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The Legislative Branch Article One of the Constitution The Legislative Branch Article One of the Constitution

Know and Be Able to #7 § Discuss the main differences between the House Know and Be Able to #7 § Discuss the main differences between the House of Representatives and the Senate and how these differences shape each house.

House v. Senate § In your notes make a T-chart with “House” on one House v. Senate § In your notes make a T-chart with “House” on one side and “Senate” on the other. § Review ? – what is it called when you have 2 houses? § The Basics: § # of senators and house members and why § Term of office & number of terms § Constitutional Provisions/Requirements § Who is in charge?

435 Congressional Districts 435 Congressional Districts

House v. Senate § Where do the following fit in our T-Chart: § § House v. Senate § Where do the following fit in our T-Chart: § § § More formal and rigid rules More hierarchically organized Acts more quickly Power concentrated Larger constituencies More prestige Limited debate Only one major committee assignment Revenue bills must start here Many have law degrees Cup v. Saucer

How do these differences shape each house? § The House is the cup and How do these differences shape each house? § The House is the cup and the Senate is the saucer. § The House is “hot” § 2 year terms = always up for re-election – need to fulfill promises § Only represent a district – narrow goals § Only on one major committee § This all adds up to acting more quickly with less compromise § The Senate is the saucer = away from the “heat” § 6 year terms § Represent the whole state § On several committees § This all adds up to acting slower with more compromises

Remember KABAT #7 § Discuss the main differences between the House of Representatives and Remember KABAT #7 § Discuss the main differences between the House of Representatives and the Senate and how these differences shape each house. § Can you answer both parts? § Terms we covered: § President Pro Tempore § Speaker of the House

KABAT # 4 § Discuss the making of congressional districts and the role they KABAT # 4 § Discuss the making of congressional districts and the role they play in American politics. § Review ? – how do we know the population of the U. S. and each state?

Making Congressional Districts § Congressional District = area of a state represented by a Making Congressional Districts § Congressional District = area of a state represented by a member of the House of Reps § Apportionment – how we divide up the 435 seats and how each state is divided into equally populated districts. § Each state is guaranteed at least 1 (even Wyoming) § Census used to determine population for next 10 years § Each State Legislature reapportions (redraws) the district boundaries for their state § Review ? - What does partisan mean?

2000 Colorado Congressional Districts 2000 Colorado Congressional Districts

§ What district was Loveland in from 2000– 2010? § What district was Loveland in from 2000– 2010?

What are the demographics of District 4? What does this mean about our representative? What are the demographics of District 4? What does this mean about our representative?

2010 Colorado Congressional Districts 2010 Colorado Congressional Districts

What district is Loveland in for 2010– 2020? What district is Loveland in for 2010– 2020?

What are the demographics of District 2? What does this mean about our representative? What are the demographics of District 2? What does this mean about our representative?

Gerrymandering § Read: The art of rigging elections § What is gerrymandering? § Is Gerrymandering § Read: The art of rigging elections § What is gerrymandering? § Is redrawing districts legal? § How do legislators pick their voters? § Why is gerrymandering a problem? § How do they know how to draw the new districts? § Do voters care? § Is reform possible? § Your thoughts/opinions?

KABAT #4 § Discuss the making of congressional districts and the role they play KABAT #4 § Discuss the making of congressional districts and the role they play in American politics. § Terms we covered: § Congressional District § Apportion/Reapportion § Gerrymandering

KABAT #5 § Trace the path of a bill from introduction to presidential signing. KABAT #5 § Trace the path of a bill from introduction to presidential signing.

From Bill to Legislation § A bill is introduced § It goes to committee From Bill to Legislation § A bill is introduced § It goes to committee § It gets debated and voted on by the whole § It goes to the other house § It goes to committee § It gets debated and voted on by the whole § It gets signed by the president and becomes legislation

Introducing a Bill § Ideas for bills can and usually do come from outside Introducing a Bill § Ideas for bills can and usually do come from outside of Congress § Citizens President/Exe. Branch Interest Groups § Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress § All bills that deal with revenue ($) – must originate in the House of Reps. § Bills are read, assigned a title (H. R. 234), and sent to a committee

KABAT #1 § Discuss the characteristics, functions, and organization of Congressional Committees KABAT #1 § Discuss the characteristics, functions, and organization of Congressional Committees

Committees § The committee system was created to: § divide up the work – Committees § The committee system was created to: § divide up the work – 5, 500 bills per year § Allow members to specialize in a field (agriculture) § Types of Committees § Standing Committees – permanent – most important – senators serve on several – house members serve on one § Select Committees – temporary – specific issue – crime, hunger, wrongdoing by government official § Joint Committee – like select committees with members from both houses – handle routine items like printing government publications § Conference Committees – very temporary – only formed when both houses pass a different version of the same bill – they compromise to reach agreement

Standing Committees in Senate § § § § § Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Standing Committees in Senate § § § § § Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Governmental Affairs Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Indian Affairs Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business Veterans Affairs

Standing Committees in House § § § § § Agriculture Appropriations Armed Services Banking Standing Committees in House § § § § § Agriculture Appropriations Armed Services Banking and Financial Service Budget Commerce Education and the Workforce Government Reform House Administration International Relations Judiciary Resources Rules Science Small Business Standards of Official Conduct Transportation and Infrastructure Veterans Affairs Ways and Means (taxes)

Committee Assignments § Ratio of party members on each committee mirrors the ratio of Committee Assignments § Ratio of party members on each committee mirrors the ratio of Democrats to Republicans in each house § Let’s say the Senate is 53(R) to 47(D) – the Republicans would have one more member on each committee and they would choose the chairmen because they are the majority party § Committee assignments are done by party leadership § Committee assignment is super important! § If I represent Nebraska – I need to be on the Agriculture Committee to help my constituents § If I represent New York City – I don’t want to be on Agriculture – I need to be on something more associated with my district - say – Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

KABAT #1 § Discuss the characteristics, functions, and organization of Congressional Committees § Terms KABAT #1 § Discuss the characteristics, functions, and organization of Congressional Committees § Terms we covered: § Standing Committees § Select Committees § Joint Committees § Conference Committees

What happens to a bill in Committee § 90% of all bills die in What happens to a bill in Committee § 90% of all bills die in committee – 90% of those are pigeonholed (never discussed) § Hearings § If a bill is acted on – the chair sets up hearings § People interested in the bill present their point of view § Interest groups/Lobbyists – can differ from public opinion § Experts § Citizens – few know about it and can get to D. C. § “Mark up” § After hearings – committee goes through bill and makes changes

What happens to a bill in Committee § Committee Vote § Kill it § What happens to a bill in Committee § Committee Vote § Kill it § Send it to the floor – accompanied by report explaining the bill and why they believe it should be law. § Senate – the bill is scheduled to be heard on the floor § House – the bill must go to the Rules Committee and be approved to go to the floor § If approved they will set time limits for debate and amendments (powerful)

Floor Action and Debate § Often during debate –members are not present – they Floor Action and Debate § Often during debate –members are not present – they get more done in their office and can follow the debate on TV § Controversial topics are better attended § House § Senate § Time limits for each speaker and topic § Speaker can force a member to give up the floor § These rules make it difficult to effect a bill on the floor § No time limits for each speaker or topic § Filibuster – a senator (or group) talk a bill to death

Filibuster § Read: The furor over the filibuster § What is a filibuster? § Filibuster § Read: The furor over the filibuster § What is a filibuster? § Don’t filibusters subvert majority rule? § How often is the tactic used? § Can’t the majority party kill the filibuster? § Your thoughts/opinions on filibusters?

Floor Action and Debate § Amendments can be added (majority vote) § House – Floor Action and Debate § Amendments can be added (majority vote) § House – must be germane (relevant to the topic) § Senate – does not have to be germane – “Christmas tree” bill § Rider – an addition or amendment to a bill that is not relevant to the bill’s topic (not germane) § A bill started in the House on lowering taxes for the wealthy (republican idea) gets a strict gun control amendment (democrat idea) added to it in the Senate

Whole House Vote § 4 options available to Congress members: § Pass the bill Whole House Vote § 4 options available to Congress members: § Pass the bill as written and send it to other house or president § Table or kill the bill § Send the bill back to committee § Offer amendments § Party Leadership is working behind the scenes to ensure passage/failure of important partisan legislation

KABAT # 3 § Discuss party leadership and their roles in Congress KABAT # 3 § Discuss party leadership and their roles in Congress

Party Leadership § House of Representatives § Speaker of the House § Most powerful Party Leadership § House of Representatives § Speaker of the House § Most powerful position in Congress § Controls floor debates § Leader of majority party § Serves an un-fixed term § Floor Leaders § Both the majority and minority party have 2 § Majority Leader and Minority Leader § Party Whips § Inform members when important votes will happen § Count the number of votes expected § Pressure members to support leadership in critical votes

Party Leadership § Senate § V. P. – break tied votes – rarely in Party Leadership § Senate § V. P. – break tied votes – rarely in attendance § President Pro Tempore – ceremonial, lacks real power § Floor Leaders – hold the real power § Majority Leader § Often speaks for the Senate to media § Is allowed 1 st opportunity to speak § Has a powerful say in committee assignments § Party Whips § Difficult job – senators are less tied to the party

KABAT # 3 § Discuss party leadership and their roles in Congress § Terms KABAT # 3 § Discuss party leadership and their roles in Congress § Terms we covered: § Speaker of the House § President Pro Tempore § Majority Leader § Minority Leader § Floor Leader § Whip

From One House to Another § If a bill makes it through: § Introduction From One House to Another § If a bill makes it through: § Introduction § Committee – hearings and mark up § Whole house debate/vote § It goes to the other house and goes through all the steps again. § If the bill is amended by the second house (not typical) it must be approved by the first house or it goes to a conference committee

To the White House § Once a bill (same version) is passed by both To the White House § Once a bill (same version) is passed by both houses it goes to the president. § Sign it = bill becomes legislation/law § Hold it = after 10 days it becomes legislation/law § If he doesn’t agree with it but doesn’t want to veto it § Can later claim – “I didn’t sign it” § Veto it = send it back to original house with explanation of why – 2/3 vote in both houses to override veto (difficult) § Pocket Veto = if congress has less then 10 days left in session – the president can not sign it and it does not become law

Veto § The president’s approval rating has an influence on his veto power § Veto § The president’s approval rating has an influence on his veto power § The threat of a veto usually makes congress rethink their bill (compromise w/ president) § Can’t overuse – if congress is listening to public opinion § Is used more with a divided government

From Bill to Legislation § A bill is introduced § It goes to committee From Bill to Legislation § A bill is introduced § It goes to committee § It gets debated and voted on by the whole § It goes to the other house § It goes to committee § It gets debated and voted on by the whole § It gets signed by the president and becomes legislation

KABAT #5 § Trace the path of a bill from introduction to presidential signing KABAT #5 § Trace the path of a bill from introduction to presidential signing § Terms we covered: § Legislation § Filibuster § Bill § Riders

How does anything get through this process? § Logrolling – the process of exchanging How does anything get through this process? § Logrolling – the process of exchanging political favors for support § You vote for this and I’ll vote for that § You be gone for this vote and I’ll be gone for that one § Voting and attendance records are public information § Pork Barrel – voting for wasteful projects that are popular in their home district § “Bring home the bacon” § $ for roads, parks, mass-transit, military bases, etc… § The “Bridge to Nowhere” § Museum over I 80 in Nebraska

Pork § Read the page on pork: § How is it doled out? § Pork § Read the page on pork: § How is it doled out? § Examples of pork § Who decides who gets the pork? § Can it be stopped?

§ Empty Legislation – a law is passed, to satisfy public opinion, that is § Empty Legislation – a law is passed, to satisfy public opinion, that is not enforced or will not work § Companies can be fined $25, 000 for each illegal immigrant found working for them § This would work if enforced § Sounds good to the public § Rarely used because of the ramifications on big business and the economy § Public opinion wants more gun control § Congress will pass new laws (want votes) § New laws will do little to change gun culture

§ Influence Peddling – the practice of using personal friendships and inside information to § Influence Peddling – the practice of using personal friendships and inside information to get a political advantage. § Retiring legislators get hired as lobbyists – they know the system and committee members § Laws prohibit them from directly lobbying for 1 year (leg. Branch) and 5 years (exe. Branch) but they can tell someone else how to do it. § Often hired by companies and paid extremely well for info. that will help the company “beat” the laws/regulations passed by congress

Independent Regulatory Agencies § Also know as Independent Regulatory Commissions § Extraordinary degree of Independent Regulatory Agencies § Also know as Independent Regulatory Commissions § Extraordinary degree of independence from executive & legislative branches (nonpartisan) § Government Watchdog – power to shut down business § Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) – watches the stock market § Federal Communications Commission (FCC) – license radio and TV stations and put regulations on their programming § Each agency must reapply for funding every year

Terms we covered: § Logrolling § Pork Barrel § Empty Legislation § Influence Peddling Terms we covered: § Logrolling § Pork Barrel § Empty Legislation § Influence Peddling § Independent Regulatory Commissions § What would the founding fathers think of these tactics?

KABAT #8 & KABAT #2 § Describe the “Iron Triangle” and its role in KABAT #8 & KABAT #2 § Describe the “Iron Triangle” and its role in formulating and implementing legislation. § Discuss how the committee system, interest groups, and the president are involved in passing legislation.

The Iron Triangle The Iron Triangle

The President’s Role § Party Leader § Veto Power § Can’t overuse – if The President’s Role § Party Leader § Veto Power § Can’t overuse – if congress is following public opinion § Won’t use if it will be overridden – looks weak § Threat of veto will change the bill in congress § Veto used more when we have divided government § 2 nd term president has a little more freedom

Who makes Public Policy? § Who has more say in the making of public Who makes Public Policy? § Who has more say in the making of public policy? Congress or the President – depends on the popularity of the president § Public Policy is relatively stable because of the separation of powers and system of checks and balances + the Iron Triangle – too many involved to be one sided

KABAT #8 & KABAT#2 § Describe the “Iron Triangle” and its role in formulating KABAT #8 & KABAT#2 § Describe the “Iron Triangle” and its role in formulating and implementing legislation. § Discuss how the committee system, interest groups, and the president are involved in passing legislation. § Terms we covered: § Iron Triangle

Oversight § Through its committees – Congress reviews the work of the federal agencies Oversight § Through its committees – Congress reviews the work of the federal agencies § Investigate charges of corruption and waste § Hold hearing with experts and citizens to discuss government’s problems § Senate approves cabinet positions and all positions in the federal court system § All bills involving money must go through oversight with an authorization bill – how much $ they get

The Federal Budget The Federal Budget

§ The largest portion of the federal budget covers the costs of entitlement programs § The largest portion of the federal budget covers the costs of entitlement programs § Social Security § Medicare § Medicaid § Income Security § These programs are difficult to cut because of their popularity with their numerous beneficiaries § The military is by far the second largest area of spending

Extra Credit § Google: Budget Hero § Play the budget game § Print summary Extra Credit § Google: Budget Hero § Play the budget game § Print summary § Write a summary of what you did and why? § Explain how you cut the budget and still believe you will get re-elected

Write 2 new rules for TVHS § Areas to think about: § Time school Write 2 new rules for TVHS § Areas to think about: § Time school starts/ends § Lunch – Longer? Shorter? § Schedule – keep block or 8 period day § Study Halls – mandatory, as is, get rid of? § Graduation Requirements – good or change? § Dress Code – good or change? § Other? ? ? § Be sure to put your name at the top of each bill