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The Rise of a Mass Democracy 1824 -1840 PAGEANT CHAPTER 13
President James Monroe
The United States – 1789 -90
The United States – 1800
The United States – 1800 -1803
The United States – 1822 -1824
The United States – 1789 -90
1 a. Transition Under John Quincy Adams 1820 s, the United States in the “Era of Good Feeling”, but not all is tranquil Slavery is becoming an issue – Missouri Compromise U. S. political landscape is changing dramatically and quickly 1 a) 1824: By 1824, political parties were no longer seen as suspicious but were now readily accepted. 1840: By 1840, the political scene was energetic; 25% of eligible voters were voting in 1824 but by 1840, 78% were voting.
1 b. Transition Under John Quincy Adams After two terms, Monroe retires… The Election of 1824 Known as the “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824 John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts Henry Clay of Kentucky Andrew Jackson of Tennessee Neither could get a majority in the Electoral College so the House of Representatives had to choose Andrew Jackson accused Henry Clay of corruption because Clay gave his support to Adams in return for a job That’s politics! Adams becomes the 6 th president but has trouble leading an increasingly sectional country…
Henry Clay – Senator from Kentucky
Andrew Jackson Senator from Tennessee
President John Quincy Adams
2. The Ascendency of Andrew Jackson The Election of 1828 J. Q. Adams vs. Andrew Jackson gained popularity by campaigning as someone who would fight for the “common man”; a rough frontiersman Jackson was against the wealthy elite, though he himself was a rich planter Jackson used campaign buttons, and smeared his opponent with verbal attacks – this will change politics forever “Old Hickory” Jackson defeats Adams; how was he a different president from his predecessors? 1) He was born in the Carolinas and moved west to Tennessee; he was the first president from the West 2) He was the first president to mingle the common men with notable political aristocrats
2 b. The Ascendency of Andrew Jackson made no bones about enjoying the benefits of winning the presidency He was well-known for hiring his friends and putting them in high ranking federal jobs, even if they were corrupt and incompetent – THE SPOILS SYSTEM Jackson’s Justification – He believed that democracy was not about the educated and upper class, but about allowing everyone a turn at steering the country.
3 a. Tariffs and Nullification Under Jackson’s presidency, sectionalism intensifies when the Tariff of 1828 is passed The Tariff of Abominations – as it was called by the southern states We remember what tariffs are right? Tariffs raise the prices of cheaper foreign goods so people will buy the same goods domestically therefore helping the U. S. economy. Because the southern states do not have as much manufacturing as the north, tariffs tended to hurt them. 1) They could sell their cotton and make profits, but had to buy manufactured goods from the North which was marked by the tariffs – it hurt their economy… 2) Politically, the South was upset because they felt the Tariff of 1828 was a prime example of the federal government trampling states’ rights.
3 a. Tariffs and Nullification Enter John C. Calhoun Vice-President of Andrew Jackson; ardent supporter of slavery and a champion of states’ rights ideology He presents the Nullification Doctrine in the South Carolina Exposition The essence of the Exposition: It denounced the Tariff of 1828 as unconstitutional, and in the spirit of the KY and VA Resolutions, proposed the states should outright nullify, or throw out, the tariff. 3 c. When another tariff was proposed in 1832, South Carolina was ready to SECEDE over this issue, in other words, they were going to withdraw as a part of the United States. Jackson, in defense of the Union, threatened military force Enter again Henry Clay, who is able to calm the southern leaders down Unfortunately, this conflict will continue to flare up and lead us into the Civil War in 1860.
Vice–President John C. Calhoun
4. “Trail of Tears” The “Five Civilized Tribes” (Native American) of the Southeast United States were forcibly removed Seminoles, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Cherokee Oklahoma Territory This took place during the 1830 s It is infamously known as the “Trail of Tears” Enacted by President Jackson So much for Jacksonians being for individual liberties… It turned out to be one of the U. S. ’s most infamous and inhumane acts towards the Native peoples.
5. a. , b. The Bank War In short, Jackson hated the B. U. S. He didn’t trust the rich and the wealthy It was under the leadership of Nicolas Biddle Two functions: 1) It was the principle deposit location for all of Washington, D. C. ’s money 2) It controlled a great deal of the nation’s gold and silver Why Jackson disliked it: 1) He felt it had too much power. 2) It was more about profit and not about serving the people.
5. c. The Bank War Jackson vetoed the bank in 1832 He also won re-election against Henry Clay that same year He then killed the B. U. S. by using his executive power to divert its funds to other banks. The Bank expired in 1836 Pros and Cons of Jackson’s presidency 1) Pros – Jackson opened up gov’t participation to lower classes 2) Cons – Jackson never made efforts to promote social equality for minorities
6. Whigs and Van Buren New party is on the scene The Anti-Jacksonian “Whig” Party shows up 1) More prosperous classes 2) An active Federal government By this time, the Democratic party, the other party favors: 1) The “little guy” 2) A small federal government Jackson’s traditions continued under his protégé, Martin Van Buren Unfortunately, Van Buren’s only term as president was marred by the financial panic of 1837
7. Texas began as a northern province of Mexico whose government encouraged American colonization led by Stephen Austin in the 1820 s Under the leadership of Sam Houston, Texas declared independence in 1836 Texas’ independence was secured after the defeat of Mexican General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Texas would apply for U. S. statehood in 1837
8. Harrison and Popular Politics William Henry Harrison was elected in 1840 He only served a month before he died in office after becoming ill His presidency resembled a change in politics though: 1) The two party system was in full swing now 2) Politicians were now campaigning and tailoring their policies to the masses, not the wealthy