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The Roma now and then 13 April 2006 Laura Laubeova laubeova@fsv. cuni. cz http: The Roma now and then 13 April 2006 Laura Laubeova [email protected] cuni. cz http: //roma. fsv. cuni. cz

Unit structure • • • Terminology Language, identity and culture. Ethnic group? Roma and Unit structure • • • Terminology Language, identity and culture. Ethnic group? Roma and non-Roma Multidisciplinary approach International Romani movement. Resources and links • Case study: Czech Republic Historical background Education

Terminology The Roma/The Romani people/The Romanies (12 m Worldwide) Rom (sg. ) (husband; Dom, Terminology The Roma/The Romani people/The Romanies (12 m Worldwide) Rom (sg. ) (husband; Dom, Domari), Romni (she), Roma (pl. ) or Romanies (pl. ) accepted by Sinti (prof. Hancock) a Romani (sg. ) Example: She is a Roma (sic. ), Romani, a Romni Romipen, Rromanipen Gentiles: Gadje, gadjo, gorgio (gaujo, gawja Hancock) Adjective Romani (international documents), Romany (literature)

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Language The Romani language or Romani or Romanes (in a Romani way, Romanily) Vakares Language The Romani language or Romani or Romanes (in a Romani way, Romanily) Vakares Romanes? Do you speak in the Romani way? Kiravel Romanes. She is cooking in the Romani way Sanskrit origins: 1760 Valyi Stefan, Univ. of Leiden, NL Vienna Gazette 1776, Rudiger 1782, Grellman 1783, Marsden 1785

Identity, culture, politics Identity - Reflects attitudes of majority - Withdrawal and separation (protect Identity, culture, politics Identity - Reflects attitudes of majority - Withdrawal and separation (protect values and culture) - Internalisation of stereotypes Culture & values - cleanlines, eating, treatment of animals, funerals, sexual behaviour, extended family, etc Romani organisations: Intl. Romani Union; Roma National Congress European level ERRC, ERIO, ERF (vide links bellow)….

Roma as an ethnic group • National minority (CEE), ethnic minority group (UK - Roma as an ethnic group • National minority (CEE), ethnic minority group (UK - RRA). Community / communities. • Heterogeniety. • Roma (Rumungro, Vlach, Romanichal, Kalderash, Kale, Kalo, Lovari), Sinti, Travellers, playground and circus people, bargee people, new age travellers etc • “Gypsy is not a lifestyle” but race/ ethnic group (Hancock) • Minorities autochtonous, immigrant • Roma as European minority vs Roma as European nation Europe's largest transnational minority; Declaration on "non-territorial" nation (2001)

Roma in society Discrimination, racism, anti-Gypsyism, denial of racism, reversed racism Majority relations twds Roma in society Discrimination, racism, anti-Gypsyism, denial of racism, reversed racism Majority relations twds the Roma (annihilation/extermination, persecution, segregation; assimilation, integration, accommodation, inclusion) Major point of departures for Romani studies: a) history – migration from India, early persecution in 15 - 18 cent. , assimilation under Habsburgs and in Portugal; Porrajmos – Romani holocaust (0, 5 m) b) family and values; c) Romani language, identity and self-determination of Romani nation But:

Multi-disciplinary approach • • • Romani Studies / Romology Linguistics (Indology) History (of repression) Multi-disciplinary approach • • • Romani Studies / Romology Linguistics (Indology) History (of repression) Cultural and social antropology / ethnology Culturology, Musicology International Relations (UN, EU…) International law (HR, minority rights law) Public and social policy Political economy (WB, UNDP) Sociology (power issues) Social psychology (in-group, out-group dynamics) • Psychology (of prejudice, stereotyping) etc.

Key Romani movements, Politics and Policy Actors International Romani Union Roma National Congress European Key Romani movements, Politics and Policy Actors International Romani Union Roma National Congress European Roma and Traveller Forum (Co. E) European Roma Rights Centre (US Law) World Bank Decade of Romani Inclusion 2005 -2015

World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz dined with seven young Roma leaders on February 27 World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz dined with seven young Roma leaders on February 27 in Prague to get their views on efforts to empower the Roma www. worldbank. org/roma

World Romani Congresses (IRU) The first World Romani Congress, London, 1971: 16 -spoked wheel World Romani Congresses (IRU) The first World Romani Congress, London, 1971: 16 -spoked wheel as their international symbol, flag (green and blue), anthem (Roma arise), proclaimed April 8 international Romani day 2 nd 3 rd 4 th 5 th 6 th 1979 Geneva (Jan Cibula) 1981 Gottingen Ge (Rajko Djuric) 1990 Warsaw (Rajko Djuric) 2000 Prague (Emil Scuka) 2004 Lanciano Italy (Stanislav Stankiewicz)

RNC Rom & Sinti Union in Hamburg (80 s) -> RNC, Rudko Kawczynski Grassroot, RNC Rom & Sinti Union in Hamburg (80 s) -> RNC, Rudko Kawczynski Grassroot, militant, Romani refugees from Eastern Europe – basic human rights approach Pan-European Romani Identity vs nationalist “Zentralrat “ of German Sinti and Roma (81)

Useful links and resources European Roma Rights Centre http: //www. errc. org European Roma Useful links and resources European Roma Rights Centre http: //www. errc. org European Roma Information Office http: //www. erionet. org/Home. html European Roma and Traveller Forum http: //www. ertf. org/ WB www. worldbank. org/roma UNDP http: //roma. undp. sk

Roma in the Czech Republic Background, Present situation, Issue of Education Useful links and Roma in the Czech Republic Background, Present situation, Issue of Education Useful links and resources Romea http: //www. romea. cz/ Czech Radio http: //www. romove. cz

History Maria Theresa and Joseph II. (1760 -1784) assimilation, sedentarisation 1927 Act on Nomadic History Maria Theresa and Joseph II. (1760 -1784) assimilation, sedentarisation 1927 Act on Nomadic Gypsies (identity cards) Nazi holocaust PORRAIMOS (200 000 – 1. 5 m. victims) Ctibor Nečas, Paul Polanski Concentration Camp Lety

Communism • Enforced + voluntary relocation to Sudetenlands from Slovak shanty-town settlements (after removal Communism • Enforced + voluntary relocation to Sudetenlands from Slovak shanty-town settlements (after removal of Germans 1945) • 1958 Act on settlement of nomadic persons (repealed in CZ in 97) • 1965 policy on transfer (from Sk) + dispersal, displacement • 68 federalisation; Association of Gypsies-Roma (73) • 1978 Charter 77 Document 23: Information on situation of Gypsies-Roma (warning if economy modernises)

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1989 -97 • • • Roma gained status as a national minority, Romani MPs 1989 -97 • • • Roma gained status as a national minority, Romani MPs Bogardus scale of social distance – high hostility Beauty Queen racist utterance, Racist attacks Unemployment; stereotype of self-chosen unemployment Criminality (20% vs. national 3%) – criminalisation Citizenship law 93 (de facto discrimination), put most Roma in position of aliens, 96, 2000; led to 97 exodus • Housing ghettoisation (barren flats), educational segregation

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1997 - present • 97 Emigration to Canada, UK → Bratinka report on situation 1997 - present • 97 Emigration to Canada, UK → Bratinka report on situation of R. community in CZ • 98 UN CERD Concluding observations on CR, "de facto” segregation in edu (article 5 ICERD) • April 99 Draft Concept of Romani integration • „Conflict-free co-existence of the R. community with the remainder of society“ • Safety, non-discrimination, improving social sit (employment, housing, health)

“Exodus” to Canada 1996: 150 Czech Romani claimants 6 Aug. 1997: TV documentary 6 “Exodus” to Canada 1996: 150 Czech Romani claimants 6 Aug. 1997: TV documentary 6 Aug. – 8 Oct. 97: 1500 claimants/ “Invasion” , i. e. 6% of all refugee claimants in 97 Re-introduction of visa requirement Migration to UK and other EU countries

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After 1997 - cont. 2001 UK Immigration officers in Prg Airport (CHC Statement 29 After 1997 - cont. 2001 UK Immigration officers in Prg Airport (CHC Statement 29 Aug. 01), House of Lords Dec 2004 2002 "Conception on Romani Integration", (2004 reformulation/revision) 2003 Denial by pres. Klaus, BBC Hardtalk

Education and Roma in CZ Push factors for systemic change • 97 Canada visa Education and Roma in CZ Push factors for systemic change • 97 Canada visa imposition • EU accession, Criticism by US Gov. , UN, Co. E • Role of NGOs, e. g. ERRC: Ostrava region, 27 times more in Special Schools, 5% population, 50% in special schools Cf. Brown vs Topeca Board of Education in USA, 50 yrs ago

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Achievements ð Romani teacher assistants (introduced in 1998) communication barrier, partnership teaching, small group Achievements ð Romani teacher assistants (introduced in 1998) communication barrier, partnership teaching, small group work, contact with families, etc not systemic, inferior status, no educated R. teachers, if not successful‑ blaming the victim ð Preparatory classes (since 1994) cf Headstart USA ð multicultural/ intercultural edu. programmes NG 0 s, community schools

Threats: ð re-standardisation of psychological testing in the age of 6 - doubts about Threats: ð re-standardisation of psychological testing in the age of 6 - doubts about the concepts itself ð subtractive versus additive bilingualism, irreversible cognitive damage (abstract thinking concepts - Piaget) ð institutional, unwitting, indirect racism+ denial of racism

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D. H. and Others v. Czech Republic • first challenge to systematic racial segregation D. H. and Others v. Czech Republic • first challenge to systematic racial segregation in education in Europe • brought by 18 Roma children from Ostrava; placed in “special” remedial special schools (ss) • complaint filed in 2000 by ERRC - intensive qualitative and quantitative research that revealed racial disparities. • 7 February 2006 European Court on HR ruled in favour of the Czech State (improvement) • US Helsinki Commission report 21 Feb 2006

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What next? • Impact of globalisation on marginalised groups • Racism, terrorism, other ISMS What next? • Impact of globalisation on marginalised groups • Racism, terrorism, other ISMS • World Bank and the Decade for inclusion • 2007 European year for equity ?