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The Louisiana Purchase By Ryan Bilger & Jarred Ring The Louisiana Purchase By Ryan Bilger & Jarred Ring

Early Louisiana History n n Originally colonized by France Given up to Spain after Early Louisiana History n n Originally colonized by France Given up to Spain after French and Indian War Treaty of Fontainebleau Americans still allowed to settle in Spanish Louisiana

Quasi-War/XYZ Affair: Early Controversy Between United States and France n n n Quasi-War: Unofficial Quasi-War/XYZ Affair: Early Controversy Between United States and France n n n Quasi-War: Unofficial war where French ships attacked American ships in 1797 XYZ Affair- French government bribing American government for an end to the quasi-war; 1797 -1798 Caused massive uproar among anti-French Americans

Treaty of San Ildefonso n n September 30, 1800 Louisiana given back to France Treaty of San Ildefonso n n September 30, 1800 Louisiana given back to France from Spain supposed to get a French kingdom in Italy, but it was never handed over Treaty supposed to be secret; still found out about by Americans, and the Senate was notified by Thomas Jefferson

Slave Rebellion in St. Domingue n n n St. Domingue- French colony in presentday Slave Rebellion in St. Domingue n n n St. Domingue- French colony in presentday Haiti Led by Toussaint L’Overture Napoleon sent over 40, 000 soldiers to fight rebels French soldiers decimated by yellow fever, forced troops to withdraw Most French defeated in 1802

Napoleon’s Desire to Sell Louisiana n n Loss of St. Domingue diminished Napoleon’s opinion Napoleon’s Desire to Sell Louisiana n n Loss of St. Domingue diminished Napoleon’s opinion of Louisiana Thought it was useless without St. Domingue as a jumping-off point Wanted to ease tension with United States after XYZ Affair Prepared to offer territory to American diplomats in France

Jefferson Appoints Negotiators n n Livingston appointed “Resident Minister at the Court of Napoleon” Jefferson Appoints Negotiators n n Livingston appointed “Resident Minister at the Court of Napoleon” in 1801 Monroe appointed “Envoy Extraordinary” in 1803 Jefferson notified the Senate of these positions in a January 1803 message Both would negotiate the treaty with Napoleon

The Offers for Louisiana n n Monroe was to offer $9, 375, 000 to The Offers for Louisiana n n Monroe was to offer $9, 375, 000 to buy New Orleans and Florida Napoleon offered entire Louisiana Territory for $22, 500, 000 Monroe and Livingston counter-offer $8, 000 Napoleon offers $16, 000, Americans offer $12, 000

Louisiana Purchase Treaty n n France agrees to sell Louisiana for $15, 000; price Louisiana Purchase Treaty n n France agrees to sell Louisiana for $15, 000; price confirmed in First Convention Rate of 6 cents per acre First signed by Livingston and Monroe for the United States in April 1803 Louisiana Territory and all French public/government buildings included

Louisiana Purchase Treaty (cont. ) n n Over 800, 000 acres of land added Louisiana Purchase Treaty (cont. ) n n Over 800, 000 acres of land added Gave U. S. access to the Mississippi River, but France and Spain were still allowed to import; economy boost Money for purchase loaned from a British bank Treaty passed by Congress on October 20, 1803

Louisiana Purchase Immediate Aftermath n n n U. S. occupied Louisiana in December, 1803 Louisiana Purchase Immediate Aftermath n n n U. S. occupied Louisiana in December, 1803 after Spain gave it over to France days before Napoleon’s North American empire was gone; he eventually lost his European empire as well Spain angered by what France had done, but they had no power to change it

Louisiana Purchase Immediate Aftermath (cont. ) n n Lewis and Clark explored the territory Louisiana Purchase Immediate Aftermath (cont. ) n n Lewis and Clark explored the territory from 1805 -1806 Development would displace many natives, as well as change the lives of French and Spanish in the area

Louisiana Purchase Today n n Land is now home to many species of animals Louisiana Purchase Today n n Land is now home to many species of animals New cities built/further developed in LA territory e. g. St. Louis, MO; Kansas City, MO; Omaha, NE Land makes up all or parts of 15 states Contains some of Yellowstone National Park

Thomas Jefferson- Did he overstep his bounds? n n n During negotiations, he didn’t Thomas Jefferson- Did he overstep his bounds? n n n During negotiations, he didn’t have the power to buy the land Nothing in the Constitution about land acquisitions Jefferson himself said he didn’t have the authority; knew it was important acquisition, so he went through with it • Eventually given authority by Congress to acquire Louisiana Territory in Oct. 1803 n Lasting impact on Federal Power

Impact on Federal Power n n Purchase seen as beginning of expansion of federal Impact on Federal Power n n Purchase seen as beginning of expansion of federal power Strengthened federal government; gave them more power to do what they wanted Constitution interpreted more loosely by future governments Examples of growing federal power’s impact throughout history: • Federal power vs. states’ rights argument during Civil War • Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal • Barack Obama’s healthcare reform