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The Odyssey Academic English 9 The Odyssey Academic English 9

Plunder (v) l steal goods typically using force and in a time of war Plunder (v) l steal goods typically using force and in a time of war or civil disorder.

Valor (n) l great courage in the face of danger, especially in battle. Valor (n) l great courage in the face of danger, especially in battle.

Formidable (adj) Very impressive Men hold me formidable for guile in peace and war. Formidable (adj) Very impressive Men hold me formidable for guile in peace and war. l

Guile (n) Cunning; Slyness Men hold me formidable for guile in peace and war. Guile (n) Cunning; Slyness Men hold me formidable for guile in peace and war. l

Ponderous (adj) l Extremely heavy thoughts Ponderous (adj) l Extremely heavy thoughts

Profusion (n) l An abundance Profusion (n) l An abundance

Muster/ed (v) To gather All ships’ companies mustered alongside for the midday meal. l Muster/ed (v) To gather All ships’ companies mustered alongside for the midday meal. l

Victuals (n) Food A wineskin full I brought along and victuals in a bag. Victuals (n) Food A wineskin full I brought along and victuals in a bag. l

Adze (n) l An ax-like tool Adze (n) l An ax-like tool

Hale (adj) l Strong Hale (adj) l Strong

Disdain (V) to refuse or abstain from because of a feeling of contempt or Disdain (V) to refuse or abstain from because of a feeling of contempt or scorn; reject She disdained to answer their questions. l

Carrion (n) l the decaying flesh of dead animals Carrion (n) l the decaying flesh of dead animals

Sage (n) l A very wise person. Sage (n) l A very wise person.

Dispatch (v) l Defeat, finish Dispatch (v) l Defeat, finish

weird l Strange fate or destiny weird l Strange fate or destiny

Odyssey Introduction Turn to page 592 - Odyssey Introduction Turn to page 592 -

Epithet A descriptive word or phrase that has become a fixed formula Example: Zeus Epithet A descriptive word or phrase that has become a fixed formula Example: Zeus the lord of the cloud.

Epic simile l An extended simile developed over several lines. Epic simile l An extended simile developed over several lines.

Everyday… Having a snow day is like a day at the beach. I can Everyday… Having a snow day is like a day at the beach. I can lounge on my sofa as if it were my multicolored stripped beach chair. I can close my eyes and listen to my favorite television shows as if it were the waves crashing upon the shore. It is total peace and relaxation as I drift to sleep to all of the sounds around me.

In The Odyssey… And swift Achilles kept on coursing Hector, nonstop as a hound In The Odyssey… And swift Achilles kept on coursing Hector, nonstop as a hound in the mountains starts a fawn from its lair, hunting him down the gorges, down the narrow glens and the fawn goes to ground, hiding deep in brush but the hound comes racing fast, nosing him out until he lands his kill (XX 11. 224 -229).

Invocation A prayer; The Iliad and Odyssey both begin with an invocation to the Invocation A prayer; The Iliad and Odyssey both begin with an invocation to the muse of Epic Poetry. The Odyssey begins with an invocation on page 595 (blue) the poet asks for inspiration in telling the story of his hero…it also gives a brief summary of the hero’s adventures

Muse One of the nine patrons of fine arts Muse One of the nine patrons of fine arts

Important Terms l Hubris: overwhelming pride; considered a sin and great offense to the Important Terms l Hubris: overwhelming pride; considered a sin and great offense to the gods l Homeric Simile: an extended simile elaborated in great detail– Homer usually compared violence with peaceful nature

Elements of an Epic Hero What makes Odysseus a classic Greek hero? Elements of an Epic Hero What makes Odysseus a classic Greek hero?

Intelligence -His shrewd intelligence is of the cunning and sly sort…. not the book-smart Intelligence -His shrewd intelligence is of the cunning and sly sort…. not the book-smart type. -A man of “twists and turns…” Odysseus is a man of deceptions and disguises.

Physical Strength l While Odysseus demonstrates cunning, farsightedness, adaptability and other aspects of intellectual Physical Strength l While Odysseus demonstrates cunning, farsightedness, adaptability and other aspects of intellectual prowess, he is by no means a physical weakling! He is not enormous, but he is powerful, and he is both an excellent athlete and a formidable soldier.

QUEST l l To return home! The sharpness with which he won the Trojan QUEST l l To return home! The sharpness with which he won the Trojan War is the same devious aptitude he uses to find his way back home. This same intelligence is used to outwit monsters and other foes who block his path and threaten his men’s lives.

FACE DANGER WITH COURAGE He does not shrink away from his leadership role in FACE DANGER WITH COURAGE He does not shrink away from his leadership role in times of great peril.

Assistance of the gods l l Throughout the epic, Athena represents Odysseus favorably to Assistance of the gods l l Throughout the epic, Athena represents Odysseus favorably to the other gods, assists and guides him. Circe gives advice and ultimately, Zeus helps Odysseus rule peacefully once he finally arrives home. Of course, the gods are not always pleased. Poseidon makes Odysseus’s journey a true test of his wit and valor.

Aristocrat l He is ROYAL, a member of the ruling class who seeks to Aristocrat l He is ROYAL, a member of the ruling class who seeks to recapture his “rightful” place after his long years away at war. He returns to one last battle of revenge on interlopers…rude, crass suitors of Penelope’s affections and possessions…and reasserts his claim to his palace, a beautiful wife and a loyal son to be his proper heir.

Special Status l Odysseus must prove himself again and again, and the perceptions others Special Status l Odysseus must prove himself again and again, and the perceptions others have of him are of vital importance to his heroic stature, but….

Cont. ’ l Odysseus is always willing to find another way around the danger Cont. ’ l Odysseus is always willing to find another way around the danger if possible. He doesn’t run, but he is willing to hide… behind disguises, behind well-timed silences, amongst sheep and the suitors.

Flaw l Like tragic heroes, Odysseus has faults that lead to disaster. Unlike tragic Flaw l Like tragic heroes, Odysseus has faults that lead to disaster. Unlike tragic heroes, Odysseus is uses his cunning and guile to escape the ultimate price his crew has to pay for his mistakes.

Facts on Odysseus… l l l He’s all human– he even turns down an Facts on Odysseus… l l l He’s all human– he even turns down an offer to be made immortal Married to Penelope Father of Telemachus

Good Guys l l l Odysseus Penelope Telemachus Circe: Originally imprisons Odysseus and his Good Guys l l l Odysseus Penelope Telemachus Circe: Originally imprisons Odysseus and his men, but then helps them Alcinous: King of Phaeacia Nausicaa: Princess of Phaeacia

Good Guys l l Athena: helps Odysseus in battle Eumaeus: Odysseus’ swineheard, helps him Good Guys l l Athena: helps Odysseus in battle Eumaeus: Odysseus’ swineheard, helps him battle the suitors when he returns Euriclea: Odysseus’ nurse– recognizes him by his scar Argos: Odysseus’ dog

Bad Guys l l Poseidon: Odysseus wounds his son, so they become enemies Calypso: Bad Guys l l Poseidon: Odysseus wounds his son, so they become enemies Calypso: holds Odysseus prisoner for seven years Polyphemus: one eyed giant, Poseidon’s son Sirens: half woman, half eagle– lure sailors to their deaths with beautiful sining voices

More Bad Guys l l l Antinous: leads the suitors Eurymachus: another suitor Suitors: More Bad Guys l l l Antinous: leads the suitors Eurymachus: another suitor Suitors: About 100 men camped out in Odysseus’ house, waiting for his wife to pick one for marriage

Facts about the Odyssey l l Contains 11, 300 lines Story takes 40 days, Facts about the Odyssey l l Contains 11, 300 lines Story takes 40 days, but tells the story of Odysseus’ 10 year journey home from the Trojan War Themes are “man” and “homecoming” Not told chronologically

More Facts about the Odyssey l l Most of the story is told by More Facts about the Odyssey l l Most of the story is told by Odysseus– is he a reliable narrator? Told in flashback Large setting– Odysseus wanders through the Mediterranean Odysseus goes to the Underworld

More Facts about the Odyssey l l l Has more female characters, but for More Facts about the Odyssey l l l Has more female characters, but for the most part women are still represented as fickle objects Gods are portrayed as being envious of men Family values are important– establishes contrast between a good family and a bad family