The Vietnam Era 19541975 American History CHA 3

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The Vietnam Era, 19541975 American History (CHA 3 U 1) Chapter 33 The Vietnam Era, 19541975 American History (CHA 3 U 1) Chapter 33

Introduction n The period 1954 – 1975 would see unprecedented change in all areas Introduction n The period 1954 – 1975 would see unprecedented change in all areas of American society n Tremendous prosperity and power would both benefit and hurt American society

Sec. 1: Cold War Challenges (pgs. 924 -29) Crises in Cuba – Castro took Sec. 1: Cold War Challenges (pgs. 924 -29) Crises in Cuba – Castro took power 1959 n The Bay of Pigs Invasion – 1, 400 Cuban exiles supported by the CIA invade Cuba in 1961 total failure n The Alliance for Progress - $20 billion pledged to 19 Latin American countries to aid development and curtail communism n The Cuban Missile Crisis – October 1962 Pres. Kennedy forced Soviet Union to remove missiles from Cuba

Cuban Missile Crisis Cuban Missile Crisis

Sec. 1: Cold War Challenges The Peace Corps – 1961 help stop poverty & Sec. 1: Cold War Challenges The Peace Corps – 1961 help stop poverty & disease stop communism n Peace Corps Volunteers – lived among local people and gave them practical help for their problems (e. g. sewage system, medical) n Nationalism in Africa – new nations in Africa had boundaries created by European colonial powers that didn’t take into account ethnic / tribal differences conflict (e. g. Congo)

Sec. 1: Cold War Challenges From the Soviet Union – Soviet leader Khrushchev thought Sec. 1: Cold War Challenges From the Soviet Union – Soviet leader Khrushchev thought he could intimidate Kennedy n The Berlin Wall – Soviets built a wall to keep East Germans from escaping into West Berlin n Quarrels over Nuclear Testing – Soviets resumed atmospheric nuclear testing in 1961 1963 treaty ended such testing n Dominican Intervention – 1965 20, 000 US troops sent to put down Communist rebels

Krushchev and Berlin Wall Krushchev and Berlin Wall

Sec. 1: Cold War Challenges Israel and Korea – friction with Soviets n Arab-Israeli Sec. 1: Cold War Challenges Israel and Korea – friction with Soviets n Arab-Israeli War – 1967 - American backed Israel quickly defeated Soviet backed Egypt, Syria & Jordan n The Pueblo Incident – January 1968 N. Korea seized US spy ship that was in international waters and kept them for 1 year

Sec. 2: War in Vietnam (pg. 930 -34) Trouble in Southeast Asia – Soviets Sec. 2: War in Vietnam (pg. 930 -34) Trouble in Southeast Asia – Soviets aided countries vying for national liberation n War in Laos – Kennedy and Khrushchev agreed to cease-fire in 1961 n Kennedy and Vietnam – divided into Communist North and Non-communist South in 1954 after French defeated 1963 Kennedy had sent 16, 000 advisers

Sec. 2: War in Vietnam (pg. 930 -34) Johnson’s Choices 1. Admit defeat and Sec. 2: War in Vietnam (pg. 930 -34) Johnson’s Choices 1. Admit defeat and pull out causing possible domino theory in SE Asia 2. Limited support that would end in defeat 3. Actively attack N. Vietnam with loss of American lives and high financial costs

North and South Vietnam North and South Vietnam

Sec. 2: War in Vietnam Escalation n Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – August 2, Sec. 2: War in Vietnam Escalation n Gulf of Tonkin Resolution – August 2, 1964 N. Viet torpedo boats supposedly fire on US ships Congress gives Pres. Johnson unaccountable power to wage war n A Different Kind of War – guerrilla & terrorist warfare fought by VC against stronger US n Search and Destroy – heavy bombardment of suspected VC positions (e. g. napalm, agent orange)

Victims of Napalm Victims of Napalm

Sec. 2: War in Vietnam Resistance to Peace – N. Viet resisted peace attempts Sec. 2: War in Vietnam Resistance to Peace – N. Viet resisted peace attempts believing they could outlast US who had over 500, 000 troops in Vietnam N. Vietnamese Leader Ho Chi Minh

Sec. 2: War in Vietnam Tet and Retreat – end of 1967 Gen. Westmoreland Sec. 2: War in Vietnam Tet and Retreat – end of 1967 Gen. Westmoreland said end was in sight n Vietcong Attack Turns the Tide – Jan. 1968 VC attack all major S. Viet cities VC totally defeated but a propaganda victory n Peace Talks Begin – Mar. 31/ 68 US bombing stops peace talks in Paris May ’ 68 fail

Sec. 3: Protest and Reaction (pgs. 936 -40) Growing Opposition to War – reasons Sec. 3: Protest and Reaction (pgs. 936 -40) Growing Opposition to War – reasons for fighting began to be questioned n Senate Hearings on the War – televised hearings carried the senators’ doubts about the war to millions of American homes n Hawks and Doves – supporters and opposition to war

Sec. 3: Protest and Reaction Student Protests – antiwar protests centered on college campuses Sec. 3: Protest and Reaction Student Protests – antiwar protests centered on college campuses n Protests Against the Draft – student deferment allowed rich to avoid war by staying in school while poor drafted – some conscientious objectors, draft dodgers n Violence on Campus – 1970 Kent State & Jackson State University 4 & 2 students killed

Sec. 3: Protest and Reaction n New Beliefs and Values – younger generation rejected Sec. 3: Protest and Reaction n New Beliefs and Values – younger generation rejected parents conservative values long hair, communes, sex, drugs & rock music (Woodstock 1969) n A Conservative Backlash – resented lack of respect for established order by spoiled rich college kids

Sec. 3: Protest and Reaction 1968: The Turning Point – majority of Americans turned Sec. 3: Protest and Reaction 1968: The Turning Point – majority of Americans turned against war policy n The Race for President – Pres. Johnson drops out of race and Robert Kennedy is assassinated by Arab nationalist n The Candidates – Richard Nixon (Rep. ), Hubert Humphrey (Dem. ), George Wallace (I) n The Election of 1968 – Nixon wins narrowly

R. Kennedy and R. Nixon R. Kennedy and R. Nixon

Sec. 4: Secrecy and Summitry (pgs. 941 -45) A New Policy – focused on Sec. 4: Secrecy and Summitry (pgs. 941 -45) A New Policy – focused on foreign policy n Nixon Proclaims Détente – SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty) with Russians (1972) n Nixon and China – visits China in 1972 after allowing trade & travel and moving Seventh Fleet from protecting Taiwan

Sec. 4: Secrecy and Summitry War in Vietnam – Nixon promised to end war, Sec. 4: Secrecy and Summitry War in Vietnam – Nixon promised to end war, but didn’t want to lose or prolong protests n The Pentagon Papers – leaked secret gov’t documents which showed four presidents lied about American involvement in Vietnam n Nixon Announces Vietnamization – US troops replaced by S. Viet. cease fire agree. 1973 n The End of the War – 1974 N. Viet attacks S. Viet Saigon captured April 1975

Sec. 4: Secrecy and Summitry War in the Middle East – Egypt & Syria Sec. 4: Secrecy and Summitry War in the Middle East – Egypt & Syria attack Israel Oct 6, 1973 but USA helps Israel win q Arab countries retaliate by placing oil embargo on USA economic problems q Egypt and Israel resume diplomatic relations thanks to US Sec. of State Henry Kissinger

Conclusion n Vietnam War would be the first war the United States loses WHY? Conclusion n Vietnam War would be the first war the United States loses WHY? because they lost home front support n The legacy of Vietnam would lead to a mistrust of government and less American military involvement throughout the world




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