The Proper Location and Construction of a Residential

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The Proper Location and Construction of a Residential Water Well The Proper Location and Construction of a Residential Water Well

Private Water Supply A Pennsylvania Perspective Mr. Brian Oram, PG Professional Geologist, PASEO, Licensed Private Water Supply A Pennsylvania Perspective Mr. Brian Oram, PG Professional Geologist, PASEO, Licensed Well Driller Lab Director, Center for Environmental Quality Wilkes University Geo. Environmental Sciences and Engineering Department Wilkes Barre, PA 18766 http: //www. water-research. net New Website !

Center for Environmental Quality Non-profit/ equal opportunity employer, is operated and managed, within the Center for Environmental Quality Non-profit/ equal opportunity employer, is operated and managed, within the Geo. Environmental Sciences and Environmental Engineering Department at Wilkes University Outreach Programs n Environmental and Professional Education and Training n Applied Research n Community and Business Outreach Programs Website: http: //www. water-research. net

State and Federal Regulation n Currently No Federal Or Pennsylvania State Regulations Related to State and Federal Regulation n Currently No Federal Or Pennsylvania State Regulations Related to Private Water Well Construction. n Pennsylvania has over 1 million households on Private Wells. Pennsylvania one of 4 states that has no private water well construction standards, via regulation. u PA does not really have a comprehensive certification program for drilling contractors and operators. u

State Regulations (Existing/ Proposed) Pennsylvania Has Drillers Licensing Program http: //www. dcnr. state. pa. State Regulations (Existing/ Proposed) Pennsylvania Has Drillers Licensing Program http: //www. dcnr. state. pa. us/topogeo/groundwater/act 610. htm Act 537: Chapter 73: Minimum Isolation Distance On-lot Septic System and Components and Private Well House Bill 1591 Proposed Legislation: Private Well Construction Regulations http: //www. legis. state. pa. us/WU 01/LI/BI/BT/2001/0/HB 1591 P 2920. HTM

Local Agency The Pennsylvania State Association of Township Supervisors Surveyed second class townships across Local Agency The Pennsylvania State Association of Township Supervisors Surveyed second class townships across the state regarding water well ordinances and water well related problems. Of the 1, 457 township across the state: n n n 601 townships responded to the survey 39 of 601 townships maintain water well construction ordinances 21 townships were considering and ordinance

Private Water Sources Wells Private Water Sources Wells

An Ungrouted Residential Well A Properly Grouted Well An Ungrouted Residential Well A Properly Grouted Well

Bedrock Fractures and Fractured Zones Higher Yielding Well Fractured Zone Bedrock Fractures and Fractured Zones Higher Yielding Well Fractured Zone

Well Isolation Distances MONTGOMERY COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENT INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY WELL CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS (partial Well Isolation Distances MONTGOMERY COUNTY HEALTH DEPARTMENT INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY WELL CONSTRUCTION SPECIFICATIONS (partial listing) Delineated wetlands or floodplains (25 feet) Surface waters (25 feet) Storm water Systems (25 feet) Spray Irrigation/ Septage Disposal (100 feet) Farm silos / manure storage (200 feet) Septic Systems (100 feet) Septic Tanks/Holding Tanks (50 feet) Chemical Storage/Preparation Area (300 feet) More Information at http: //www. h 2 otest. com/regs/pa/montgomery/

Too Close to the Road Potential Problems 1) Damaged Casing 2) Chemical Spills 3) Too Close to the Road Potential Problems 1) Damaged Casing 2) Chemical Spills 3) Road Salting Agents 4) Chemical Sprays 5) Vandalism

Well Cap Not Secure Well Cap Not Secure

Well Construction Options for Private Wells Standard Well Cap Allow entry for insects, small Well Construction Options for Private Wells Standard Well Cap Allow entry for insects, small animals Sanitary Well Cap Sealed to prevent contamination

Why Care About Well Construction ? n Poor construction can affect drinking water quality Why Care About Well Construction ? n Poor construction can affect drinking water quality n Poor construction can contribute, promote, and facilitate pollution and contamination of the groundwater aquifer n Proper construction can prolong the life and yield of the well

A Properly Constructed (Sanitary) Residential Water Well Has: n casing that extends at least A Properly Constructed (Sanitary) Residential Water Well Has: n casing that extends at least 15 feet into firm bedrock or 40 feet below ground, whichever is greater n casing of adequate wall thickness (meet PADEP Requirements Community Water Supplies) n a drive shoe on the bottom of the casing

Well Construction Open Hole Bedrock Well Well Construction Open Hole Bedrock Well

Standard Well Cap “The Unsanitary Well Cap” n n n Insects, Larvae and Nests Standard Well Cap “The Unsanitary Well Cap” n n n Insects, Larvae and Nests / Egg Masses Mouse Colonies Snakes Beehives Mud - when casing to close to ground Types of Contamination - Bacteria, Subject to Vandalism, Salts

Air Hammer and Drill Bit Air Hammer and Drill Bit

Drilling to Set Casing Drilling to Set Casing

Welding the Steel Casing Welding the Steel Casing

Casing With Drive Shoe Casing With Drive Shoe

Mixing EZ-Seal Bentonite Grout Mixing EZ-Seal Bentonite Grout

A Properly Grouted Well Tremie Pipe A Properly Grouted Well Tremie Pipe

Installing the Tremie Pipe Installing the Tremie Pipe

Pumping in the Bentonite Grout Pumping in the Bentonite Grout

A Properly Constructed (Sanitary) Residential Water Well Has: casing that extends at least 15 A Properly Constructed (Sanitary) Residential Water Well Has: casing that extends at least 15 feet into firm bedrock or 40 feet below grade n casing of adequate wall thickness n a driveshoe on the bottom of the casing n grout sealing the casing up to the surface n a sealed well cap with a screened vent n a pitless adapter where the water line passes through the casing n

Protect Your Water Source Things You or Your Community Can Do n n n Protect Your Water Source Things You or Your Community Can Do n n n n Periodically Inspect Drain Surface Water Away Install Sanitary Seal Annual Testing Maintain Records Start a Community Based Groundwater Education Program Carbon County Groundwater Guardians n n n http: //www. webdesignpros. net/groundwater n Proper Abandonment Chemical Storage, Disposal and Use Keep Wellhead Above Grade Proper Well Location Septic System Maintenance Recycle used Oil and Participate in Hazardous Chemical Disposal Programs Well Ordinance

Why an Ordinance? Primary reasons for the ordinances included: n. Improper Well Construction n. Why an Ordinance? Primary reasons for the ordinances included: n. Improper Well Construction n. Incidents of Well Contamination Improper Siting u. Interconnection with Contaminated Site u. Induce Contamination – Lack of Grouting u. No Testing Requirements to ensure potability n. Overuse of the Groundwater Aquifer. Online Directory of State Water Well Ordinances http: //www. epa. gov/R 5 water/ordcom/ u

Before You Drill Get a Well Construction Contract n n n Written contract with Before You Drill Get a Well Construction Contract n n n Written contract with well driller prior to construction Assurance of compliance with regulations Liability insurance information for driller Casing specifications (6" minimum to bedrock) Sanitary cap, grout seal? Well development to maximize yield Disinfection after drilling and pump installation Timeline for completion Guarantee on materials and workmanship Itemized estimate - check before exceeding costs 8 -12 hour pump test (sustained yield) and basic water test Delivery of well log and pump test results to owner

Private Water Supply A Pennsylvania Perspective Mr. Brian Oram, PG Professional Geologist, PASEO, Licensed Private Water Supply A Pennsylvania Perspective Mr. Brian Oram, PG Professional Geologist, PASEO, Licensed Well Driller Lab Director, Center for Environmental Quality Wilkes University Geo. Environmental Sciences and Engineering Department Wilkes Barre, PA 18766 http: //www. water-research. net New Website !

Pulling the Casing Pulling the Casing

Decommissioning the Well Decommissioning the Well

A Properly Decommissioned Well A Properly Decommissioned Well




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