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The Rise of Islam http: //www. mitchelltea chers. org/World. History /Riseof. Islam/Riseof. Isla m. The Rise of Islam http: //www. mitchelltea chers. org/World. History /Riseof. Islam/Riseof. Isla m. Videos. htm

The Rise of Islam HAMMAD SHEIKH PERIOD 5 10/20/09 CHAPTER 8 THE RISE OF The Rise of Islam HAMMAD SHEIKH PERIOD 5 10/20/09 CHAPTER 8 THE RISE OF ISLAM AP WORLD HISTORY MR. MARSHALL http: //www. mitchelltea chers. org/World. History /Riseof. Islam/Riseof. Isla m. Videos. htm

The Differences Between Sunnis And Shiites • Islam has two groups of people the The Differences Between Sunnis And Shiites • Islam has two groups of people the Sunnis and the Shiites. • Both groups have the same train of thought. • Both believe in one God (Allah) and the prophecy of Muhammad. • The Sunnis believe in the sunna ( follow in the tradition of Prophet Muhammad). • Shiites are the group of Muslim that believe that Ali the fourth kalifa is the first kalifa. • The four kalifa’s are Abu Baker Siddique, Hazart Usma, Hazart Umar, and Harazt Ali. http: //en. wikiped ia. org/wiki/Islam

The Arabian Peninsula • The Arabs lived exclusively in the Arabian peninsula. (Bulliet 197) The Arabian Peninsula • The Arabs lived exclusively in the Arabian peninsula. (Bulliet 197) • The interior of Arabia is were the religion of Islam took form. (Bulliet 197) • People of Arabia have been farmers and sailors, and less nomadic. (Bulliet 198) • The sea of sand or the “Empty Quarter”. • Arabia had great knowledge of other lands due to the caravans. (Bulliet 198) • Caravans were ruled by nomadic people who helped trade and military dominance. (Bulliet 198) • Merchants who traveled in caravans learned of other http: //en. wikipe cultures and religions. (Bulliet 198) dia. org/wiki/File : Mosque. Qibla. 0 1. jpg

Continued • Mecca was one of the last of the great caravan cities. (Bulliet Continued • Mecca was one of the last of the great caravan cities. (Bulliet 198) • Mecca lies in a barren mountain valley between Yemen and Syria. • The Nomadic group of the Qaraysh lived in Mecca. • The Kabah is the center of worship for all Muslims and is located in Mecca. • The Kabah was built by Prophet Ibrahim. • The Kabah is know for the annual pilgrimage(Hajj) and Umra , which all include walking around the Kabah worshipping God. http: //en. wikiped ia. org/wiki/Islam

Prophet Muhammad • Prophet Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 A. D. (Bulliet Prophet Muhammad • Prophet Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 A. D. (Bulliet 199) • He was an orphan who grew up with his grandfather Abd al-Mutalib and after his death with his uncle. • Muhammad married Khadija who was a merchant. (Bulliet 199) • In the Cave of Hira Prophet Muhammad meet Angel Jibril and the Quran’s first verses were reviled. • The revelation of the Quran took 3 years and Muhammad shared the word of Allah with his uncle son Ali and Abu Bakr. (Bulliet 200) http: //en. wikiped ia. org/wiki/Islam

Islam • Prophet taught the people of Arabia the truth of one God and Islam • Prophet taught the people of Arabia the truth of one God and lead them away from the belief in idols. • The revelation called all people to submit to God and that Muhammad is the last messenger. (Bulliet 200) • Muslims are people who have belief in Islam. (Bulliet 201) • Believe in the first pillar of Islam, submission to Islam. • Islam’s revolution had come before with Noah, Moses , and Jesus. (Bulliet 201) • The revelation of Islam appealed to many people due to their views on society, some adored the power and http: //dlibrary. acu. e beauty of the revelation. (Bulliet 201) du. au/research/theo logy/ejournal/aejt_4 /images/islam_pray

The Formation of the Umma • Mecca’s leaders feared the revelation of Islam would The Formation of the Umma • Mecca’s leaders feared the revelation of Islam would threaten their power and prosperity. (Bulliet 201) • The Quraysh tried in many ways to stop the spread of Muhammad’s message. • Prophet Muhammad was forced to flee to Medina in which accepted him. • Hijra is the beginning of the Muslim calendar. (Bulliet 201) • The Umma began in Medina and was a community defined for the acceptance of Islam and Prophet Muhammad. (Bulliet 201) http: //pow. reonli ne. org. uk/images/ pic_islam. jpg

Continued… • Muhammad did return to Mecca after the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah which was Continued… • Muhammad did return to Mecca after the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah which was between Mecca and Prophet Muhammad. • On the 8 th of June in 632 the messenger of God died at the age of 63. • After Muhammad’s death Abu Bakr became one of the khalifa’s or successors. (Bulliet 201) • Abu Bakr continued the spread of the Five Pillars of Islam. (Bulliet 201) • The Five Pillars of Islam are Shahada-Pledge of Allegiance, Salat-Daily prayers, Zakat-Charity, Sawm-Fasting in the Month of Ramadan, Hajj-Pilgrimage to Makkah. http: //en. wikiped ia. org/wiki/Islam

Continued… • The Quran is the word of Allah and the final revelation of Continued… • The Quran is the word of Allah and the final revelation of Islam. • The Quran is written in Arabic. (Bulliet 202) • The first civil war in Islam followed after the death of the third kalifa, Usman in 656. (Bulliet 202, ) • Prophet Muhammad’s first cousin was Ali, who was nominated to lead against the assassins of Usman. (Bulliet 202) • The Shiite belief developed over the belief of Ali to be the successor of Muhammad. (Bulliet 202) http: //en. wikiped ia. org/wiki/Islam

The Islamic Conquest • The Islamic caliphates built on the conquest of Muhammad. (Bulliet The Islamic Conquest • The Islamic caliphates built on the conquest of Muhammad. (Bulliet 201) • The caliphates were Sunni and believed in the unity of the Umma. (Bulliet 202) • Arab conquest outside of Arabia began under the second kalifa Umar. (http: //www. wsu. edu: 8080/~dee/ISLAM/UMAY. HTM ) • The Muslim domination spread to Syria, Egypt, Spain, India and Anatolia. (Bulliet 203) • The Arabs during the conquest period showed little signs of encouraging conversions and spreading Islam. (Bulliet 203) http: //en. wikiped ia. org/wiki/Islam

The Umayyad and Early Caliphates • The Umayyad caliphs presided over an ethnically Arab The Umayyad and Early Caliphates • The Umayyad caliphs presided over an ethnically Arab realm. (Bulliet 203) • The Umayyad’s saw a great development of the. Islamic empire and were responsible for building a highly efficient and lasting governmental structure. • The Umayyad caliphs could be startlingly brilliant both militarily and politically. (http: //www. wsu. edu: 8080/~dee/ISLAM/UMAY. HTM) • The Khurasan over threw the last Umayyad calipha and resulting in the establishment of the Abbasid Caliphate. (Bulliet 203) • The Abbasid dynasty showed great leadership and concern for Islam. (Bulliet 203) • Laws were made related closely to religion and on the Quran. (Bulliet 203) http: //en. wikiped ia. org/wiki/Islam

Continued… • The new Khurasan adopted a ceremonial and customs of the Sasanid Shahs. Continued… • The new Khurasan adopted a ceremonial and customs of the Sasanid Shahs. • As more people converted to Islam the ruling class became more and more multi-ethnic. • Many pieces of writing were transferred to Arabic such as Aristotle. (Bulliet 204) • Gradual converting to Islam speeded in the end of the ninth century. • Arabs themselves lost their strong connection to kinship and ethnic identity. (Bulliet 204) http: //en. wikiped ia. org/wiki/Islam

Political Fragmentation • The Abbasid decline came at the end of the ninth century. Political Fragmentation • The Abbasid decline came at the end of the ninth century. • No government could govern such a vast region. • News could take weeks to reach other cities. (http: //www. wsu. edu: 8080/~dee/ISLAM/A BASSID. HTM) • Military responses came slowly and could take months. (Bulliet 204) • Muslims were the majority in the Abbasid. (Bulliet 205) http: //en. wikiped ia. org/wiki/Islam

Continued… • Their were revolts on Muslims, but gave way to expansion of territory Continued… • Their were revolts on Muslims, but gave way to expansion of territory and formation of principalities. (Bulliet 205) • New states created in the Abbasid Caliphates increased the local prosperity. (http: //www. princeton. edu/~batke/itl/denise/abbasids. ht m) • The caliphs bought mamluks or Turkish slaves to serve in the military. • This also increased from cultural diversity in the Islamic world. (http: //www. wsu. edu: 8080/~dee/ISLAM/ABASSID. H TM) • Then later the Mamluks created Samarra. (Bulliet 205) http: //en. wikiped ia. org/wiki/Islam

Continued… • In 945 the Abbasid Caliphates fell under the control to the province Continued… • In 945 the Abbasid Caliphates fell under the control to the province of Daylam. • The Shiites later conquered Iraq and Iran, and controlled Baghdad. (Bulliet 205) • The Abbasid remained there but were controlled by the Daylam. (http: //www. wsu. edu: 8080/~dee/ISLAM/ABASSID. HTM) • Many new Iranian families such as the Samanids became independent. (Bulliet 206) • The fall of the Abbasid Caliphates lead to a new phase of Islamic culture. . (http: //www. wsu. edu: 8080/~dee/ISLAM/ABASSID. HTM) http: //en. wikiped ia. org/wiki/Islam

Assault from Within and Without • In 1030’s the Turkish mamluks became know as Assault from Within and Without • In 1030’s the Turkish mamluks became know as ferocious and warrior like because they lead to the fall of the Abbasid. (Bulliet 207) • The Seljuk family established a new political power based on nomadic power. • The Seljuks were easier on the Abbasid and slowly attacked the Byzantine power. (http: //www. allaboutturkey. com/selcuk. htm) • But the Turkish new cities became more pastoral. • The Turkish empire slowly fell due to poor economic misfortunes and political fragmentation. (Bulliet 208) http: //www. stop-obama. org/wpcontent/uploads/0 -islam-symbol. jpg

Continued … • The Seljuk empire came into internal conflicts when the first crusaders Continued … • The Seljuk empire came into internal conflicts when the first crusaders armies of Christians reached the Holy Land. • The Muslims finally unified under Nur al-Din to take back control of Jerusalem. • To increase military power Turkish imported slaves from non- Muslim countries trained them and converted them to Muslims. (Bulliet 208) • The Mongol attack on Baghdad shocked the Islamic world. (http: //www. allaboutturkey. com/selcuk. htm) • The Mongols left little affect on the Islamic world besides the fact destroying cities and killing hundreds of people because they ended up converting to Islam. (Bulliet 209)

Law and Dogma • Sharia is Islamic law and is the foundation of Islamic Law and Dogma • Sharia is Islamic law and is the foundation of Islamic society. • Some of the laws for Islamic society came from the Quran itself. (Bulliet 208) • Islam slowly developed laws to govern society and religious life. • Hadith are the deeds or way of life of Prophet Muhammad. • Many hadith were religious matters but some related to society. • The Sharia was to be followed by all Muslim rulers and enforce them. (Bulliet 209) http: //en. wikipedia. org/wi ki/File: Opened_Qur%27 an. jpg

Converts And Cities • Conversion to Islam was more to the beauty of the Converts And Cities • Conversion to Islam was more to the beauty of the religion and less to escape taxes. (Bulliet 209) • To become Muslim all someone had to do was recite a Shahada. • Many new converts had to teach themselves by living around and imitating other Muslims. • In other empires many people who wanted to convert to Islam faced discrimination and stayed their religion. • Migrating to Islamic republics saved people from discrimination and gave them economic opportunities. (Bulliet 210) http: //en. wikipedia. org /wiki/File: Opened_Qur %27 an. jpg

Continued… • Arab military settlements in some cities advanced and became important Muslim centers Continued… • Arab military settlements in some cities advanced and became important Muslim centers such as Kufa in Iraq. • Many cities flourished under Muslim control from Bagdad to Mosul, in population and economically. • Conversion related migration increased Muslim city population. • Mosques served as religious center and educational centers. • Islam colored all the aspects of urban social life, from con man to singers. (Bulliet 210) • http: //en. wikipedia. org /wiki/File: Opened_Qur %27 an. jpg

Continued… • Having no religious authority gave people and society flexibility and accommodations. • Continued… • Having no religious authority gave people and society flexibility and accommodations. • The urban growth affected the country side by expanding the consumer market. • Some products of the area were citrus, fruit, rice, and sugar cane. • Muslim doctors and astronomers developed theories that were far ahead of the Europeans. • Ibn al-Haytham developed theory that the light travels from an object to an eye and that the Milky Way lies far beyond earth. (Bulliet 210) http: //en. wikipedia. org /wiki/File: Opened_Qur %27 an. jpg

Islam, Woman, and Slaves • Woman seldom traveled. • Woman studied to be literate Islam, Woman, and Slaves • Woman seldom traveled. • Woman studied to be literate but did not come in contact with unrelated men. • Only slave woman could be performers and dancers in front of men. • Islamic law granted greater statues than did Christians and Jewish law. • Woman could call for divorce, inherit land money, and testify in court. (Bulliet 210) http: //en. wikipedia. org /wiki/File: Opened_Qur %27 an. jpg

Continued… • Woman were appraised in society and protected. • Most men feared woman’s Continued… • Woman were appraised in society and protected. • Most men feared woman’s sexual infidelity and interfering politics, which wasn’t showed in that time literature or stories. • Seclusion for woman became common in Muslim society. • Islam allows slavery but prohibited enslaving people. • Many slaves did convert to Islam and were mostly freed by their owners. (Bulliet 211) http: //en. wikipedia. org /wiki/File: Opened_Qur %27 an. jpg

The Recreation of Islam • Early Islam was centered around caliphates and the unity The Recreation of Islam • Early Islam was centered around caliphates and the unity of the umma. (Bulliet 211) • There was no set Islamic way to converting that so many ways arose. (Bulliet 214) • Madrasa’s are schools that helped teach people about the religion and spread the religion. (Bulliet 114) • Iranians contributed to the creation of a new group of Muslims called Sufi. • Sufi were slowly weekend and faded away in society. • Mecca was the most important center in Islam for education and the annual pilgrimage of Hajj. (Bulliet 115) http: //en. wikipedia. org /wiki/File: Opened_Qur %27 an. jpg

Quiz What is the main similarities between Sunni and Shiites? a. They are both Quiz What is the main similarities between Sunni and Shiites? a. They are both considered part of Islam. b. Both believe in one God and the prophecy of Muhammad. c. Both believe in God. d. Both believe in the prophecy of Muhammad. e. Both are still fighting for Islamic rights Who built the Kaaba? And where? a. Muhammad, New York b. Ibrahim, Medinah c. Ibrahim, Mecca d. Abu al-Talib e. Jesus, Mecca What did merchants also learn from trading with other cultures? a. Merchants traded and learned ideas, technology and culture. b. They only traded ideas and products. c. Learned more about other religions such as Christianity. d. Learned about science and advanced technology. e. Merchants traveled to only Muslim countries and just shared there stories on traveling.

Bibliography 1. Books: -Bulliet, Richard W. , Pamela Kyle Crossley, Daniel R. Headrick, Steven Bibliography 1. Books: -Bulliet, Richard W. , Pamela Kyle Crossley, Daniel R. Headrick, Steven W. Hirsch, Lyman L. Johnson, and David Northrup. Earth and It's People Advanced Placement Version Third Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin College Division, 2004. - D. , Ph. A Course on Islamic Shari'ah. New York: Foundation for Islamic Knowledge, 1999. Print. - Khan, Saniyashnia. Tell Me About The Prophet Muhammad. New Delhi: Goodword Books, 2000. Print. 2. Websites: - "Abbasids. " Princeton University - Welcome. Web. 21 Oct. 2009. . - "The Abassid Dynasty. " Washington State University - Pullman, Washington. Web. 21 Oct. 2009. . - "Civil War and the Umayyad Dynasty. " Washington State University - Pullman, Washington. Web. 21 Oct. 2009. . - "The Seljuk Turks -. " All About Turkey. Web. 21 Oct. 2009. .

Bibliography • Pictures: - Bibliography • Pictures: -"File: Opened Qur'an. jpg -. " Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 21 Oct. 2009. . - "Islam -. " Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 21 Oct. 2009. .