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THE ROLE OF NGOS ON INTEGRATING GENDER IN RH PROGRAMS AND POLICIES: INSIGHTS FROM THE FAMILY PLANNING ORGANIZATION OF THE ATTY. RHODORA M. ROY-RATERTA Executive Director, (FPOP) PHILIPPINES FPOP Network (RHAN) Chair 2006, Reproductive Health Advocacy Member, NGO Sectoral Council, Phil. National Anti-Poverty Commission
FPOP: COMING FULL CIRCLE FROM 1969 TO 2006 n n n Established 37 years ago to provide FP services and engage government in various ways/leaders took the brave stance to promote small family size (affiliated with the International Planned Parenthood Federation established by women with battle cry “Brave and Angry”) Innovated in service delivery and IEC Enhanced advocacy initiatives/adopted rights based approach/gender in advocacy (Charter on Sexual and Reproductive Rights)
FPOP: COMING FULL CIRCLE n n n Partnered with media, business and other sectors Have strong presence in networks and other alliances including National Anti Poverty Commission Helping bridge gap between supply and demand (with Quality of Care) in 25 chapters/33 clinics/outreach Taking brave stance in all aspects of its work (RH and the 5 A’s) Utilizing the Law for Women’s Rights: What Women Ask
FPOP: GENDER AND RH THRU THE YEARS In the late 1990’s, incorporated Gender Sensitivity Workshops for HR development of program managers and community workers n In 2000, purposively searched for a woman Executive Director after 30 years from its establishment n In 2002, National Council approved VAWC referral policies in clinics n
FPOP: GENDER AND RH THRU THE YEARS In 2004, approved amendments to By Laws making chapter representation in the National Council as at least 1 woman out of 2 possible representatives n Youth Reps in National and Local Councils/Executive Committees at least 50% women n In 2005, created Gender Committee in National Council n
FPOP: GENDER AND RH THRU THE YEARS Building community organizing efforts/Free Choice Couples/Male Involvement/Youth Groups n Youth/Teen Centers n Issues on religion, gender & RH studied n Quality of Care with a Gender Perspective n Women and Children’s Alternative Center in Surigao n
FPOP: GENDER AND RH THRU THE YEARS Lighting a Torch for Women’s Rights n Enhancing Media Awareness on Beijing Platform of Action for Women n Advocacy for Legislative Measures on RH, Magna Carta for Women, Anti. Discrimination for Women in Vulnerable Situations n Strong lobby against delisting of contraceptives in Bureau of Food & Drug n
The Policy Environment for Gender and RH: Problems in Policy Making n n n Public policy to rationalize and make available reproductive health services is wanting. Bending to pressures from the Church, government flip flops/reverses on its stand on FP No comprehensive national law on RH
RECENT MAJOR POLICIES IMPACTING ON GENDER, SRH and RIGHTS: ONE STEP FORWARD TWO STEPS BACKWARD n Cheers! Reaffirmation by the Government of the Philippines of its commitment to the Program of Action of the ICPD, Jeers – GMA Sept 2005 UN message n Wow! Government puts in place RH as another target for the MDGs. [email protected]#* How? With Presidential statements on preference for NFP? n Claps! 2006 General Appropriations Bill of HOR now includes 50 million peso budget for modern methods of contraception. Zapped!! 2005 budget
RECENT MAJOR POLICIES IMPACTING ON GENDER, SRH and RIGHTS: ONE STEP FORWARD TWO STEPS BACKWARD n Good? Approval of Administrative Order 158 of the Department of Health on Contraceptive Self-Reliance (CSR) due to USAID phasedown. Worst nightmare - stockouts
Gap in the Law G A P Present Policy Environment (Not enough, Ambiguity due to Conflicts between the Constitution, the Local Government Code and the Family Code) Enhanced Quality of Life through RH
Meet Elsa… “married” at 16 poor, sickly lacks info/education on RH/FP services beaten and raped by her husband HIV positive dead at 32…
Governments must be able to recognize that rights articulated in international conventions entail responsibilities, not only as they apply to individuals but more so, the State.
Human Rights “All human rights are universal, indivisible, independent and interrelated. The international community must treat human rights globally in fair and equal manner…While the significance of national and regional particularities…it is the duty of the States to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms. ”
Knowing One’s Rights v Inherent to every human being are the rights s/he is born with, including the right to LIFE, LIBERTY and PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS. v The Phil. Constitution of 1987 provides equal protection for women and men
Women’s Rights are Human Rights!!! “…the human rights of women and girl child are inalienable, integral and indivisible part of human rights…” - Vienna Declaration, UN World Conference of Human Rights, 1993
The Right to Health many domestic legislation on reproductive health could be anchored on and where issues could be discussed dispassionately and objectively 2 provisions in the Local Government Code are already put in place but only a few LGUs implement them
The Right to Information The Philippine government must therefore ensure that no person shall be discriminated against in their access to information, education and health care or services related to reproductive health, rights and needs, throughout their life span, on the grounds of gender, age, sexual orientation, marital status, religion or mental and physical disability
The 12 Sexual & Repro Rights § Right to Life which means among other things that no woman’s life should be put at risk by reason of pregnancy; § Right to Liberty & Security which recognizes that no person should be subject to female genital mutilation, forced pregnancy, sterilization or abortion;
The 12 Sexual & Repro Rights § Right to Equality & to be Free from All Forms of Discrimination including in one’s sexual and reproductive life; § Right to Privacy meaning that all sexual and reproductive health care services should be confidential, and all women have the right to autonomous reproductive choices;
The 12 Sexual & Repro Rights § Right to Freedom of Thought which includes freedom from the restrictive interpretation of religious texts, beliefs, philosophies and customs as tools to curtail freedom of thought on sexual and reproductive health care and other issues;
The 12 Sexual & Repro Rights § Right to Information & Education as it relates to sexual and reproductive health for all, including access to full information on the benefits, risks, and effectiveness of all methods of fertility regulation, in order that all decisions taken are made on the basis of full, free and informed consent;
The 12 Sexual & Repro Rights § Right to Choose Whether or Not to Marry & to Found and Plan a Family which includes the right of persons to protection against a requirement to marry without his/her consent and the right to reproductive health care services;
The 12 Sexual & Repro Rights § Right to Decide Whether or When to have Children which includes the right of persons to decide freely responsibly the number and spacing of their children and to access to information and education;
The 12 Sexual & Repro Rights § Right to Heath Care and Health Protection which includes the right of health care clients to the highest possible quality of health care and the right to be free from traditional practices which are harmful to health;
The 12 Sexual & Repro Rights § Right to the Benefits of Scientific Progress which includes the right of sexual and reproductive health services clients to new reproductive health technologist which are safe, effective and acceptable
The 12 Sexual & Repro Rights § Right to Freedom of Assembly & Political Participation which includes the right of all persons to seek to influence communities and government to prioritize sexual and reproductive health and rights;
The 12 Sexual & Repro Rights § Right to be Free from Torture & Ill-treatment including the rights of all women, men and young people to protection from violence, sexual exploitation and abuse.
A Gap in Internal and External Policies: Integrating Gender in RH Programs G A P Do you respect the rights of the clients? Do you have sexual harassment policies in place? Are you gender sensitive? Enhanced Quality of Life through Gender & RH
Affected Individuals v single women v adolescents v older persons v men v children v differently-abled
INTEGRATION OF GENDER, RH AND RR • IEC on existing laws • Advocacy for Policies (e. g. HBs 3773, 3744, Magna Carta for Women) • Self Regulating policies • Service Delivery
INFORMATION, EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION/ BEHAVIOR CHANGE COMMUNICATION/ KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT/ RESEARCH
IEC, BCC, KM, Research Databasing disaggregated data by sex n Demographic and Health Surveys n Health consequences of gender n Violence against women and children n Sex Workers (inappropriate term? ) n Health needs thru life cycle n Sexuality n
MDGs, CEDAW, BPA, ICPD MDG 3 – promote gender equality and empower women Target is to eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and to all levels of education no later than 2015
MDGs, CEDAW, BPA, ICPD CEDAW and Beijing understand genderbased discrimination as simultaneously threatening the health of both women and their children and for this reason Goal 4 (reduction by 2/3 the mortality rate among children under 5) and Goal 5 (reduction by 3 quarters the maternal mortality ratio)
MDGs, CEDAW, BPA, ICPD 1. 2. Depriving women of education and literacy opportunities significantly impairs their ability to care for their own health and that of their children and to ensure proper nutrition In some regions, higher levels of infant mortality rates have been linked to the cultural devaluation of girl children and preferential treatment for sons in nutrition and health care
MDGs, CEDAW, BPA, ICPD • • Maternal mortality is still present brought about by various factors including religious and cultural beliefs, traditional roles of women in the home and shortage of trained medical professionals and health centers for deliveries Women’s access to services hampered by lack of economic resources, lack of decisionmaking power and restrictions on their freedom of movement outside the home
CEDAW & MD GOALS 4 & 5 • • Eliminate discrimination in the field of health care, to ensure equality between men and women in access to health care services, including those related to FP (Art 12. 1) Ensure women appropriate services in connection with pregnancy, confinement and post-natal period granting free services where necessary (Art. 12. 2)
CEDAW & MD GOALS 4 & 5 • • • Ensure women adequate nutrition during pregnancy and lactation (Art 12. 2) Ensure rural women’s right to adequate health care facilties, including information, counselling and services in FP (Art. 14. 2 b) Eliminate discrimination in education to ensure women’s access to educ. info to help ensure the health and well-being of families including info and advice on FP (Art 10. h)
BPA & MD GOALS 4 & 5 • • • Increase women’s access thru out the life cycle to appropriate, affordable and quality health care, info and related services (C. 1) Strengthen preventive programs that promote women’s health (C. 2) Undertake gender sensitive initiatives that address STDs, HIV/AIDS, RH issues (C. 3) Promote research and disseminate info on women’s health (C. 4) Increase resources and follow up for women’s health (C. 5) Eliminate discrimination against girls in health and nutrition (L. 5)
ADVOCACY FOR POLICIES IN PARLIAMENTS, MINISTRIES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, ETC.
Terms Used in HB 3773 Reproductive Health – the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes. This implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that women and men attain equal relationships in matters related to sexual relations and reproduction.
Terms Used in HB 3773 and HB 3744 Gender Equality – the absence of discrimination on the basis of a person’s sex, in opportunities, allocation of resources and benefits and access to service Gender Equity – fairness and justice in the distribution of benefits and responsibilities between men and women, & often requires women-specific projects and programs to eliminate existing inequalities, inequities, policies & principles favorable to women
Terms Used in proposed Magna Carta for Women Gender and Development definition includes “contends that women are active agents in development and not just passive recipients of development assistance” Right to be properly informed of the issues and concerns affecting the welfare of women and access to comprehensive and gender sensitive health services such as maternal and childcare and RH including FP Gender Equality refers to the recognition of parity in the rights and entitlements of women and men
Terms Used in proposed Magna Carta for Women Gender Equity refers to the policies, instruments, programs, services and actions that address the disadvantaged position of women in society by providing preferential treatment and affirmative action. Such temporary special measures aimed at accelerating de facto equality between men and women shall not be considered discriminatory but shall in no way entail as a consequence the maintenance of unequal or separate standards. These measures shall be discontinued when the objectives of equality of opportunity and treatment have been achieved.
HB 3744 n n Gender Empowerment Education (age appropriate and culturally sensitive) Gender Responsive Standards of Care (manner that promotes and respects their right to be treated with dignity, privacy and confidentiality, informed decision making) Equitable Representation of Women in Policy -Making Bodies Enhancing Economic Self-Reliance and Empowerment
HB 3744 n n n Equity and Equality in Welfare Benefits Reproductive Health and Equity Other women focused health services (medical conditions and diseases of girls and women other than RH but attributable to gender inequities and inequalities) Other gender responsive services (one day menstrual leave) Informed decision making Review of laws
HB 3744 Section 12 on RH and Equity n n Safe motherhood services and information, including universal access to skilled attendance during childbirth, and universal access to emergency obstetric care for those with maternal complications FP services and info, including public provision of all modern and scientific methods, whether natural or artificial, provided that drugs or medical devices have passed regulatory standards on safety, quality and efficacy
HB 3744 Section 12 on RH and Equity n n Services and info on management of abortion complications, which shall be given in a humane, respectful and non-judgmental manner and particular attention shall be given to address the gender issues surrounding women’s resort to abortion to reduce number of cases Services and info for girls and women survivors of violence including the provision of various forms of care and support
HB 3744 Section 12 on RH and Equity n n n Services and info on STIs with particular attention to addressing the gender issues underlying or lined with the spread of STIs, HIV and AIDS Services and info specific to adolescents, with the goal of promoting their rights, well-being and responsibilities consistent with their evolving capacities Menstrual dysfunctions, Menopause, cancers of reproductive system, infertility
The landscape of our advocacy and service delivery. . . public policy concerning reproductive health specifically on the right of individuals and couples to a family planning method of their choice and the sexual and reproductive rights of young people become also a moral issue – one which will naturally draw in the influential Catholic Church hierarchy into the debate.
David vs. Goliath n Fighting the Goliaths: – Catholic Church hierarchy – Executive leaders (national and local) and Legislative Officials – Rich and influential individuals and conservative groups
The Policy Environment: Problems in Policy Making Rising wave of conservatism fueled by Catholic Church hierarchy n Suspicion that RH automatically includes abortion and promiscuity n
The Policy Environment: Problems in Policy Making and Effect of Ambivalent National Policy • Confusion and paralysis at some LGUs • Buck passing from national to local government • Decision-making left at the discretion of some local leaders who may even be more susceptible to pressures from conservative groups.
NGO Actions on Recent Developments n n Reviewing provisions of comprehensive RH Ordinance in the Province of Aurora for replication by proactive & responsive LGUs/drafting with PLCPD its IRR , tracking other RH measures Kept close watch on how GMA will speak in the UN Millennium Summit and immediately was informed on her call to the UN to “respect the deep Catholicism of the Filipino people” and that “natural FP more effective than artificial”
NGO Actions on Recent Developments Putting up/strengthening partnerships and alliances (e. g. RH Korum) noting that political problems of Pres Arroyo gives perception that she has further bowed down to the call of the Catholic Church hierarchy/ “anti choice groups” and has stalled the approval of the Reproductive Health Care Act n Kept a close watch on Consultative Commission on the Constitution n
STRATEGIES ADOPTED AMIDST STRONG ANTICHOICE LOBBY FOR GENDER, RH AND RR
ENSURING THAT ADVOCACIES/SERVICE DELIVERY HAVE CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL BASIS
PRESENT POLICY ENVIRONMENT FOR GENDER, SRH AND RIGHTS n Does RH have a constitutional basis? n Are there provisions in the Constitution which may be interpreted to be “anti-RH”? n n Health, information, youth, women, Article on Family, human rights provisions Role of parents in giving info to their children; right to life of the unborn; lack of ’ 73 prov.
BEING PART OF A NETWORK OF HIGH PROFILE, COMPETENT AND RESPECTED ORGANIZATIONS SUCH AS THOSE THAT CONSTITUTED THEMSELVES INTO THE RHAN ALLOWED ADVOCACIES TO BE PUSHED QUICKLY AND WITH QUALITY RESULTS/ALSO NGO SECTORAL COUNCIL OF NAPC
RHAN Championing reproductive health, reproductive rights and development concerns
TRACK PENDING MEASURES IN THE LEGISLATIVE MILL ON RH AND POPULATION n Approval by the Committee on Women, HOR, of HB 3773, a substitute bill for HB 16, 2029, 2042, & 2550, Sponsorship speeches delivered; Women’s Rights and Pop. Dev bill pending n Senate version still waiting for Committee on Health hearings; priority on breastfeeding & HIV AIDS
FPOP Sub-national Initiatives n Case 1: Creation of an RH advisory body to the LGU (Local Government Unit) To help the LGU develop its policies and program priorities on RH n Case 2: Community Development Fund for RH Swap (CDF for RH Swap) Exchange of funds for RH services for the poor and underserved
FPOP Sub-national Initiatives n Case 3: Family Management Program Helping families address family concerns on education, health, livelihood and environment.
FPOP Sub-national Initiatives n Launching of FASTHERH (Families as Stewards of their Homes, Environment and Reproductive Health) / Community Work/Religious Issues
SELF REGULATING POLICIES AND INTERNAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS
ARE YOU IN OR OUT? Sexual harassment policies n Non discrimination in hiring and promotion n Welfare related policies such as vacation, sick, maternity leaves and other protocols related to occupational health and safety n Day care centers etc. n
Service Delivery n n n n Quality of Care Rights of Service Providers Design health services for older women Understand male involvement strategies as they impact on resources for women Look at traditional practices related to gender that have positive and negative impact on RH Understand religious and cultural beliefs Displaced populations
So encourage each other and build each other up…
MARAMING SALAMAT PO!