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The Presidents of the United States of America: Van Buren. Mc. Kinley By Riley The Presidents of the United States of America: Van Buren. Mc. Kinley By Riley Mc. Callus

Martin Van Buren • • 8 th President of the United States “The Red Martin Van Buren • • 8 th President of the United States “The Red Fox of Kinderhook” March 4, 1837 -March 3, 1841 Graduated from Kinderhook Academy (1796) • Occupation: lawyer Source: http: //www. potus. com/mvanburen. html

1837 This cartoon illustrates Van Buren’s opposing factions within the Democratic party. On the 1837 This cartoon illustrates Van Buren’s opposing factions within the Democratic party. On the left, he is pulled by former President Andrew Jackson and other representatives of the hard money faction. The opposite side is conservative Democrats, one of which is holding a copy of “Madisonian, ” a conservative Democratic newspaper published in 1837. In all the commotion, Van Buren’s hat, which has a crown embellished on it, falls off. I think this cartoon shows how divided the Democratic party was, and how both sides were desperately trying to win over the President, so that their faction would have the greater influence in the government. It also symbolizes the barbaric nature of politicians, depicting them as frantic lunatics trying to heave the President off the fence. Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 6: . /temp/~pp_d. Clf: :

1838 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 19: . /temp/~pp_Z 067: : In this 1838 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 19: . /temp/~pp_Z 067: : In this cartoon, the prominent political figures of 1838 are satirized, each depicted riding a certain issue, represented by a horse. At the front is Van Buren, riding a “sub-treasury” horse. Another horse, the United States Bank horse, is shared by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, who opposed Jackson and Van Buren’s respective fiscal agendas, and didn’t support the idea of national banks being administered by “sub-treasuries. ” John C. Calhoun is riding a horse representing states’ rights and nullification. William Henry Harrison is riding an “anti-masonic” horse and John Q. Adams is on his “abolition” horse. I believe this cartoon is gently satirizing each political figure and their respective ideas. It is not necessarily taking sides, but merely representing how politicians are trying to race to the front to have their issues deemed the most important. It also shows the attitudes of the politicians, whether they are enthusiastic or sulking in the corner (i. e. J. Q. Adams).

1839 Source: http: //www. natlib. govt. nz/images/collectionexhibitions-marriage-a-lanz/Gallantry_a. jpg/image_preview This cartoon is depicting the treatment 1839 Source: http: //www. natlib. govt. nz/images/collectionexhibitions-marriage-a-lanz/Gallantry_a. jpg/image_preview This cartoon is depicting the treatment of women in 1839. The men are discussing having a drink, when one comments on what to do about the other’s wife, when the husband responds, “Oh, it’s only my wife! Come Along. ” This cartoon accurately shows the subordination of women during this time period. The women is turned away with her head towards the ground, showing that it wasn’t suitable for women to include themselves in their husbands’ conversations. They were expected to simply obey their husbands and be seen, not heard. I think this cartoon does a perfect job of illustrating the men’s pompous attitudes towards women as well as women’s response to these attitudes. It was this type of treatment that prompted women to later stand up for their rights.

1840 This cartoon satirizes Congress for failing to pass a bankruptcy act before it 1840 This cartoon satirizes Congress for failing to pass a bankruptcy act before it adjourned in July 1840. The well dressed man, appearing to be Jewish, grips another by his throat, and from one side of his mouth is demanding his payment for whatever the other owes, and from the other side of his mouth is reciting “Forgive us our debts as we forgive our debtors, ” taken from the parable of Matt 18: 25 -35. The man being clutched by the throat asks the other to have patience. I think this cartoon shows the hypocrisy of many Americans, and how quick humans in general are to treat others horribly but demand to be treated with kindness. It also illustrates how money can corrupt even the holiest of people, leaving debtors at their mercy. Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgi-bin/query/D? app: 4: . /temp/~pp_Yjud: :

William Henry Harrison • • 9 th President of the United States “Old Tippecanoe” William Henry Harrison • • 9 th President of the United States “Old Tippecanoe” March 4, 1841 -April 4, 1841 Attended Hampton-Sydney College • Occupation: soldier • Only stayed in office for one month due to a lengthy speech that landed him with pneumonia, thereafter killing him Source: http: //www. potus. com/whharrison. html

1841 This woodcut is an illustration of Harrison and Tyler’s campaign for the White 1841 This woodcut is an illustration of Harrison and Tyler’s campaign for the White House. They invite a soldier to have a glass of “hard cider, ” while another soldier is already seated with a glass. The flag depicts the words “Harrison and Tyler, ” which suggests it is a campaign ad. I think this cartoon shows Harrison and Tyler’s strong influence over the people, illustrating how the two candidates are clutching the man, almost forcing him to the cider. Hard cider is in fact a form of liquor, which suggests that they were willing to bribe the man to earn his vote. Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/I? app: 2: . /temp/~pp_Ym. R 8: : display. Type=1: m 856 sd=cph: m 856 sf=3 a 32036: @@@

John Tyler • 10 th President of the United States • April 6, 1841 John Tyler • 10 th President of the United States • April 6, 1841 -March 3, 1845 • William and Mary College graduate (1807) • Occupation: lawyer Source: http: //www. potus. com/jtyler. html

1841 Source: ttp: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id /11920 This political cartoon depicts Martin Van Buren 1841 Source: ttp: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id /11920 This political cartoon depicts Martin Van Buren being escorted out of the White House on the day of William Henry Harrison’s inauguration day. From the window, Harrison tells Major Downing to offer Van Buren a glass of hard cider, a trademark of Harrison’s 1840 campaign. This symbol was also a major source of his appeal to the public. This cartoon seems to be giving Van Buren the boot, so to speak. The artist clearly wants to make it shown that the nation is having a fresh start with Harrison. Because much of the nation disliked Van Buren and most of his policies, this cartoon likely illustrates the general feelings of the majority of Americans at the time of its illustration.

1842 Source: http: //images. google. com/i mgres? imgurl=http: //www. aitup. org. za/USincometax. gif&imgrefurl=http: //www. 1842 Source: http: //images. google. com/i mgres? imgurl=http: //www. aitup. org. za/USincometax. gif&imgrefurl=http: //www. aitup. org. za/&usg=__t 0 qt. Qy w 5 X 4 XZL-iia. Ra. T 5 w 0 hg 8=&h=728&w=904&sz=54&hl=e n&start=1&um=1&tbnid=a. D 8 U 656 D _a 8 e: &tbnh=118&tbnw=147&prev=/imag es%3 Fq%3 Dincome%2 Btax%2 Bof %2 B 1842%2 Bcartoon%26 um%3 D 1 %26 hl%3 Den%26 safe%3 Dactive This cartoon is satirizing the Income Tax of 1842, which imposed more taxes on higher earning taxpayers. This problem is still an issue present in politics today, and is a major issue at that, which makes this cartoon particularly interesting despite its date. Uncle Sam is shown in the middle, and the two extremes of workers are on either side of him, the hardworking taxpayer on the left and the lazy and selfish taxpayer on his right. The man on the left appears worn and tired, and is being held by a chain, while the man on the right is well dressed despite his apparent laziness, and is celebrating because he isn’t paying as much. The caption states the people’s discontent with the act, and this very saying is ever-present in the nation today.

1843 This cartoon illustrates the Irish opposition to slavery. It depicts O’Connell’s opposition to 1843 This cartoon illustrates the Irish opposition to slavery. It depicts O’Connell’s opposition to American slavery as an affront to the American friends of repeal. President Tyler offers to work with O’Connell but O’Connell responds rudely, promptly being reassured by an abolitionist strongly resembling William Lloyd Garrison, who reminds O’Connell that they don’t want to lose their English friends. “Garrison” has a scroll under his arm marked “Petition to Tyler to emancipate his slaves, ” which suggests that he is essentially backing the Irishman. This cartoon depicts the abolitionist as somewhat of a nuisance, which suggests that it may have been written by someone who was not necessarily an avid abolitionist but not necessarily a slave holder. The artist probably views the abolitionists as very radical and quick to assume, as he shows them with clubs in their hands and petitions under their arms. The slave on the left remarks that Henry Clay would never let a “low Irishman talk to him dat way!” This suggests that Henry Clay did not tolerate abolitionists Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgi-bin/query/D? app: 16: . /temp/~pp_Xs. IO: : whatsoever.

1844 This cartoon is pointing out several controversial topics that were being discussed at 1844 This cartoon is pointing out several controversial topics that were being discussed at the time of annexation, such as anti-annexation towards Texas, who are led by Henry Clay and the “Hartford Blue Lights. ” Also pictured are Theodore Frelinghuysen and his followers who are petitioning mail delivery on Sundays, which was viewed as a threat to the separation of Church and State. And to the left are William Lloyd Garrison and abolition advocates protesting slavery. I think this cartoon shows how many separate issues contributed to the controversy over admitting Texas as a state. It was not only a question of the threat of war with Mexico, but many domestic issues were at play as well, such as the interruption of balance between free and slave states. Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/I? app: 19: . /temp/~pp_Xs. IO: : display. Type=1: m 856 sd=cph: m 856 sf= 3 a 49699: @@@

James K. Polk • 11 th President of the United States • “Young Hickory James K. Polk • 11 th President of the United States • “Young Hickory • March 4, 1845 -March 3, 1849 • University of North Carolina graduate (1818) • Occupation: lawyer Source: http: //www. potus. com/jkpolk. html Source:

1845 This cartoon is not satirizing, but rather celebrating, Frederick Douglass’ escape from slavery 1845 This cartoon is not satirizing, but rather celebrating, Frederick Douglass’ escape from slavery and his leadership to his fellow men in bondage. The slaveholders shown behind him chase after the barefoot Douglass with a pack of dogs, illustrating the brutal and barbaric nature of the slaveholders, and the terrible conditions under which runaways had to cope. Douglass became a symbol of hope to many slaves, representing a possible life of freedom and liberty. I think this cartoon is more of an ode to Douglass that a satire of any political issue. It glorifies Douglass and portrays him as a brave hero. Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 1: . /temp/~pp_k 23 n: :

1846 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 3: . /temp/~p p_p. P 4 n: 1846 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 3: . /temp/~p p_p. P 4 n: : This cartoon is satirizing the dispute between the United States and Great Britain over the Oregon-Canada boundary. One man suggests just settling for the 49 th parallel to avoid war, while the other exclaims “No sir! I say all of Oregon or none. ” This cartoon is drawn outside the Bowery Theater, an area of New York known for its Irish immigrant concentration. The two men are in fact Irish immigrants, dressed in plain overalls and top hats. I think this cartoon accurately illustrates the sharp divide between many Americans between those who wanted to avoid war and those who were eager to fight for more land.

1847 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 6: . /temp/~pp_ WCxg: : This cartoon 1847 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 6: . /temp/~pp_ WCxg: : This cartoon illustrates Winfield Scott’s victory at Cerro Gordo. It shows the American soldiers admiring the lavish treasure they have won from the Mexicans, and shows Santa Anna riding off to the left, declining Scott’s offer for “a hasty bowl of soup. ” Santa Anna’s army is shown in the distance being plundered by American troops. I think this cartoon represents Winfield Scott’s overwhelming victory, and shows his well-known knack for quick and powerful victories. Scott’s remark about the soup being Santa Anna’s own cooking and being very tasty is a mockery of how dominant Scott’s troops were at this battle, as it was the second major victory of the Spanish-American War.

1848 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/I? app: 3: . /temp/~pp_WSBG: : display. Type=1: m 1848 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/I? app: 3: . /temp/~pp_WSBG: : display. Type=1: m 856 sd=cph: m 856 sf=3 a 0 5724: @@@ This cartoon is a wide satire of all the presidential candidates of the election of 1848. Martin Van Buren is the fox in the water pulling the boat, while Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Henry Clay, William O. Butler, and Lewis Cass ride in the boat. While Taylor is telling Fillmore he can’t see the White House, Cass says that the barge carries “Cesar and his fortunes. ” I believe this cartoon is satirizing how highly candidates value themselves. Van Buren swimming up “Salt River” symbolizes how he continues to influence the candidates to some degree.

Zachary Taylor • 12 th President of the United States • “Old Rough and Zachary Taylor • 12 th President of the United States • “Old Rough and Ready” • March 5, 1849 -July 9, 1950 • No formal education • Occupation: soldier • Believed to have died from gastroenteritis, but there are suspicions of poisoning by way of arsenic. Source: http: //www. potus. com/ztaylor. html

1849 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/I? app: 1: . /temp/~p p_Plpw: : display. Type=1: 1849 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/I? app: 1: . /temp/~p p_Plpw: : display. Type=1: m 8 56 sd=cph: m 856 sf=3 b 3609 4: @@@ This cartoon illustrates life in the California gold mines, particularly during the Gold Rush of 1849. The “forty-niners” as they were called harsh and brutal lives. The cartoon shows people fighting with knives, pistols, and stealing from one another. This lifestyle was also a bargain, leaving some without food or drink, also shown in the cartoon. The artist clearly wanted to depict the reality of the glamorized gold mining life, showing people what the forty-niners’ lives were truly like. I think this cartoon is harsh but true, and it obviously shows the brutal realities of a gold miner’s life.

1850 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 5: . /temp/~pp_v SGO: : This cartoon 1850 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 5: . /temp/~pp_v SGO: : This cartoon is showing the effects of the Fugitive Slave Law, which allowed slaveholders to repossess their slaves if they escaped, even if they escaped to free states. The drawing shows four slaves being ambushed by white men and attacked, forcing them back to the plantations from which they escaped. I think this cartoon was an appeal to the emotions of white Americans, rallying support for abolition. The artist clearly intends to show the viewer the barbaric treatment of slaves, even those who have escaped to freedom.

Millard Fillmore • 13 th President of the United States • “The American Louis Millard Fillmore • 13 th President of the United States • “The American Louis Philippe” • July 9, 1850 -March 3, 1853 • No formal education • Occupation: lawyer Source: http: //www. potus. com/mfillmore. html

1850 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 13: . /temp/~pp_s. X 5 T: : 1850 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 13: . /temp/~pp_s. X 5 T: : This cartoon is rather interesting, as it is comparing slavery in America to slavery in England. In the top half of the cartoon, English slaves are shown. They appear to be happy and free to live as they please within their confinements, and the cartoon shows them performing what appear to be dances and some sort of casual celebration. The bottom half, however, depicts Americans and their slaves. The white men are shown casually conversing in wellmade suits and shoes, while their barefoot slaves are shown in raggedy clothing and appear to be underfed and miserable. They cower in the background, obviously fearful of their master. I think this cartoon is very interesting and makes the viewer realize that even compared to other forms of slavery, American slavery was among the worst in the world. Not only were the slaves in bondage and considered property, but they constantly lived in pain, hunger, and fear.

1851 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 2: . /temp/~pp_m 7 zj: : Yet 1851 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 2: . /temp/~pp_m 7 zj: : Yet again, this cartoon shows the consequences of the Fugitive Slave Law. William Lloyd Garrison is shown holding a slave woman in one arm and aiming a pistol at a slave catcher who is on the back of Henry Clay. The various comments show the opposition between the two groups, one of which is a black man holding a slave owner by his hair, getting ready to whip him and saying “It’s my turn now Old Slave Driver. ” I think this cartoon shows rising support for abolition, depicting the slave catchers as a band of barbarians, whose sole goal is to recapture the slaves so they may continue to mistreat them.

1852 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 1: . /temp/~pp_Gx. Bw: : This cartoon 1852 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 1: . /temp/~pp_Gx. Bw: : This cartoon shows Daniel Webster, at this time an aging Massachusetts statesman, holding the hand of Columbia, a symbolic girl with the American flag as a sash. Standing outside the Capitol building, Columbia is telling Webster that although her “Guardians at Baltimore” won’t let her have him, she is grateful for all of his services and continued allegiance to the country. I believe this cartoon is illustrating Webster’s acceptance that, though he tried repeatedly, he wasn’t going to win the Whig nomination for President. This cartoon appears to have been released in the early fall of 1852, around mid-September, and Daniel Webster in fact died on October 24, 1852, never having received the Presidential nomination.

Franklin Pierce • 14 th President of the United States • “Young Hickory of Franklin Pierce • 14 th President of the United States • “Young Hickory of the Granite Hills • March 4, 1853 -March 3, 1857 • Bowdoin College graduate (1824) • Occupation: lawyer, public official Source: http: //www. potus. com/fpierce. html

1853 Source: http: //images. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http: //lts. brandeis. edu/res earch/archivesspeccoll/events/crimeanwar/Large/Consultation. jpg&imgrefurl=http: //lts. bra 1853 Source: http: //images. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http: //lts. brandeis. edu/res earch/archivesspeccoll/events/crimeanwar/Large/Consultation. jpg&imgrefurl=http: //lts. bra ndeis. edu/research/archivesspeccoll/events/crimeanwar/Spector. html&usg=__CN 9 LSn 2 vu. AB 1 RJS 8 ub uel. Rd. ZZfw=&h=700&w=530&sz=114&hl=en&start=2&um=1&tbnid=d. YKQ HY 2 lva. PUm. M: &tbnh=140&tbnw=106&prev=/images%3 Fq%3 D 1853%2 Bcr imean%2 Bwar%2 Bcartoon%26 um%3 D 1%26 hl%3 Den%26 safe%3 Dactive This cartoon is satirizing the Crimean War, which took place in the East during the time of its publication. In the cartoon, England France sit discussing some unknown issue, ignorant of the scene behind them. In the background, the phantom of Russia looms over the sickly Sultan of Turkey, awaiting the break up of the Ottoman Empire, which Russia was eager to overtake. The artist is mocking the two nations’ ignorance and lack of aid in the situation, while poor Turkey stands no chance alone against the deathly ghost of Russia, sneaky and silent but lethal. The artist’s technique in drawing the four figures’ respective postures and dress is perfect at describing their general international stereotypes, down to the Turkish sultan’s trademark hat. I believe the cartoon is an attempt to make the need for Turkey to receive aid known, an effort by the artist to make the war a public discussion.

1854 source: http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/i d/773 This cartoon by John L. Magee is 1854 source: http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/i d/773 This cartoon by John L. Magee is a pungent accusation of the Democratic administration’s responsibility for violence and massive bloodshed in Kansas. After the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, the administration was largely blamed for failing to control and correct the issue. It depicts William L. Marcy, James Buchanan, Franklin Pierce, Lewis Cass, and Stephen Douglas harassing Liberty, the symbol of Kansas Territory. Marcy was a leader of the conservative Democrats, with pro-Southern policies similar to those of presidents Pierce and Buchanan. As the cartoon suggests, many people blamed him in particular for the bloodshed in Kansas, as he was the Secretary of State under President Pierce for the duration of the peak of the violence in Kansas.

1855 source; http: //images. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http: // www 2. hsp. org/exhibits/convention/images/main_buckh unt. jpg&imgrefurl=http: 1855 source; http: //images. google. com/imgres? imgurl=http: // www 2. hsp. org/exhibits/convention/images/main_buckh unt. jpg&imgrefurl=http: //www 2. hsp. org/exhibits/conven tion/main_buckhunt. html&usg=__y 9 b 9 Kz. M 01 l 6 TIGk. Du. Rr. TAJeox. E=&h=307&w=450&sz=38&hl=en& start=1&um=1&tbnid=67 u 4 w 15 E 3_T 0 M: &tbnh=87&tbnw=127&prev=/images%3 Fq%3 Dt he%2 Bgreat%2 Bamerican%2 Bbuck%2 Bhunt%2 Bof%2 B 1856%26 um%3 D 1%26 hl%3 Den%26 safe%3 Dactive This cartoon depicts John C. Fremont and Millard Fillmore trying unsuccessfully to stop James “Buck” Buchanan as he bounds into the White House. The gun given to Fremont by the abolitionists has backfired—in a very similar way that the abolitionists’ presence in the Republican Party is reputed to have doomed Fremont’s chances for the Presidency. In the meantime, Fillmore aimed to take one last shot at Buchanan from the Union rock with his American rifle. This cartoon is an attempt by the artist to portray the way in which the Republican’s attempt to prevent Buchanan from winning the Presidency failed, causing the very thing that they were working to prevent to happen.

1856 Source: http: //memory. loc. go v/cgibin/query/D? app: 2: . /t emp/~pp_Gtni: : This 1856 Source: http: //memory. loc. go v/cgibin/query/D? app: 2: . /t emp/~pp_Gtni: : This cartoon shows the turmoil that erupted as a result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act (“Bleeding Kansas”). Democratic incumbent Franklin Pierce is shown dressed as a pro-slavery advocate, surrounded by fellow “border ruffians. ” These men are shown scalping farmers and reeking havoc on the land the people living on the land. Pierce has secured his foot on a flag draped over Liberty who begs “O spare me gentlemen, spare me!” Pierce is equipped with several different weapons, and Lewis Cass is scoffing and sarcastically commenting that they wouldn’t “hurt her for the world…hahaha. ” I think this cartoon is portraying the true nature of the country’s most prominent politicians of this time. It displays their masochistic nature and endless craving for more land more power.

James Buchanan • 15 th President of the United States • “Old Buck” • James Buchanan • 15 th President of the United States • “Old Buck” • March 4, 1857 -March 3, 1861 • Dickinson College graduate (1809) • Occupation: lawyer Source: http: //www. potus. com/jbuchanan. html

1857 Source; http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By. Date. Cart oon. asp? Month=February&Date=20 This 1857 Source; http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By. Date. Cart oon. asp? Month=February&Date=20 This cartoon illustrates the Lawrence. Keitt fight in the House of Representatives after a late night session and following a verbal scuttle. The two professors analyze the brawl as if they are watching a boxing match. This cartoon was drawn around the time of the “Bleeding Kansas” ordeal, in which the northern and southern states were battling over whether Kansas would be admitted as a slave state or a free state. The professors’ civil manner and diplomatic speech suggest that the artist is trying to satirize this very trend of the federal government in general. While hundreds were being brutally murdered in Kansas over the issue of even more brutality, the government was sitting comfortably in Washington ruling the country. I think this artist is expressing his discontent with the government’s failure to become involved with the disputes, much less solve them.

1858 Source; http: //www. vccs. edu/vwhansd/HIS 122/Image s/Tweed%20 Cartoon. gif William Tweed was one 1858 Source; http: //www. vccs. edu/vwhansd/HIS 122/Image s/Tweed%20 Cartoon. gif William Tweed was one of the most notorious city bosses in American history. His nickname, “Boss Tweed, ” became synonymous with urban political corruption, thanks in large part to the pen of Thomas Nast. This cartoon depicts him clutching two small boys, struggling to escape while he prepares to club them. Behind Tweed is a wall labeled with rules and regulations that are all brutally unfair to the workers, and also were sometimes physically harmful to them. This cartoon was a representation of Boss Tweed’s cruel nature, helping to label him as somewhat of a dictator in his own vicinity. The artist, Thomas Nast, was particularly passionate about the cruelty of Tweed, and made a series of cartoons similar to this one that revealed his true nature and practices.

1859 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 4: . /temp/~pp_lad. Z: : This label 1859 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 4: . /temp/~pp_lad. Z: : This label appeared on cigar boxes “expressly manufactured for Georgia and Alabama, ” and was likely an appeal to Southern consumers shortly before the Civil War. It illustrates a glorified plantation life, with a well dressed black couple taking a stroll in the foreground. I think this label represents the Southerners’ neglect of the truth, and their unwillingness to see the error of their ways. Southern slave holders all wanted to just turn a blind eye to the evils of slavery, constantly accepting it as a “necessary evil, ” which led them to view the plantation lifestyle as shown. The south’s stubbornness eventually caused war to be inevitable, as the north finally demanded that slavery be abolished, hence sparking the Civil War.

1860 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 3: . /temp/~pp_ Yfm 8: : In 1860 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 3: . /temp/~pp_ Yfm 8: : In this cartoon, all four candidates of the election of 1860 are shown tearing the nation apart into sections. Lincoln and Douglas tear at the western portion of the country, Breckinridge attacks the South, and John Bell is shown on a ladder trying to repair the northeast with a jar of “Spaldings, ” a popular glue of the time period. I believe this cartoon illustrates exactly what led our country into a Civil War. This is symbolic of precisely what was going on in the nation, and a country simply cannot support itself while it is tearing itself apart.

Abraham Lincoln • 16 th President of the United States • “Honest Abe” • Abraham Lincoln • 16 th President of the United States • “Honest Abe” • March 4, 1861 -April 15, 1865 • No formal education • Occupation: lawyer Source: http: //www. potus. com/alincoln. html

1861 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 4: . /temp/~pp_xx. M 7: : This 1861 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 4: . /temp/~pp_xx. M 7: : This cartoon shows Jefferson Davis hanging from the noose of secession, over the “secession trap. ” He is saying “I do not wish to secede this way, I just want to be left alone. ” This was the south’s official reason for seceding: to be left alone. They weren’t necessarily looking for a fight or a self-inflicted death sentence, but merely to be left alone. I think that this cartoon shows that though the South claimed they weren’t picking a fight, it was kind of inevitable that a war would be the result for the simple reason that the Union wanted just that--unity. Regardless of the South’s intentions, their actions combined with the northern response led to the bloodiest war in American history.

1862 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 1: . /temp/~pp_6 t. Xo: : Attacking 1862 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 1: . /temp/~pp_6 t. Xo: : Attacking Charles Sumner, this cartoon depicts the Massachusetts senator giving a few coins to a black child on the street side, while ignoring the begging white child in front of him. I think that this cartoon is attacking Sumner’s claims that he was a humanitarian by an artist who felt as though he favored abolition so much that he had grown to dislike whites. The artist may also possibly be a white supremacist, who felt as though blacks were being treated better than whites (which is ridiculous). I think that the cartoon is rather harsh on Sumner, who in fact was simply fighting for blacks to have equal rights as whites. The white child, though the artist means for her to be pitied, is clearly dressed better and well cared for, while the black child is dressed in rags and barefoot.

1863 This cartoon depicts the northerners’ fear of French and British support for the 1863 This cartoon depicts the northerners’ fear of French and British support for the Confederacy. It shows a northern soldier wrapped in the constitution, about to be clubbed by Jefferson Davis, who is trampling an American flag. Behind him stand John Bull and Napolean III. I think this cartoon shows the northern fear that if the South received foreign support for their cause, then they would surely win. This proved not to be the case, however, as the Union prevailed despite foreign support for the Confederacy. Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/I? app: 3: . /temp/~pp_px 08: : displa y. Type=1: m 856 sd=cph: m 856 sf=3 a 42348: @@@

1864 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 7: . /temp/ ~pp_4 K 8 I: 1864 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/D? app: 7: . /temp/ ~pp_4 K 8 I: : This cartoon shows the forceful efforts by northern peace democrats to reconcile with the South. General Robert E. Lee and Confederate President Jefferson Davis are in the center, warding off attacks by surrounding northern peace officials, trying to make amends and restore the Union. The northerners tell the southern officials that they “don’t want their negroes or anything they have, ” they merely want them to surrender. I think this cartoon accurately illustrates what the South eventually agreed to: to lay down arms and simply go home.

Andrew Johnson • 17 th President of the United States • April 15, 1865 Andrew Johnson • 17 th President of the United States • April 15, 1865 -March 3, 1869 • No formal education • Occupation: tailor, public official Source: http: //www. potus. com/ajohnson. html

1865 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/I? app: 4: . /temp/~pp_Pr 2 H: : display. 1865 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/I? app: 4: . /temp/~pp_Pr 2 H: : display. Type=1: m 856 sd=cph: m This bold cartoon depicts Jefferson Davis being in line with both the devil and Benedict Arnold. The devil is saying how proud he is of his American sons, and Davis proclaims, “the C. S. A. are done gone so I’ve come home. ” The devil drops miniature black slaves into a pot of “treason toddy. ” I think this cartoon is obviously showing Jefferson Davis to be evil, and was drawn in light of the South’s surrender. It shows two skulls at the base of the cauldron as well, marked “Andersonville” and “Libby, ” representing Union victims at those two Confederate prison camps.

1866 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/I? app: 3: . /temp/~pp_wd 8 M: : display. 1866 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/I? app: 3: . /temp/~pp_wd 8 M: : display. Type=1: m 85 6 sd=cph: m 856 sf=3 g 05342: @@@ This cartoon shows the two platforms for the candidates for Senate. Every radical in the Pennsylvania Senate voted for Negro suffrage, and the Congress proclaimed that “the Negro must be allowed to vote, or the states be punished. ” I think this cartoon is attempting to rally support for Clymer, as his platform was for the white man. The text on the cartoon has a derogatory tone towards black suffrage, possibly suggesting that the artist is opposed to black suffrage.

1867 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/I? app: 1: . /temp/~pp_do. Xh: : display. Type= 1867 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/I? app: 1: . /temp/~pp_do. Xh: : display. Type= 1: m 856 sd=cph: m 856 sf=3 g 05758: @@@ This cartoon is a satire of equal voting in California. The white man at the base of the human ladder supports a black man, a Chinese immigrant, and an Indian warrior. The cartoon also depicts another man leading an ape to the ballot box, possibly suggesting that the artist feels that the requirements to vote were becoming to lenient. I think that the artist of this cartoon obviously feels some resentment towards the government for “lowering” its standards for voting. In fact, they were simply living up to their very Constitution, which claims that all men are created equal. This suggests that all men should be treated as equals as well, not as subordinate to one another.

1868 This cartoon satirizes four of the most significant Democratic leaders, three of whom 1868 This cartoon satirizes four of the most significant Democratic leaders, three of whom are former Confederate officers. It shows Horatio Seymour as a “rioter, ” Nathan Bedford Forrest as “The Butcher Forrest, ” Wade Hampton as a hangman, and Semmes as a pirate. I think this cartoon brings out each of the leaders’ biggest flaws, and enlarges them to both satirize and criticize them. This cartoon unintentionally shows the vast range of corruptness in the various levels of government, a nature that many believe is still present in today’s government. This trend is proof that history repeats itself. Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/cgibin/query/I? app: 6: . /temp/~pp_2 T 2 F: : display. Type= 1: m 856 sd=cph: m 856 sf=3 a 44195: @@@

Ulysses S. Grant • 18 th President of the United States • “Hero of Ulysses S. Grant • 18 th President of the United States • “Hero of Appomattox” • March 4, 1869 -March 3, 1877 • Graduated from the U. S. Military Academy at West Point (1843) • Occupation: soldier Source: http: //www. potus. com/usgrant. html

1869 source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By Date. Cartoon. asp? Month=October&Date=16 This cartoon 1869 source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By Date. Cartoon. asp? Month=October&Date=16 This cartoon is a simple visual representation of the effects of the crash of the gold market on September 24, 1869. This economic crisis was brought about by attempts by financier Jim Fisk and James Gould to corner the gold market. Thankfully, Grant and members of his administration foiled their scheme and prevented further economic devastation. This cartoon shows the general demeanor of the average gold investor at $160 an ounce and $130 an ounce, which was the lowest price it had seen since 1862. The top half of the cartoon shows a sly faced devil standing in the background, looking grim but poised. The man is merry, clutching two heaping bags of gold, labeled $10, 000 each. The bottom half of the cartoon shows the devil moved in on a now sad looking man, appearing broke and worn. The paper entitled ruined sums up the general welfare of gold investors of the time period.

1870 Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By. Date. Car toon. asp? Month=February&Date=12 This 1870 Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By. Date. Car toon. asp? Month=February&Date=12 This cartoon bases itself largely on widespread assumptions of reformers of the time regarding Native Americans. This cartoon by Thomas Nast is playing up the idea of cultural assimilation, which was the whites’ belief that they were entitled with the “white man’s burden” to dilute the Native American culture and slowly but surely force them to blend in with the European Americans. The cartoon is in part mocking Daniel Defoe's novel, Robinson Crusoe, to enforce his point. Grant is shown dressing and grooming an Indian chief, who has also obviously been educated and made to blend into white society. The Indian chief’s new suit comes with two of the rights of American citizenship—the right to vote and the duty to pay taxes —in the pockets of the jacket.

1871 Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By Date. Cartoon. asp? Month=June&Date=17 This cartoon 1871 Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By Date. Cartoon. asp? Month=June&Date=17 This cartoon depicts financier Jim Fisk as the leader of the Tammany war party. Holding him back is Peter Sweeney, head of New York City’s Department of Public Parks. He has dropped the front half of a platform on which stands Hoffman, holding a tomahawk and a totem of the Tammany Tiger. The actual chief, Tweed, tries to push from behind as the seemingly foolish and silly Oakley Hall, mayor of New York City, is sliding around on the ground, appearing to be on the verge of kissing Tweed’s foot. Others in the main group include Manton Marble, editor of the New York World, crouching behind Sweeny; publisher Sinclair Tousey, leaning on the tree behind Tweed; John Mc. Closkey, Roman Catholic archbishop of New York, beside Hall; and, in the back, (left to right) are lawyer Thomas G. Shearman, Judge George Barnard, and Gould himself, armed with a rifle. This cartoon also jabs at Horace Greely with its title (“On to Richmond!”), whose demands to capture the Confederate capital were later seen as foolish optimism. This cartoon is individually satirizing each political figure and their involvement in the Tammany war party, and became very well known extremely quickly.

1872 Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By Date. Cartoon. asp? Month=January&Date=20 This cartoon 1872 Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By Date. Cartoon. asp? Month=January&Date=20 This cartoon satirizes Horace Greely for both providing bail to former Confederate President Jefferson Davis and for unnecessarily insulting President Grant. On the left hand side Greely is shown paying Davis’ bail in a Richmond courtroom. On the right hand side, he is depicted throwing mud at President Grant, who is merely sitting on a porch puffing a cigar and following “Civil Service Reform. ” This cartoon indicates that the artist was obviously an admirer of Grant, as he draws Greely as a slimy traitor, with his manner of composure, his style of dress, and his overall appearance in the cartoon. The cartoon’s title is a innocently mocking adaption of the title of Horace Greely’s book, What I Know About Farming.

1873 Source; http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id/1114 This cartoon of Susan B. Anthony is partially 1873 Source; http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id/1114 This cartoon of Susan B. Anthony is partially mocking the ferocious advocate of women’s rights leader. She is drawn in vicious fashion, wearing an Uncle Sam top hat and spurred boots with her trademark collar and brooch. This cartoon was featured on a magazine cover, and was part of a cruel spoof entitled “The Women Who Dared. ” I think the artist was both mocking Susan B. Anthony but quite possibly revealing his insecurities and most likely personal problems with the women’s rights movement. Many men of the time felt threatened and fearful of the women’s newfound empowerment. This cartoon and the accompanying article was most likely an attempt by the creator to help silence the movement, as men had little enthusiasm when it came to women having equal rights.

This cartoon by Thomas Nast is blatantly representing Secretary of Treasury William A. Richardson This cartoon by Thomas Nast is blatantly representing Secretary of Treasury William A. Richardson as an a$$ ( ) being forced to resign from his position. An unsympatheticlooking Uncle Sam presides over the resignation, brought about by Richardson’s mishandling of the Sanborn Contracts. The scandal was sparked by Richardson’s negligence and greed, which resulted in large profits for him, many times when he had done little or no work. His laziness and corrupt nature led to a drastic increase in the number of tardy taxpayers. Once the story became public, the federal government issued an investigation, which was incredibly difficult because they had a hard time finding evidence against the guilty parties. In the cartoon, Richardson sits upon books labeled Law, Contracts, and Duty, while a paper entitled Internal Revenue Law has been tossed into the trash. I believe Nast is quite obviously showing his opinion for Richardson, and illustrating his wishes for Richardson’s fate. 1874 Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse By. Date. Cartoon. asp? Month=May&Date=23

1875 This cartoon by Thomas Nast is based on the Specie Resumption Act, which 1875 This cartoon by Thomas Nast is based on the Specie Resumption Act, which was to return the United States to the policy of using “hard money” or gold. Nast uses a biblical analogy to represent the “soft money” republicans as unworthy men drowned by the “flood of inflation. ” Grant is shown as Noah, and is sailing in the Ark of the State, with an American Flag at the bow. The unworthy men in the water are (right from top) Senator Matthew Carpenter of Wisconsin; Senator Simon Cameron of Pennsylvania; Congressman William “Pig Iron” Kelly of Pennsylvania; Senator Oliver Morton of Indiana; Congressman Benjamin Butler of Massachusetts; and Senator John Logan of Illinois. I believe this clever cartoon is obviously biased towards the prospecie vote, hinting that Nast was probably in favor of the Specie Resumption Act. Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By. Date. Cartoon. asp? Month=January&Date=9

1876 At the time this article was released, Grant and his administration had been 1876 At the time this article was released, Grant and his administration had been through a series of scandals, including the Whiskey Ring, the Sanborn Contracts, and Credit Mobilier. The Democrats were attempting to slowly pick off all the members of Grant’s office, hoping to impeach the President himself, or at the very least force him to endure the public humiliation of such proceedings. However, as they were unable to find anything to incriminate Grant in any way, the desperate Democrats fastened onto the accusation of the number of days Grant had been absent from the White House. This cartoon shows the artists’ mockery of the Democrats’ shabby attempt to evict Grant from the White House. The cartoon shows fake impeachment documents against previous Presidents, many of whom never lived in the White House because it wasn’t yet constructed. The artist is making a point of how ridiculous the Democrats’ accusation was. Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/ Browse. By. Date. Cartoon. asp? Month=June&Dat e=3

Rutherford B. Hayes • 19 th President of the United States • March 4, Rutherford B. Hayes • 19 th President of the United States • March 4, 1877 -March 3, 1881 • Kenyon College graduate (1842) and Harvard Law graduate (1845) • Occupation: lawyer Source: http: //www. potus. com/rbhayes. html

1877 Source: http: //elections. harpweek. com/09 Ver 2 Controversy/C artoon-medium. asp? Unique. ID=6&Year=1876 In 1877 Source: http: //elections. harpweek. com/09 Ver 2 Controversy/C artoon-medium. asp? Unique. ID=6&Year=1876 In this drawing, Abram Hewitt, Democratic national chairman, is holding a noose and bullwhip embellished with bulldozing, implying the political intimidation and violence imposed by Southern Democrats against African Americans and their white allies. This cartoon is lampooning the idea that Abram Hewitt’s statement on the election controversy as a warning that Tilden’s victory would be “backed by brute force. ” I believe the root of the humor of this cartoon, however, comes from the depiction of Hewitt as a scarecrow with a wooden blade, facing off against the American Eagle, who is the unflustered defender of the United States. The unnatural size difference of the two subjects visually represents the sure victory of law and order over the anarchic chaos, and the eagle’s place on the Rock of Justice symbolizes the United States’ nobility and sovereignty. Calling Hewitt a stranger and Mexican, Nast indirectly characterizes Democratic dishonesty and corruption as contrary to the propriety of the United States’ politics.

1878 Source; http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/i d/18660 This cartoon is a caricature of Gideon 1878 Source; http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/i d/18660 This cartoon is a caricature of Gideon Welles, Abraham Lincoln’s Secretary of the Navy. He is portrayed as Neptune, the Roman god of the sea. This caricature indicates that the artist was portraying the Naval Secretary as being extremely victorious and noble. Welles was responsible for the complete buildup of the U. S. Navy to successfully blockade Southern ports. The Secretary’s revolutionary tactics and policies were a key component to the victory of the North, and earned him a well-respected name throughout the North. This cartoon is a promotion of the politician, which signifies that the artist wanted to promote the popularity. Obviously Thomas Nast liked Welles, and was constructing this cartoon to encourage the support of Welles and make his valiant contributions known.

1879 Source: http: //elections. harpweek. com/1880/cartoon 1880 -Medium. asp? Unique. ID=19&Year=1880 This cartoon by 1879 Source: http: //elections. harpweek. com/1880/cartoon 1880 -Medium. asp? Unique. ID=19&Year=1880 This cartoon by Thomas Nast raises the subject of stinginess among the wealthy William English, the Democratic vicepresidential nominee for the election of 1880. Nast portrays presidential nominee Winfield Hancock as a splendid lion guarding Governor’s Island, where the general was stationed as commander of one of the U. S. Army’s divisions. Hancock frowns at his running mate, positioned at the tip of his tail, who holds a document labeled Praise but No Money. Although his letter of acceptance effusively commended the presidential nominee, Hancock and other Democrats were irritated by the Indianapolis banker’s refusal to give his own money to finance the campaign. Nast ruthlessly caricatured democ. RATS by drawing them as rats, scurrying to find scraps of political backing and government charity.

1880 Source: http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id/2 8604 This cartoon is comparing Grant and the 1880 Source: http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id/2 8604 This cartoon is comparing Grant and the carpetbaggers’ strong government with Hayes’ weak government. The image on the left shows two union soldiers escorting the carpetbaggers, trudging down a well made path. The giant bag is being carried on the back of a woman, who is struggling to support it. This detail suggests that the artist was touching on the subject of women’s rights, a ripe but growingly powerful issue of the time. The right hand side of the cartoon depicts Hayes in a farmer’s ensemble, working the land alone with two rifles. The surrounding landscape isn’t as well organized as the contrasting order of the left hand side, showing the difference of the two groups’ governments.

 • 20 th President of the United States • March 4, 1881 to • 20 th President of the United States • March 4, 1881 to September 19, 1881 • Attended Western Reserve Eclectic Institute (now Hiram College); Graduated from Williams College (1856) • Occupation: teacher, public official James Garfield

1881 Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By. Date. C artoon. asp? Month=December&Date=10 This 1881 Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By. Date. C artoon. asp? Month=December&Date=10 This cartoon by Thomas Nast is criticizing Charles Guiteau’s plea of insanity in response to his conviction of the assassination of President Garfield. After not receiving a patronage job with the federal government, Guiteau shot Garfield, who then lingered on the verge of death for over ten weeks before dying on September 19 th. His assassinator pled not guilty on three points of reason: 1) his own insanity, 2) the lack of ability of the President’s physicians, and 3) the fact that the death occurred in New Jersey, which he believed entitled the D. C. court to no jurisdiction. Guiteau was eventually hanged, after dropping his latter two points. This cartoon shows Guiteau as a court room jest, with the full costume and hat, sitting on Garfield’s grave. It contrasts sharply with the isolated image of the late President’s casket in the upper left hand corner.

Chester Alan Arthur • 21 st President of the United States • Chester Alan Arthur • 21 st President of the United States • "Elegant Arthur“ • September 19, 1881 to March 3, 1885 • Graduated from Union College (1848) • Occupation: lawyer

1882 Source; http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id/ 14721 President Chester Arthur is shown sitting outside 1882 Source; http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id/ 14721 President Chester Arthur is shown sitting outside the White House in this cartoon. His Patronage Inference fingers are resting in ten pies. The pies are representatives, left to right, of Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, New York election, Florida, South Carolina, New Jersey politics, Virginia politics, Illinois, and Mississippi. The cartoon is pretty blatant, satirizing the President’s reputation for “inserting his fingers in others’ business, ” and it represents his interference as “patronage interference. ” This may, however, be a compliment to the President, suggesting that he is simply sampling each problem and doing his best to resolve it. Historians generally have a positive view of Arthur, but many of his time period may have felt discontent with his policies, making this cartoon very controversial.

1883 Source; http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id/18 659 This is a caricature of Peter Cooper, 1883 Source; http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id/18 659 This is a caricature of Peter Cooper, who was an industrialist, inventor, and a philanthropist. This plays on Cooper’s name, as a cooper is someone who repairs wooden barrels and tubs. This cartoon was not necessarily criticizing Cooper, but merely poking fun at his name, as many cartoons of the time did. Thomas Nast was a brilliant artist who often criticized politicians he didn’t favor, but also made humorous and visually pleasing cartoons such as this one. Cooper was a presidential candidate for the election of 1884.

1884 Source: http: //elections. harpweek. com/1884/cartoon-1884 Medium. asp? Unique. ID=1&Year=1884 In this cartoon, Thomas 1884 Source: http: //elections. harpweek. com/1884/cartoon-1884 Medium. asp? Unique. ID=1&Year=1884 In this cartoon, Thomas Nast himself is presenting the gloriously large Republican Elephant. The elephant was adopted by the party as somewhat of a mascot after Nast made it popular, the elephant’s belt is embellished with the words Civil Service Reform. The caption reads pure and clean, words often used to describe a government fun on the merit system of civil service reform instead of the corruption allegedly caused by the “spoils” system of government. This cartoon is most likely targeting James Blaine, who was basically the poster boy for corruption and self-service in government. Nast is attempting to divert Americans from reelecting this type of office by portraying the Republican party as a circus act, just a fancy show but not what the country needed.

Grover Cleveland • 22 nd and 24 th President of the United States • Grover Cleveland • 22 nd and 24 th President of the United States • March 4, 1885 to March 3, 1889 and March 4, 1893 to March 3, 1897 • No formal education • Occupation: lawyer

1885 Source: http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id/14146 This cartoon is a satire of Act I 1885 Source: http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id/14146 This cartoon is a satire of Act I Scene IV of Shakespeare’s Hamlet. In this scene, Horatio and Marcellus attempt to prevent Hamlet from following the ghost of his father. The ghost in the cartoon has Reform written on his crown, which refers to civil service reform, a central theme of Grover Cleveland’s first administration. The two spoilsmen try to restrain him, while Cleveland is saying “Still am I called. Unhand me, gentlemen. By heaven, I’ll make a ghost of him that lets me! I say away! –Go on, I’ll follow thee. ” This cartoon by George Yost Coffin suggests that Cleveland’s suspected intentions of continuing his civil service reform policies were disliked by many Americans. The artist is clearly making evident the President’s failure with his policies, and intends to influence the discontinuation of them.

1886 This Thomas Nast cartoon attacks the President for being involved with a telephone 1886 This Thomas Nast cartoon attacks the President for being involved with a telephone company scandal. He plays on Attorney General Augustus Garland’s name by drawing a garland covering his face from his eyes to his nose, blinding him from the evils of the Pan-Electric Telephone Company. The phone he clutches is in fact a snake head, and the phone box reads stock and influence. Nast was careful not to censure President Cleveland, who he showed public support for, but was also careful to make parallels between Republican presidential candidate James Blaine and Garland. This made clear the public assumption of Blaine’s corrupt nature, which led to his defeat in the presidential election. Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Brows e. By. Date. Cartoon. asp? Month=February&Date=13

1887 Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By. Date Cartoon. asp? Month=April&Date=16 This cartoon 1887 Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By. Date Cartoon. asp? Month=April&Date=16 This cartoon glorifies John L. Sullivan, the heavyweight boxing champion, depicting him sending officer-seekers away from a busy President Cleveland. It is a tribute to Sullivan’s infamy and to the growing popularity of prizefighting in general. The sport was illegal in most places in the United States at the time, which raises the question as to why Harp Weekly would publish it so obviously, putting boxing in somewhat of a good light. However, the sport did become legalized in several states and cities around the time of this cartoon’s publication and shortly after. Boxing was later used in World War I to train soldiers, at which time it was proclaimed legal nationwide and gained rapid recognition, escalating to one of the most watched sports. It continues to attract thousands of fans to this day.

1888 This cartoon pokes fun at Presidentelect Benjamin Harrison's possible cabinet members. The cartoon 1888 This cartoon pokes fun at Presidentelect Benjamin Harrison's possible cabinet members. The cartoon shows a newspaper editor talking to a roadside bum, asking him to sit down and write a list of possible members of the general’s prospective cabinet. He comments humorously that the bum would likely come as close as any of the newspaper’s staff at guessing the correct members. This cartoon seems to jab at the apparent randomness of the general’s cabinet, though it doesn’t seem to necessarily be an insult. The artist seems to simply be stating that the potential President is quite a mystery to the nation, and no one is quite sure of what is to happen. Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By. Date. Cartoon. asp ? Month=December&Date=15

1893 Source: http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id/2 0781 This cartoon depicts yet another boxing match, 1893 Source: http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id/2 0781 This cartoon depicts yet another boxing match, an extremely popular theme of many political cartoons because of the sport’s popularity during this time period. The boxer on the left, Grover Cleveland, wears a boxing glove labeled Free Trade, while Benjamin Harrison on the right wears a glove labeled Protection. It is satirizing the presidential election of 1888 by reminding the viewer of Cleveland’s loss to Harrison in that election, giving him an eye patch labeled ‘ 88. The eventual victor was indeed Grover Cleveland, although here is depicted as being the underdog in the fight. The artist is illustrating the harsh struggle Cleveland was to face if he was to become President again, but not necessarily presenting it as impossible. This cartoon is possibly biased towards Harrison, portraying him as muscular and dominant in the picture, which suggests the artist’s favor towards Harrison.

1894 This cartoon is based on the passage of the Wilson-Gorman Tariff , which 1894 This cartoon is based on the passage of the Wilson-Gorman Tariff , which is presented as a fantastic victory for Senator Gorman, but a stabbing defeat for President Cleveland. The artist depicts Gorman as a Roman Caesar, who is mercilessly driving the chariot Sugar Trust over Wilson and his low-tariff bill. The cartoon also illustrates Cleveland as a prisoner, chained and forced to follow Gorman behind his chariot, which is pulled by a donkey, the Democratic mascot. I think this artist feels as though Gorman forcefully pushed his bill through, squashing hope for a low-tariff bill like Wilson’s. His noble stature and warlordlike stance indicates that the artist probably didn’t support the passage of the Wilson. Gorman Tariff, and thought it was detrimental to President Cleveland in particular. Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By. Date Cartoon. asp? Month=September&Date=8

1895 Source: http: //elections. harpweek. com/1896/cartoon-1896 medium. asp? Unique. ID=3&Year=1896 This cartoon presents Thomas 1895 Source: http: //elections. harpweek. com/1896/cartoon-1896 medium. asp? Unique. ID=3&Year=1896 This cartoon presents Thomas C. Platt, a former U. S. senator, as peddling presidential water-melon to Republican nomination candidates. The triangles cut into the fruit suggest that he has “plugged” them with alcohol. Governor Levi P. Morton of New York is already devouring the spiked watermelon. Platt stands poised with an aimed knife behind him. I think the artist is trying to convey that Platt’s support of Morton’s candidacy as a meager effort to gain fame. Also pictured are Congressman Thomas Reed, who is wearing a clownish ensemble and looks on the situation intriguingly; Governor William Mc. Kinley of Ohio, who appears confused but has his toy sword just in case; Benjamin Harrison, former President, emerges from his Ice Wagon, which is a play off of his nickname, “the Human Iceberg, ” which was a derogatory term to represent his supposedly cold demeanor.

1896 This cartoon is quite obviously mocking Governor William Mc. Kinley, portraying him as 1896 This cartoon is quite obviously mocking Governor William Mc. Kinley, portraying him as napoleon. This was the third occasion on which cartoonist W. A. Rogers sketched the politician as the French ruler. Here, the artist is targeting the Republican presidential candidate’s silence regarding several issues, represented by the various items he’s struggling to juggle. He is juggling a gold cannon, obviously referring to the gold rush and the ever present mining conditions in the California region; also being tossed is the umbrella of protection, an issue that is vital to the continuation of the United States; also being thrown into the air—an action which represents the politician’s lack of control or involvement on any of these issues—is a bag of silver containing assorted financial tricks. The bag is bursting with various states and most likely is meant to also contain their respective tricks. The artist is caricaturing the politician as irresponsible and particularly targeting his hushed voice on important national issues. Source: http: //elections. harpweek. com/1896/cartoon-1896 Medium. asp? Unique. ID=7&Year=1896

Benjamin Harrison • 23 rd President of the United States • March 4, 1889 Benjamin Harrison • 23 rd President of the United States • March 4, 1889 to March 3, 1893 • Graduated from Miami University, Oxford, Ohio (1852) • Occupation: lawyer

1889 Source: http: //elections. harpweek. com/1888/cartoon 1888 -Medium. asp? Unique. ID=9&Year=1888 This cartoon recognizes 1889 Source: http: //elections. harpweek. com/1888/cartoon 1888 -Medium. asp? Unique. ID=9&Year=1888 This cartoon recognizes the appointment of the Republican national ticket by depicting the party as a wild stampeding elephant that has broken away from the Chicago Circus (i. e. : the Republican National Convention). An sickly Uncle Sam, carefully positioned away from the path of the wild animal, prepares to take a swig from a cider jug with Harrison’s face on the label. The jug indirectly refers to the 1840 presidential campaign of Benjamin Harrison’s grandfather. The jug’s label Young Tip holds a double meaning; it associates the President with his grandfather, who was the victor at the Battle of Tippecanoe, and it also foreshadows the Democratic tactic of seeking prohibitionist votes by accusing Republicans of favoring “free whiskey. ” The artist is therefore promoting Harrison by portraying the elephant as glorious and spirited, but not necessarily dangerous, as Uncle Sam is shown safely out of the harmful path.

1890 Source: http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id/17331 This cartoon shows then-future President William Mc. Kinley 1890 Source: http: //www. picturehistory. com/product/id/17331 This cartoon shows then-future President William Mc. Kinley clutching a cat and exclaiming “Say! Does anybody own this cat? ” This was a reference to Mc. Kinley’s support of high protective tariffs, though his policies proved to be unpopular and eventually lost him his seat in Congress in 1890. The cartoon is mocking Mc. Kinley, indicating that the artist didn’t favor the tariffs either, drawing Mc. Kinley in a degrading manner, looking disheveled and untidy. The cartoon is titled Nobody’s Pet, a title that suggests that Mc. Kinley’s policies were intended to preserve the Union and ensure its protection. I think the artist is showing Mc. Kinley holding up a cat, though it is unknown whether the cat is stray or owned, to symbolize Mc. Kinley’s overaggressive concern for the protective tariffs, which many believed to be simply a waste of money.

1891 Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By. Date Cartoon. asp? Month=November&Date=14 This cartoon 1891 Source: http: //www. harpweek. com/09 Cartoon/Browse. By. Date Cartoon. asp? Month=November&Date=14 This cartoon is satirizing U. S. minister to Chile Patrick Egan, and is mocking the “Chilean War Scare. ” It depicts Egan as a mischievous child, releasing the jack-in -the-box that holds a score embellished with Chilean War Scare. I think this cartoon is illustrating the fact that Egan caused this small scare possibly out of spite, as he had previously irritated relationships between the U. S. and Ireland as well and had earned him an arrest warrant, which he dodged and gained citizenship once again after fleeing the country for a short time. The jack-in-the-box is a symbol of the war scare’s surprise, but also is a visual representation that the war scare was not a dramatically serious issue to be worried about by United States citizens.

This cartoon creatively illustrates how the Democrats’ strategy of leading with tariff reform is This cartoon creatively illustrates how the Democrats’ strategy of leading with tariff reform is “dogged” by the feral issue of free silver. This cartoon was published shortly before the Democratic National Convention, and reveals the possibility that supporters of the inflationary money supply would eventually vote a platform into act that would endorse the unlimited coinage of silver at a 16: 1 ratio with gold. The dog’s tail has a tea kettle tied to the end of it, a problem that will surely trip and possibly injure its carrier, a symbol of the potentially harmful future of the silverites. It may also suggest that the Free Silver mutt would delay the carefully composed and controlled plans for tariff reform. The woman’s comment about the mutt relentlessly following them also hints that the free silver issue was a lingering problem for democracy. 1892 Source: http: //elections. harpweek. com/1892/cartoon 1892 -Medium. asp? Unique. ID=4&Year=1892

William Mc. Kinley • 25 th President of the United States • William Mc. Kinley • 25 th President of the United States • "Idol of Ohio“ • March 4, 1897 to September 14, 1901 • Attended Allegheny College • Occupation: lawyer

1897 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/learn/collecti ons/miller/images/langarts 1_1. jpg This cartoon is an attempt 1897 Source: http: //memory. loc. gov/learn/collecti ons/miller/images/langarts 1_1. jpg This cartoon is an attempt by the artist to present all the reason for women’s rights. The feathers on the woman’s hat are reason for the votes for women, including we are taxed, why not, represent us, we want our rights!, and we are as good as the men. These valid reasons for women to receive equal rights were constantly paraded until they eventually received rights in the early twentieth century. This artist is most likely sympathetic with the women’s cause, portraying the lady in the cartoon as elegant and somewhat intelligent. The man in the background is looking at her somewhat questioningly, which is a perfect portrayal of how the majority of men felt about the women’s rights movement at this time: they believed women were in their place, and that they weren’t stable enough to handle politics and shouldn’t be allowed that close to such a dangerous topic.

1898 Source: http: //en. wikipilipinas. org/index. php? title=Histor y_of_the_Philippines_(1898 -1946) This cartoon shows William 1898 Source: http: //en. wikipilipinas. org/index. php? title=Histor y_of_the_Philippines_(1898 -1946) This cartoon shows William Mc. Kinley clutching the Philippines, depicted as a savage child. The world is watching as Mc. Kinley must decide what to do with the child, which represents the actual nation. His choices are to either keep it or give it back to Spain, which the artist compares as throwing a child off a cliff. The artist is clearly sympathizing with the decision to keep the Philippines, obviously fearful of what might happen to its inhabitants if it is returned to Spain. The caption at the bottom reads The eyes of the world are upon him, which is quite literally portrayed with the illustration. The question at the top asks what the president will do, which was the main question on the nation’s mind at the time. The artist is showing the viewer that the fate of the Philippines is up to Mc. Kinley, and that his decision will most likely be scrutinized either way.

1900 Source: http: //elections. harpweek. com/1900/cartoon-1900 Medium. asp? Unique. ID=2&Year=1900 The general boxing theme 1900 Source: http: //elections. harpweek. com/1900/cartoon-1900 Medium. asp? Unique. ID=2&Year=1900 The general boxing theme of this cartoon was popular for many political cartoons of this time period. The massive dinner pail symbolizes the restoration of economic prosperity during President William Mc. Kinley’s first term. The dinner pail is embellished with Full Dinner Pail, which became a widespread campaign slogan for Mc. Kinley’s second Presidential run. The dinner pail is knocking out Jennings Bryan, the eventual Democratic presidential nominee. President Mc. Kinley is clutching a bottle of Administration Tonic, and financier August Belmont Jr. prepares to administer Democratic Lucre to the injured candidate. I think this cartoon is obviously satirizing each of these political figures and their involvement in the election of 1900, and the artist is most certainly in favor of Mc. Kinley’s re-election.