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The “’Otzar” in Ancient Ritual Baths Second Temple Period Innovation or Anachronistic Interpretation? Yonatan The “’Otzar” in Ancient Ritual Baths Second Temple Period Innovation or Anachronistic Interpretation? Yonatan Adler Ariel University Center of Samaria

1. 2. The bath must contain a minimum volume of water which would allow 1. 2. The bath must contain a minimum volume of water which would allow for the full immersion of an adult, a volume measured in rabbinic metrological terms as forty se’ah, probably equivalent to about half of a cubic meter. This minimum volume of water must derive from either rain or spring-water channeled directly into the mikveh, as drawn-water would render the bath unfit for ritual use.

Over 850 Ancient Mikva’ot Throughout the Country Over 850 Ancient Mikva’ot Throughout the Country

Method # 1 Immersion Pool Connecting Pipe “’Otzar” Method # 1 Immersion Pool Connecting Pipe “’Otzar”

Method # 2 Immersion Pool Connecting Pipe “’Otzar” Method # 2 Immersion Pool Connecting Pipe “’Otzar”

History of Research History of Research

“’Otzar” Connecting Pipe Immersion Pool “’Otzar” Connecting Pipe Immersion Pool

“’Otzar” Connecting Pipe Immersion Pool “’Otzar” Connecting Pipe Immersion Pool

Immersion Pool Connecting Channel “Otzar” Jericho, Hasmonean Period (Pools F 176 -F 182) Immersion Pool Connecting Channel “Otzar” Jericho, Hasmonean Period (Pools F 176 -F 182)

“’Otzar” Immersion Pool Jericho, Herodian Period (Pools A[M]537 -A[M]538) “’Otzar” Immersion Pool Jericho, Herodian Period (Pools A[M]537 -A[M]538)

Immersion Pool Connecting Pipe Herodium “Otzar” Immersion Pool Connecting Pipe Herodium “Otzar”

Immersion Pool Jerusalem “Otzar” Connecting Pipe Area T-4 of the Jewish Quarter Excavations Immersion Pool Jerusalem “Otzar” Connecting Pipe Area T-4 of the Jewish Quarter Excavations

MIQWA’OT(JEWISH RITUAL IMMERSION BATHS) IN ERETZ-ISRAEL IN THE SECOND TEMPLE AND THE MISHNAH AND MIQWA’OT(JEWISH RITUAL IMMERSION BATHS) IN ERETZ-ISRAEL IN THE SECOND TEMPLE AND THE MISHNAH AND TALMUD PERIODS THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE DEGREE ‘DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY’ TO THE SENATE OF THE HEBREW UNIVERSITY, JERUSALEM BY RONNY REICH 1990

Miqwa’ot With a Questionable ’Otzar (18) Miqwa’ot with an ’Otzar (17) Miqwa’ot without an Miqwa’ot With a Questionable ’Otzar (18) Miqwa’ot with an ’Otzar (17) Miqwa’ot without an ’Otzar (265)

The “’Otzar” in Textual Sources The “’Otzar” in Textual Sources

They may purify mikva’ot, whether a higher [pool] from a lower [pool], or a They may purify mikva’ot, whether a higher [pool] from a lower [pool], or a distant [pool] from one which is nearby. How so? One brings a pipe of earthenware or of lead and places his hand beneath it until it is filled with water [from one pool], and he has drawn it along and brought [this water] into contact [with the water of the other pool]; even if it touches by a hair’s breadth – it suffices. (Mishnah, Mikva’ot 6: 8)

If there were forty se’ah in the upper [pool] and nothing in the lower, If there were forty se’ah in the upper [pool] and nothing in the lower, one may draw water [in vessels, carry them] on the shoulder, and pour [the drawn-water] into the upper pool until forty se’ah [of water] flows down into the lower [pool]. (Mishnah, Mikva’ot 6: 8)

Responsum dated December 14, 1813 Rabbi Moses Schreiber (Sofer) Pressburg-Bratislava Responsum dated December 14, 1813 Rabbi Moses Schreiber (Sofer) Pressburg-Bratislava

A Re-examination of the Archaeological Data in Context A Re-examination of the Archaeological Data in Context

Immersion Pool Jerusalem “Otzar” 7 m 3 Connecting Pipe Area T-4 of the Jewish Immersion Pool Jerusalem “Otzar” 7 m 3 Connecting Pipe Area T-4 of the Jewish Quarter Excavations

Immersion Pool Connecting Channel “Otzar” 22 m 3 Jericho, Hasmonean Period (Pools F 176 Immersion Pool Connecting Channel “Otzar” 22 m 3 Jericho, Hasmonean Period (Pools F 176 -F 182)

What was the Function of the So-Called “’Otzar” Installations? What was the Function of the So-Called “’Otzar” Installations?

Immersion “Otzar” Pool Connecting Pipe Immersion Pool Immersion “Otzar” Pool Connecting Pipe Immersion Pool

Immersion Pool Immersion “Otzar” Pool Connecting Pipe Immersion Pool Immersion “Otzar” Pool Connecting Pipe

Gamla Synagogue Complex Immersion Pool “Otzar” Gamla Synagogue Complex Immersion Pool “Otzar”

Gamla Synagogue Complex Immersion Pool Settling “Otzar” Tank Gamla Synagogue Complex Immersion Pool Settling “Otzar” Tank

Immersion Pool Water “Otzar” Reservoir Connecting Channel Immersion Pool Water “Otzar” Reservoir Connecting Channel

Concluding Remarks Concluding Remarks

Rabbi David Münzberg inspecting the mikveh in the southern casemate wall of Masada (February Rabbi David Münzberg inspecting the mikveh in the southern casemate wall of Masada (February 11, 1964)