations notjust divineones A ncient. GreekgodofAncient. Greece 776 BC • 1 sttostudy cause ofdisease lookedfor naturalexplanations notjust divineones A ncient. Greekgodof medicine&health • madediscoveriesinscience, math& astronomy

Hippocrates , mostfamousofall ancient. Greekphysicians • basedknowledgeofanatomyon observationofexternalbody – humandissectionduringthistimewas taboo • responsibleforwritingoathofmedical ethics: Hippocratic. OathHippocrates , mostfamousofall ancient. Greekphysicians • basedknowledgeofanatomyon observationofexternalbody – humandissectionduringthistimewas taboo • responsibleforwritingoathofmedical ethics: Hippocratic. Oath • becameknownasthe“Fatherof. Modern Medicine”

Greekthinkersemphasizedideaof balance inallthings.  • Theideaofbalancewasreflectedby beliefin fourhumors ofhumanbody: – yellowbile – blackbile – blood –Greekthinkersemphasizedideaof balance inallthings. • Theideaofbalancewasreflectedby beliefin fourhumors ofhumanbody: – yellowbile – blackbile – blood – phlegm

Their. Balance. Theoryfor“fours”:  • theorythat four elements: – earth, air, fire&water &  • theTheir. Balance. Theoryfor“fours”: • theorythat four elements: – earth, air, fire&water & • the four seasons: – summer, autumn, winter&spring • werealllinkedtothe four humors inhuman body

 • doctorscouldrestorebalanceby, for example, bybloodletting Cuppingvessels forbloodletting scalpels • Believedthatimbalanceinanyofthese humors, elementsorseasonscausedillness • doctorscouldrestorebalanceby, for example, bybloodletting Cuppingvessels forbloodletting scalpels • Believedthatimbalanceinanyofthese humors, elementsorseasonscausedillness

1. Howmanyelementswereinvolved inthe“balancetheory”? . 2. Whatwasthe 1 stcodeofmedical ethicscalled? . 3. Nameoneofthebody’shumors. Check. Point 1. Howmanyelementswereinvolved inthe“balancetheory”? . 2. Whatwasthe 1 stcodeofmedical ethicscalled? . 3. Nameoneofthebody’shumors. Check. Point

Check. Pointcont. 4. Imbalanceofthehumorsresulted in:  a. badweather b. sometypeofillness c. adepletionofblood d. environmentaldisasters. Check. Pointcont. 4. Imbalanceofthehumorsresulted in: a. badweather b. sometypeofillness c. adepletionofblood d. environmentaldisasters.

Romans 9 th. Century. BC • Learnedaboutdisease&sanitationfrom Greeks • Developedsanitationsystemofaqueductsto bringcleanwatertocities • Builtsewerstocarryoffwaste • Builtpublicbathswithfilteringsystems Marksbeginningofpublichealth&sanitation.Romans 9 th. Century. BC • Learnedaboutdisease&sanitationfrom Greeks • Developedsanitationsystemofaqueductsto bringcleanwatertocities • Builtsewerstocarryoffwaste • Builtpublicbathswithfilteringsystems Marksbeginningofpublichealth&sanitation.

     Aqueducts –  • collected water from several natural springs, Aqueducts – • collected water from several natural springs, located far away from city • Water was chosen according to many factors: • position of its springs • purity of its water • its taste • alleged medical properties due to mineral salts

 • Gravity moved the water towards the city. – Aqueduct acted as a continuous slope • Gravity moved the water towards the city. – Aqueduct acted as a continuous slope – Water had to be drawn from springs located in hilly areas, above Rome’s position

Ancient. Romanaqueduct. System Ancient. Romanaqueduct. System

Roman Sewers –  carried waste away from cities Cutaway view of typical Roman street. Roman Sewers – carried waste away from cities Cutaway view of typical Roman street. Shows lead water pipes & central channel for sewage under pavement

Ancient. Roman. Sewer undergroundsewers emptiedatstreams awayfromcities Ancient. Roman. Sewer undergroundsewers emptiedatstreams awayfromcities

Roman bath and spa--not just for bathing Roman bath and spa—not just for bathing

 • Publicbathswerecheaptoenter, soboth rich&poorcouldaffordtogooften.  • Men&womenbathedinseparatefacilities.  • Peopledidnotgotobathsjusttogetclean.  • Bathswereaplacetomeetfriends, relaxor gamble&playgames. • Publicbathswerecheaptoenter, soboth rich&poorcouldaffordtogooften. • Men&womenbathedinseparatefacilities. • Peopledidnotgotobathsjusttogetclean. • Bathswereaplacetomeetfriends, relaxor gamble&playgames. • Peoplewouldhaveamassage, thenhave theirbodyscrubbeddownbefore swimminginoutdoorpool.

5. The. Romanslearnedaboutdisease andhygienefrom. .  6. Romanaqueductscarried:  a. cleanwatertocities b. sewageawayfromcities. Check. Point 5. The. Romanslearnedaboutdisease andhygienefrom. . 6. Romanaqueductscarried: a. cleanwatertocities b. sewageawayfromcities. Check. Point

Check. Pointcont. 7. Onlyrichpeoplecouldaffordthe Romanbaths.  a. True b. False. Check. Pointcont. 7. Onlyrichpeoplecouldaffordthe Romanbaths. a. True b. False.

Dark. Age(early. Middle. Age) AD 400800& High. Middle. Ages. AD 8001400 • Beginningof. Dark. Ages –Dark. Age(early. Middle. Age) AD 400800& High. Middle. Ages. AD 8001400 • Beginningof. Dark. Ages – Roman. Empirewas conqueredby. Huns

Hun Empire Roman Empire Hun Empire Roman Empire

Herecomesthe. Huns Herecomesthe. Huns

 • Duringthistimechurchbegantodominate thepracticeofscience&medicine • Studyofmedicalscienceallbutstopped • Insteadofmedicalintervention, thechurch heldfasttobelief“healingthrough. Christ” • Duringthistimechurchbegantodominate thepracticeofscience&medicine • Studyofmedicalscienceallbutstopped • Insteadofmedicalintervention, thechurch heldfasttobelief“healingthrough. Christ”

Treatmentforillduringthistime:  • Prayer • Exorcism • Saintlyrelics • Superstition Treatmentforillduringthistime: • Prayer • Exorcism • Saintlyrelics • Superstition

Terribleepidemicsduringthisperiod:  • Bubonicplague (Black. Death) • Smallpox • Syphilis • Diphtheria • Tuberculosis Bubonicplaguewasresponsiblefordeathof 60Terribleepidemicsduringthisperiod: • Bubonicplague (Black. Death) • Smallpox • Syphilis • Diphtheria • Tuberculosis Bubonicplaguewasresponsiblefordeathof 60 millionpeople

The. Renaissance (AD 13501650) • Buildingofuniversities&medical schools • Searchfor newideas – (ratherthanunquestioning acceptance ofdiseaseaswillof. God)Periodwhichmarkedrebirthoflearning. The. Renaissance (AD 13501650) • Buildingofuniversities&medical schools • Searchfor newideas – (ratherthanunquestioning acceptance ofdiseaseaswillof. God)Periodwhichmarkedrebirthoflearning.

 • Acceptanceofdissectionforstudy • Developmentofprintingpress& publishingbooks – (allowedmoreaccesstoknowledge fromresearch) • Acceptanceofdissectionforstudy • Developmentofprintingpress& publishingbooks – (allowedmoreaccesstoknowledge fromresearch)

8. Whoconqueredthe. Romanempire?  a. Greeks b. Mesopotamians c. Germans d. Huns. 9. Whydidthestudyofmedicinecometo astopduringthe. Dark.8. Whoconqueredthe. Romanempire? a. Greeks b. Mesopotamians c. Germans d. Huns. 9. Whydidthestudyofmedicinecometo astopduringthe. Dark. Ages? . Check. Point

Check. Pointcont. 10. Approximatelyhowmanydeaths wasthe. Bubonicplagueresponsible for?  a. sixthousand b. sixmillion c. sixtymillion. Check. Pointcont. 10. Approximatelyhowmanydeaths wasthe. Bubonicplagueresponsible for? a. sixthousand b. sixmillion c. sixtymillion.

11. Whatdoestheword“Renaissance” mean?  a. rebirth b. academia c. newideas d. scholar. Check. Pointcont. 11. Whatdoestheword“Renaissance” mean? a. rebirth b. academia c. newideas d. scholar. Check. Pointcont.

Discoveriesof. Sixteenth &Seventeenth. Centuries Discoveriesof. Sixteenth &Seventeenth. Centuries

Leonardoda. Vinci (14521519) • Italianartist, scientist, engineer • Studiedanatomyofbodybydissection ofhumancorpses Leonardoda. Vinci (14521519) • Italianartist, scientist, engineer • Studiedanatomyofbodybydissection ofhumancorpses

Antonvan. Leeuwenhoek 16321723 • Dutchman • Inventedmicroscopein 1673& discovered“animacules” Antonvan. Leeuwenhoek 16321723 • Dutchman • Inventedmicroscopein 1673& discovered“animacules”

 • Leeuwenhoek’smicroscopewasalens mountedinatinyholeofabrassplate.  • Heheldittothelighttoseehisspecimen. • Leeuwenhoek’smicroscopewasalens mountedinatinyholeofabrassplate. • Heheldittothelighttoseehisspecimen.

12. Leonardoda. Vinci isknownas:  a. anengineer b. anartist c. ascientist d. all. Check. Point 12. Leonardoda. Vinci isknownas: a. anengineer b. anartist c. ascientist d. all. Check. Point

Check. Pointcont. 13. What is the name Leeuwenhoek used to describe microorganisms?  a. microbes b.Check. Pointcont. 13. What is the name Leeuwenhoek used to describe microorganisms? a. microbes b. organelles c. animacules d. pathogens.

Discoveriesof Eighteenth. Century Discoveriesof Eighteenth. Century

Edward. Jenner (17491823) • Countrydoctorin England • Foundvaccination – protectedpeople againstsmallpox Edward. Jenner (17491823) • Countrydoctorin England • Foundvaccination – protectedpeople againstsmallpox

 • Jenner observed that milkmaids who caught less serious cowpox generally did not catch smallpox. • Jenner observed that milkmaids who caught less serious cowpox generally did not catch smallpox. • Led him to discover technique of vaccination when he deliberately infected a small boy with cowpox.

 • Jenner found that this gave the child  immunity against deadly smallpox. • Jenner found that this gave the child immunity against deadly smallpox.

Theword”vaccination,  madeupby. Jennerforhistreatment (comesfrom. Latin vacca , acow). Wordlateradoptedby. Pasteurfor immunizationagainstanydisease. Theword”vaccination, » madeupby. Jennerforhistreatment (comesfrom. Latin vacca , acow). Wordlateradoptedby. Pasteurfor immunizationagainstanydisease.

Rene. Laënnec (17811826) • Frenchphysician • Inventedcylinder stethoscope – Originallymadefrom paper; latermadefrom hallowwoodentube • Hailedas FatherofRene. Laënnec (17811826) • Frenchphysician • Inventedcylinder stethoscope – Originallymadefrom paper; latermadefrom hallowwoodentube • Hailedas Fatherof Thoracic. Medicine

Beforestethoscope, doctorsputeardirectlytobody Beforestethoscope, doctorsputeardirectlytobody

Whatledtoinventionofstethoscope?  • Laënnec: “ In 1816, Iwasconsultedbyayoungwoman laboringundergeneralsymptomsofdiseased heart, andinwhosecasepercussionandthe applicationofthehandwereoflittleavailonthe accountofthegreatdegreeoffatness…” • “ Irolledaquireofpaper(24Whatledtoinventionofstethoscope? • Laënnec: “ In 1816, Iwasconsultedbyayoungwoman laboringundergeneralsymptomsofdiseased heart, andinwhosecasepercussionandthe applicationofthehandwereoflittleavailonthe accountofthegreatdegreeoffatness…” • “ Irolledaquireofpaper(24 sheets)intoakind ofcylinderandappliedoneendofittotheregion oftheheartandtheothertomyear. ”

14. Theword vaccination isderivedfroma Latinword, whichmeans. . ? . Check. Point 15. Laënnec’sfirststethoscopewasmadeof:  a. paper14. Theword vaccination isderivedfroma Latinword, whichmeans. . ? . Check. Point 15. Laënnec’sfirststethoscopewasmadeof: a. paper b. wood c. copper c. hardenedrawhide.

Check. Pointcont. 16. Before. Laënnec’sstethoscope, howdid physicianslistentoheart&lung sounds? . Check. Pointcont. 16. Before. Laënnec’sstethoscope, howdid physicianslistentoheart&lung sounds? .

Nineteenth. Century Disease&Medicine Nineteenth. Century Disease&Medicine

James. Blundell (17901877) • 1818 performed 1 stsuccessfulhuman bloodtransfusion – transfused blood from husband to hisJames. Blundell (17901877) • 1818 performed 1 stsuccessfulhuman bloodtransfusion – transfused blood from husband to his wife by means of syringe

 • Blundell performed 10 transfusions up to 1830 – about half were successful • At • Blundell performed 10 transfusions up to 1830 – about half were successful • At this point, blood typing had not been developed & transfusions were risky. • In 1870’s, doctors began using milk from cows, goats & humans, as blood substitute • This was replaced with saline solution in 1880’s

William. Morton (18191868) • Dentist who developed anesthesia techniques that made surgery painless William. Morton (18191868) • Dentist who developed anesthesia techniques that made surgery painless

1 stoperationusinganesthesia 1 stoperationusinganesthesia

Ether inhaler invented by William Morton,  about 1846  Ether inhaler invented by William Morton, about

Florence. Nightingale (18201910) • pioneerofnursing •  reformerofhospital sanitationmethods Florence. Nightingale (18201910) • pioneerofnursing • reformerofhospital sanitationmethods

Florence. Nightingaletendingtheill Florence. Nightingaletendingtheill

 • Althoughbedriddenformanyyears, she campaignedtirelesslytoimprovehealth standards – published 200 books, reports&pamphlets • Inrecognitionofherwork. Queen. Victoria awarded. • Althoughbedriddenformanyyears, she campaignedtirelesslytoimprovehealth standards – published 200 books, reports&pamphlets • Inrecognitionofherwork. Queen. Victoria awarded. Miss. Nightingalethe. Royal. Red Crossin 1883. • Shediedatage

MATCHING : 17. Reformedhospitals; pioneerednursing 18. Successfulblood transfusions 19. developed anesthesia techniques. Check. Point a. MortonMATCHING : 17. Reformedhospitals; pioneerednursing 18. Successfulblood transfusions 19. developed anesthesia techniques. Check. Point a. Morton b. Nightingale c. Snow d. Blundell

Louis. Pasteur (18221895) • Fatherof. Bacteriology • Discoveredthatmicroorganismswere everywhere • Provedthatmicrobescauseddisease Louis. Pasteur (18221895) • Fatherof. Bacteriology • Discoveredthatmicroorganismswere everywhere • Provedthatmicrobescauseddisease

Theprocessofboilingaliquidtodestroybacteriais stillusedtoday; mostdairyproductsarepasteurized. Discoveredthatheatingofmilkkilled germshencetheterm“pasteurization”.  Theprocessofboilingaliquidtodestroybacteriais stillusedtoday; mostdairyproductsarepasteurized. Discoveredthatheatingofmilkkilled germshencetheterm“pasteurization”.

Pasturealsodevelopedvaccines againstanthrax&rabies. Louis's pupil, Emile Roux, inoculating boy against rabies at Pasteur Institute Pasturealsodevelopedvaccines againstanthrax&rabies. Louis’s pupil, Emile Roux, inoculating boy against rabies at Pasteur Institute

Sir. Joseph. Lister ( 18271912) • Discoveredthatcarbolic acidkilledgerms • Usedasanasepsisin surgery Carbolicacid sprayer Sir. Joseph. Lister ( 18271912) • Discoveredthatcarbolic acidkilledgerms • Usedasanasepsisin surgery Carbolicacid sprayer

Lister. Introduces. Antisepsis • For six weeks, Lister had treated a boy's compound fracture wound withLister. Introduces. Antisepsis • For six weeks, Lister had treated a boy’s compound fracture wound with carbolic acid. • When Lister removed dressings from fracture, he found wound had healed without infection—something unheard of!

Wilhelm. Roentgen (18451923) • Germanphysicist • Discoveredxrays in 1895 Wilhelm. Roentgen (18451923) • Germanphysicist • Discoveredxrays in

Roentgen’swife, Bertha, &his xrayofherhand Roentgen’swife, Bertha, &his xrayofherhand

Poem appeared in Photography magazine, 1895 The Röntgen Rays, the Röntgen Rays, What is this craze,Poem appeared in Photography magazine, 1895 The Röntgen Rays, the Röntgen Rays, What is this craze, The town’s ablaze, With the new phase Of X-rays ways. I’m full of daze, Shock and amaze, For nowadays, I hear they’ll gaze, Thro’ cloak & gown- and even stays, These naughty, naughty Röntgen Rays

MATCHING : 20. Developedrabies vaccine 21. Discoveredxrays 22. Used carbolic acid to kill germs . Check.MATCHING : 20. Developedrabies vaccine 21. Discoveredxrays 22. Used carbolic acid to kill germs . Check. Point a. Lister b. Laennec c. Pasture d. Roentgen.

Biomedicalfirstsofthe 20 thcentury: Organ transplants Pacem aker Respirators O penheartsurgery. EKGMachine M RI, CTscans. Lasersurgery Biomedicalfirstsofthe 20 thcentury: Organ transplants Pacem aker Respirators O penheartsurgery. EKGMachine M RI, CTscans. Lasersurgery

Onward to new medical advances . . . -The End- Onward to new medical advances . . . -The End-