The New Frontier: JFK and the Age

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  The New Frontier:  JFK and the Age of Camelot Mr. Phipps American History The New Frontier: JFK and the Age of Camelot Mr. Phipps American History

  California State Standards 11. 8. 5. Describe the increased powers of the presidency in California State Standards 11. 8. 5. Describe the increased powers of the presidency in response to the Great Depression, World War II, and the Cold War. 11. 8. 7. Describe the effects on society and the economy of technological developments since 1945, including the computer revolution, changes in communication, advances in medicine, and improvements in agricultural technology. 11. 9. 3. Trace the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cold War and containment policy, including the following: – The Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis – Atomic testing in the American West, the «mutual assured destruction» doctrine, and disarmament policies – Latin American policy

  Part I:  The 1960 Election The Election of 1960 marked a major change Part I: The 1960 Election The Election of 1960 marked a major change in the way Americans participated in politics. Politics became a televised event.

  The New Generation • Americans had hope for the future – Had gotten through The New Generation • Americans had hope for the future – Had gotten through the Depression – Had beaten Fascism in Europe and Japan – Had rebuilt the world (especially the West) to be democratic – Had the best nuclear arsenal in the world – Had become more prosperous, lived healthier, and longer than ever

  John Fitzgerald Kennedy • Long established Massachusetts family, made wealthy from selling alcohol during John Fitzgerald Kennedy • Long established Massachusetts family, made wealthy from selling alcohol during Prohibition • Considered nouveau riche , part of the newly monied • Irish-Catholic, attended private schools, including Harvard • Served in U. S. Navy during WWII, earned medals for valor and purple heart (back injuries)

  JFK’s Politics • Elected to Congress as a Democratic Representative for MA • Represented JFK’s Politics • Elected to Congress as a Democratic Representative for MA • Represented the young Baby-Boomer generation • Promoted Liberal ideas: government should work for the people

  Richard Milhous Nixon • Long established Republican politician from California • Pushed for strong Richard Milhous Nixon • Long established Republican politician from California • Pushed for strong political and economic conservatism – Small government – Traditional morality – Tax cuts – Strong on Communism

  Nixon • Gained experience as Mc. Carthy’s right-hand man during HUAC trials • Chosen Nixon • Gained experience as Mc. Carthy’s right-hand man during HUAC trials • Chosen as Ike’s Vice President • Represented the “Old Guard” conservative Republican

  The 1960 Election • JFK looked relaxed, young,  handsome – Made for TV, The 1960 Election • JFK looked relaxed, young, handsome – Made for TV, looked groomed, PR ready • Nixon looked stiff, uncomfortable, and sweaty • First televised debates in history • Would be a very close election, decided by a few thousand votes

  The Debate • On the radio – JFK lost, seemed less experienced with the The Debate • On the radio – JFK lost, seemed less experienced with the issues – Nixon won, more experienced with issues • On the TV – Nixon lost, looked sweaty, uncomfortable, and awkward – JFK won, looked relaxed, poised, affable and charismatic

  The Issues • Kennedy’s position: – U. S. faced serious issues abroad and at The Issues • Kennedy’s position: – U. S. faced serious issues abroad and at home – Needed to spend money to protect and help American interests, especially in Cuba • Nixon’s position – U. S. was just fine, after 8 years of Eisenhower/Nixon – Needed to cut spending, because domestic spending was too expensive

  Part II:  The Age of Camelot JFK brought a distinctive style of leadership, Part II: The Age of Camelot JFK brought a distinctive style of leadership, organizing a young, ambitious Cabinet and attempting an overhaul of the inner-cities.

  The Results JFK won by narrow majority • Youngest president in American history (until The Results JFK won by narrow majority • Youngest president in American history (until Obama) • First Catholic president • Assembled youngest Cabinets, many Harvard grads – Brother, RFK was Attorney General – Robert Mc. Namara, Secretary of Defense

  The New Frontier Bold, new domestic programs • Education • Welfare • Health Care The New Frontier Bold, new domestic programs • Education • Welfare • Health Care • Elderly Assistance • Inner-Cities • Continue FDR’s social action

  JFK’s Problems • Small Democratic majority in Congress • Barely won the presidency • JFK’s Problems • Small Democratic majority in Congress • Barely won the presidency • Congress didn’t support policies • Christian Southern Conservative Democrats didn’t like him • Battled high inflation • Contending in wars in Cuba, Berlin, Russia, and Vietnam • Most legislation would NOT pass

  The Warren Court • JFK nominated Conservative judge for Chief Justice • Became an The Warren Court • JFK nominated Conservative judge for Chief Justice • Became an activist judge, who took a stand on a number of important social issues

  Warren’s Decisions Protect the citizen, protect the police department,  protect the Constitution: Warren’s Decisions Protect the citizen, protect the police department, protect the Constitution: Basic civil rights • Baker v. Carr: Change voting laws, reapportion election process to be based on population (keep power in cities) • Gideon v. Wainwright (1963): can’t use evidence illegally gathered • Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) and Miranda v. Arizona (1966): the right to remain silent, anything said can be used in a court of law, right to lawyer • Engel v. Vitale (1962): No prayer in schools • Griswold v. Connecticut (1965): Overturns ban on birth control

  Part III:  JFK’s Foreign Policy As a result of the Berlin Wall, Russia’s Part III: JFK’s Foreign Policy As a result of the Berlin Wall, Russia’s deployment of missiles to Cuba, and the threat of Communism spreading in Vietnam, JFK asked for a flexible response to make America safe.

  Flexible Response • Challenged Eisenhower’s idea of “massive retaliation” • Pushed for the use Flexible Response • Challenged Eisenhower’s idea of “massive retaliation” • Pushed for the use of conventional weaponry and military to combat Communism • U. S. couldn’t rely on nuclear arsenal to protect itself

  Alliance for Progress • JFK’s pledge of support for Latin America • Considered a Alliance for Progress • JFK’s pledge of support for Latin America • Considered a “Marshall Plan for brown people” – $20 billion to support internal improvements – Supported education and schools – Built hospitals and promote health care – Helped distribute land • Pros: helped some • Cons: much abuse and corruption

  The Peace Corps • JFK’s call for American international volunteerism • The commitment: – The Peace Corps • JFK’s call for American international volunteerism • The commitment: – Spend 2 years in developing nations – Specialize in education, agriculture, irrigation, sewage treatment, or health care – Promote democracy and American influence • Remains one of the most lasting legacy’s of JFK’s presidency

  The Space Race • JFK’s promise to be the first to the moon • The Space Race • JFK’s promise to be the first to the moon • 1962: NASA sends John Glenn, first American in space – Used Saturn V rocket to propel out of Earth’s orbit • 1969: Saturn V rocket launches Apollo 11 – First, and only, successful moon landing – Neal Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins

  The Bay of Pigs Invasion • Considered JFK’s first major foreign policy issue • The Bay of Pigs Invasion • Considered JFK’s first major foreign policy issue • Intended to overthrow Fidel Castro, who had become too cozy with Khrushchev • Eisenhower, before leaving office, had approved CIA training of Cuban exiles

  JFK Starts the Invasion (April 17, 1961) • JFK hopes to start a revolution, JFK Starts the Invasion (April 17, 1961) • JFK hopes to start a revolution, authorizes invasion • Total Failure: – 1, 400 armed Cubans, called La Brigada – Runs aground on a coral reef – JFK cancels air support, keep America’s involvement secret – Castro captured or killed almost all of La Brigada – Exposed American covert operations

  The Berlin Wall (August 1961) • Immediately following the Bay of Pigs fiasco • The Berlin Wall (August 1961) • Immediately following the Bay of Pigs fiasco • JFK and Khrushchev meet in Berlin to discuss E. German refugees escaping to West Berlin • JFK promises to continue support • Khrushchev orders the construction of the wall

  The Cuban Missile Crisis (Oct. 12, 1962) • American spy plan discovers the construction The Cuban Missile Crisis (Oct. 12, 1962) • American spy plan discovers the construction of missile launching sites in Cuba • Khrushchev had offered nuclear missiles to force JFK’s concessions in Berlin • Began 13 days of an intense stare down

  Nuclear Chicken • JFK pushes for naval blockade • Goal: – Seize any ships Nuclear Chicken • JFK pushes for naval blockade • Goal: – Seize any ships going into/out of Cuba – Force the immediate removal of missiles • The Problem: – A direct attack on Soviets would be an act of war – The existence of the missiles were an act of war

  The Fallout (Oct. 28, 1962) • Russia blinks! • Russia removes missiles from Cuba The Fallout (Oct. 28, 1962) • Russia blinks! • Russia removes missiles from Cuba • U. S. removes missiles from Turkey • Quarantine ends, but embargo begins • The Problems: – Khrushchev forced from office – Kremlin begins nuclear expansion – U. S. and Russia agree to test ban treaty – Establish direct communication link: the red phone

  Part IV:  The Killing of a President November 22, 1963 Part IV: The Killing of a President November 22,

  The Arrival in Dallas • JFK, LBJ, and families arrive in Dallas for a The Arrival in Dallas • JFK, LBJ, and families arrive in Dallas for a political rally • The families separate for an escorted drive in downtown Dallas • Shots fired: JFK shot in the head and the throat • Eyewitnesses argue about the number and locations of shots

  The Plot Thickens The Birth of a Conspiracy • Lee Harvey Oswald had connections The Plot Thickens The Birth of a Conspiracy • Lee Harvey Oswald had connections with Russia and supported the revolution in Cuba • Arrested 80 minutes after the assassination • Evidence found at the Book Repository, where he shot Kennedy • Oswald shot by Jack Ruby, 2 days later

  The Big Questions • Why did Lee Harvey Oswald kill Kennedy?  • Why The Big Questions • Why did Lee Harvey Oswald kill Kennedy? • Why did Jack Ruby kill Oswald? • Why is there conflicting evidence? • Was this part of a larger conspiracy?

  The Warren Commission • Chief Justice Earl Warren starts federal investigation • Goal: – The Warren Commission • Chief Justice Earl Warren starts federal investigation • Goal: – Prevent speculation about conspiracy – Submits report, but remains inconclusive – Fuels conspiracy • LBJ immediately becomes president

  The Legacy • Devastated the country and shocked the world • Seemed to end The Legacy • Devastated the country and shocked the world • Seemed to end the dream of innocence of the 1950 s • Coincided with a broader wave of social change: the Civil Rights Movement, the Feminist Movement, escalation in Vietnam, and the Free-Speech and Anti-War Movements • LBJ becomes president and will take a stronger position on Vietnam and Civil Rights

  Part V:  LBJ and the Great Society Taking the presidency after JFK’s assassination, Part V: LBJ and the Great Society Taking the presidency after JFK’s assassination, LBJ was immediately confronted with an explosion of violence over Civil Rights, the need to engage more troops into Vietnam, and a need to improve conditions throughout American society.

  Johnson’s Background • Experience as long-running conservative, Southern Democrat from Texas • Known for Johnson’s Background • Experience as long-running conservative, Southern Democrat from Texas • Known for building coalitions by strong-arm, handshake, drinks, and backslaps • Immediately sworn in as president • Continued JFK’s social and domestic programs

  The Great Society • LBJ’s political experience helped push many bills through Congress • The Great Society • LBJ’s political experience helped push many bills through Congress • Firmly committed to social action • Declared a “War on Poverty” – Started Economic Opportunity Act to coordinate economic recovery – Neighborhood Youth Corp : Helped youth graduate and get jobs – Job Corps : Provide job training and placement for inner-cities – VISTA (Volunteer Service to America) : Domestic Peace Corps

  Creating a More Equitable Society • Medicare (1965):  Comprehensive health coverage for the Creating a More Equitable Society • Medicare (1965): Comprehensive health coverage for the elderly • Medicaid (1965): Comprehensive medical insurance for low-income families

  Education and Environment • Project Head Start  (1965):  Fund preschool programs for Education and Environment • Project Head Start (1965): Fund preschool programs for low-income families • The Water Quality Act and The Clean Air Act (1965): Increase regulations on industrial pollution

  Civil Rights • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 :  Banned discrimination of Civil Rights • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 : Banned discrimination of ANY kind • The Voting Rights Act of 1965 : Ensured voting rights to black Americans • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission : Barred discrimination based on race OR gender in the workplace

  Lyndon Johnson’s Legacy • Provided “entitlement funds”--out of the federal budget to disadvantaged groups Lyndon Johnson’s Legacy • Provided “entitlement funds”—out of the federal budget to disadvantaged groups • Skyrocketed federal budget, causing stress on programs • LBJ distracted by other domestic and foreign policy issues – Vietnam – Social Protest • Anti-War • Free Speech • Feminism • Hippies/Free Drug Movement • Civil Rights




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