The Human Brain MasterWatermarkImage: http: //williamcalvin.

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The Human Brain Master. Watermark. Image: http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain. For. All. Seasons/img/bonobo. LHhuman. LHvia. TWD. gifThe Human Brain Master. Watermark. Image: http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain. For. All. Seasons/img/bonobo. LHhuman. LHvia. TWD. gif

Part I: Lobes, the Cerebral Cortex, and Cortical Regions of the Brain Part I: Lobes, the Cerebral Cortex, and Cortical Regions of the Brain

Objectives:  • Studentswillbeabletodescribethegeneralstructureofthe Cerebrumand. Cerebral. Cortex.  •  Studentswillbeabletoidentifythe. Cerebrum, the. Lobesof the. Brain,Objectives: • Studentswillbeabletodescribethegeneralstructureofthe Cerebrumand. Cerebral. Cortex. • Studentswillbeabletoidentifythe. Cerebrum, the. Lobesof the. Brain, the. Cerebral. Cortex, anditsmajorregions/divisions. • Studentswillbeabletodescribetheprimaryfunctionsof the. Lobesandthe. Cortical. Regionsofthe. Brain.

Cerebrum Thelargestdivisionofthebrain. Itis dividedintotwohemispheres, eachofwhichis dividedintofourlobes. Cerebrum Cerebellum http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain. For. All. Seasons/img/bonobo. LHhuman. LHvia.Cerebrum Thelargestdivisionofthebrain. Itis dividedintotwohemispheres, eachofwhichis dividedintofourlobes. Cerebrum Cerebellum http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain. For. All. Seasons/img/bonobo. LHhuman. LHvia. TWD. gif

Cerebral Cortex. Cerebral. Cortex. Theoutermostlayerofgray mattermakingupthesuperficialaspectofthe cerebrum. http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/16. tif. jpg Cerebral Cortex. Cerebral. Cortex. Theoutermostlayerofgray mattermakingupthesuperficialaspectofthe cerebrum. http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/16. tif. jpg

Cerebral Features:  •  Sulci – Small grooves dividing the gyri –  Central SulcusCerebral Features: • Sulci – Small grooves dividing the gyri – Central Sulcus – Divides the Frontal Lobe from the Parietal Lobe • Fissures – Deep grooves, generally dividing large regions/lobes of the brain – Longitudinal Fissure – Divides the two Cerebral Hemispheres – Transverse Fissure – Separates the Cerebrum from the Cerebellum – Sylvian/Lateral Fissure – Divides the Temporal Lobe from the Frontal and Parietal Lobes • Gyri – Elevated ridges “winding” around the brain.

Gyri(ridge) Fissure (deepgroove) Sulci (groove) http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain. For. All. Seasons/img/bonobo. LHhuman. LHvia. TWD. gif Gyri(ridge) Fissure (deepgroove) Sulci (groove) http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain. For. All. Seasons/img/bonobo. LHhuman. LHvia. TWD. gif

Longitudinal. Fissure Transverse. Fissure. Sylvian/Lateral Fissure Central. Sulcus http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg http: //www.Longitudinal. Fissure Transverse. Fissure. Sylvian/Lateral Fissure Central. Sulcus http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg http: //www. dalbsoutss. eq. edu. au/Sheepbrains_Me/human_brain. gif. Specific. Sulci/Fissures:

Lobesofthe. Brain(4) • Frontal • Parietal • Occipital • Temporal *Note: Occasionally, the. Insulaisconsideredthefifthlobe. Itislocateddeep tothe.Lobesofthe. Brain(4) • Frontal • Parietal • Occipital • Temporal *Note: Occasionally, the. Insulaisconsideredthefifthlobe. Itislocateddeep tothe. Temporal. Lobe. http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg

Lobesofthe. Brain. Frontal • The. Frontal. Lobeofthebrainislocateddeeptothe Frontal. Boneoftheskull. (Investigation: Phineas. Gage) •  Itplaysanintegralroleinthefollowingfunctions/actions: Memory.Lobesofthe. Brain. Frontal • The. Frontal. Lobeofthebrainislocateddeeptothe Frontal. Boneoftheskull. (Investigation: Phineas. Gage) • Itplaysanintegralroleinthefollowingfunctions/actions: Memory. Formation Emotions Decision. Making/Reasoning Personality Investigation(Phineas. Gage) Modifiedfrom: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg

Frontal. Lobe. Cortical. Regions • Orbitofrontal. Cortex –Siteof. Frontal. Lobotomies •  Primary. Motor. Cortex(Precentral. Gyrus)Frontal. Lobe. Cortical. Regions • Orbitofrontal. Cortex –Siteof. Frontal. Lobotomies • Primary. Motor. Cortex(Precentral. Gyrus) –Corticalsite involvedwithcontrollingmovementsofthebody. • Broca’s. Area –Controlsfacialneurons, speech, andlanguage comprehension. Locatedon Left Frontal. Lobe. – Broca’s. Aphasia –Resultsintheabilitytocomprehendspeech, but thedecreasedmotorability(orinability)tospeakandformwords. • Olfactory. Bulb Cranial. Nerve. I, Responsibleforsensationof. Smell* Desired. Effects: Diminished. Rage Decreased. Aggression Poor. Emotional Responses * Possible. Side. Effects: Epilepsy Poor. Emotional. Responses Perseveration(Uncontrolled, repetitive actions, gestures, orwords)

Primary. Motor Cortex/Precentral Gyrus Broca’s Area Orbitofrontal Cortex Olfactory. Bulb Modifiedfrom: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif.Primary. Motor Cortex/Precentral Gyrus Broca’s Area Orbitofrontal Cortex Olfactory. Bulb Modifiedfrom: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg Regions. Investigation(Phineas. Gage)

Lobesofthe. Brain. Parietal. Lobe • The. Parietal. Lobeofthebrainislocateddeeptothe Parietal. Boneoftheskull.  •  Itplaysamajorroleinthefollowingfunctions/actions:  SensesLobesofthe. Brain. Parietal. Lobe • The. Parietal. Lobeofthebrainislocateddeeptothe Parietal. Boneoftheskull. • Itplaysamajorroleinthefollowingfunctions/actions: Senses and integrates sensation(s) — Spatial awareness and perception (Proprioception — Awareness of body/ body parts in space and in relation to each other) Modifiedfrom: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg

Parietal. Lobe. Cortical. Regions • Primary Somatosensory Cortex (Postcentral Gyrus) – Site involved with processing ofParietal. Lobe. Cortical. Regions • Primary Somatosensory Cortex (Postcentral Gyrus) – Site involved with processing of tactile and proprioceptive information. • Somatosensory Association Cortex — Assists with the integration and interpretation of sensations relative to body position and orientation in space. May assist with visuo-motor coordination. • Primary Gustatory Cortex – Primary site involved with the interpretation of the sensation of Taste.

Primary Somatosensory Cortex/ Postcentral. Gyrus Primary Gustatory. Cortex. Somatosensory Association. Cortex Regions. Modifiedfrom: http: //www. bioon.Primary Somatosensory Cortex/ Postcentral. Gyrus Primary Gustatory. Cortex. Somatosensory Association. Cortex Regions. Modifiedfrom: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg

Lobesofthe. Brain–Occipital. Lobe • The. Occipital. Lobeofthe Brainislocateddeeptothe Occipital. Boneofthe. Skull.  •  Itsprimaryfunctionisthe processing,Lobesofthe. Brain–Occipital. Lobe • The. Occipital. Lobeofthe Brainislocateddeeptothe Occipital. Boneofthe. Skull. • Itsprimaryfunctionisthe processing, integration, interpretation, etc. of. VISIONand visualstimuli. Modifiedfrom: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg

Occipital. Lobe–Cortical. Regions • Primary. Visual. Cortex –Thisistheprimary areaofthebrainresponsibleforsight recognitionofsize, color, light, motion, dimensions, etc. Occipital. Lobe–Cortical. Regions • Primary. Visual. Cortex –Thisistheprimary areaofthebrainresponsibleforsight recognitionofsize, color, light, motion, dimensions, etc. • Visual. Association. Area –Interprets informationacquiredthroughtheprimaryvisual cortex.

Primary. Visual Cortex Visual Association. Area Regions. Modifiedfrom: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg  Primary. Visual Cortex Visual Association. Area Regions. Modifiedfrom: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg

Lobesofthe. Brain–Temporal. Lobe • The. Temporal. Lobesarelocatedonthesidesofthe brain, deeptothe. Temporal. Bonesoftheskull.  •  Theyplayanintegralrole inthefollowingfunctions:Lobesofthe. Brain–Temporal. Lobe • The. Temporal. Lobesarelocatedonthesidesofthe brain, deeptothe. Temporal. Bonesoftheskull. • Theyplayanintegralrole inthefollowingfunctions: Hearing Organization/Comprehension oflanguage Information. Retrieval (Memoryand. Memory. Formation) Modifiedfrom: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg

Temporal. Lobe–Cortical. Regions • Primary. Auditory. Cortex –Responsibleforhearing •  Primary. Olfactory. Cortex –Interpretsthesenseof smellonceitreachesthecortexviatheolfactory bulbs.Temporal. Lobe–Cortical. Regions • Primary. Auditory. Cortex –Responsibleforhearing • Primary. Olfactory. Cortex –Interpretsthesenseof smellonceitreachesthecortexviatheolfactory bulbs. (Notvisibleonthesuperficialcortex) • Wernicke’s. Area –Languagecomprehension. Locatedonthe Left Temporal. Lobe. Wernicke’s. Aphasia –Languagecomprehension isinhibited. Wordsandsentencesarenotclearly understood, andsentenceformationmaybeinhibitedor nonsensical.

Primary Auditory Cortex Wernike’s. Area Primary. Olfactory Cortex(Deep) Conductedfrom. Olfactory. Bulb Regions Modifiedfrom: http: //www. bioon.Primary Auditory Cortex Wernike’s. Area Primary. Olfactory Cortex(Deep) Conductedfrom. Olfactory. Bulb Regions Modifiedfrom: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg

 •  Arcuate. Fasciculus Awhitemattertractthatconnects. Broca’s. Areaand Wernicke’s. Areathroughthe. Temporal, Parietaland. Frontal. Lobes. Allows forcoordinated, • Arcuate. Fasciculus Awhitemattertractthatconnects. Broca’s. Areaand Wernicke’s. Areathroughthe. Temporal, Parietaland. Frontal. Lobes. Allows forcoordinated, comprehensiblespeech. Damagemayresultin: — Conduction Aphasia — Where auditory comprehension and speech articulation are preserved, but people find it difficult to repeat heard speech. Modifiedfrom: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg

Clickthe. Regiontoseeits. Name Korbinian. Broadmann. Learnaboutthemanwhodividedthe. Cerebral. Cortexinto 52 distinctregions: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Korbinian_ Brodmann Modifiedfrom:Clickthe. Regiontoseeits. Name Korbinian. Broadmann. Learnaboutthemanwhodividedthe. Cerebral. Cortexinto 52 distinctregions: http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Korbinian_ Brodmann Modifiedfrom: http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg

Lobesand. Structuresofthe. Brain B. A. C. D. E. F. G. http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain. For. All. Seasons/img/bonobo.Lobesand. Structuresofthe. Brain B. A. C. D. E. F. G. http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain. For. All. Seasons/img/bonobo. LHhuman. LHvia. TWD. gif

Lobesand. Structuresofthe. Brain B. A. (groove) C. (groove) D. E. F. G. B. Frontal. Lobe G.Lobesand. Structuresofthe. Brain B. A. (groove) C. (groove) D. E. F. G. B. Frontal. Lobe G. Parietal. Lobe. F. Occipital. Lobe. D. Temporal. Lobe. A. Central. Sulcus (groove)E. Transverse. Fissure. C. Sylvian/Lateral. Fissure http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain. For. All. Seasons/img/bonobo. LHhuman. LHvia. TWD. gif

Cortical. Regions A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain.Cortical. Regions A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain. For. All. Seasons/img/bonobo. LHhuman. LHvia. TWD. gif

Cortical. Regions A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. A. Primary. Motor.Cortical. Regions A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. A. Primary. Motor. Cortex/Precentral. Gyrus B. Broca’s. Area C. Orbitofrontal. Cortex K. Primary. Somatosensory Cortex/Postcentral. Gyrus. I. Primary. Gustatory. Cortex J. Somatosensory Association. Cortex. G. Primary. Visual. Cortex H. Visual Association. Area. E. Primary. Auditory Cortex F. Wernike’s. Area. D. Primary. Olfactory. Cortex (Deep) http: //williamcalvin. com/Brain. For. All. Seasons/img/bonobo. LHhuman. LHvia. TWD. gif

Q: Assumingthiscomicalsituationwasfactually accurate, what. Cortical. Regionofthebrainwould thesedoctorsbestimulating? Copyright: Gary. Larson Q: Assumingthiscomicalsituationwasfactually accurate, what. Cortical. Regionofthebrainwould thesedoctorsbestimulating? Copyright: Gary. Larson

A: Primary. Motor. Cortex *Thisgraphicrepresentationoftheregionsofthe. Primary. Motor. Cortexand Primary. Sensory. Cortexisoneexampleofa. HOMUNCULUS: Homunculus A: Primary. Motor. Cortex *Thisgraphicrepresentationoftheregionsofthe. Primary. Motor. Cortexand Primary. Sensory. Cortexisoneexampleofa. HOMUNCULUS: Homunculus

Q: Whatdoyounoticeabouttheproportions depictedintheaforementionedhomunculus? Q: Whatismeantbydepictingthesebodyparts insuchoutrageousproportions? A: Theyarenotdepictedinthesamescalerepresentativeof thehumanbody. A: Theseoutrageousproportionsdepictthecorticalarea devotedtoeachstructure.  Ex: Yourhandsrequiremanyintricatemovementsand sensationstofunctionproperly.Q: Whatdoyounoticeabouttheproportions depictedintheaforementionedhomunculus? Q: Whatismeantbydepictingthesebodyparts insuchoutrageousproportions? A: Theyarenotdepictedinthesamescalerepresentativeof thehumanbody. A: Theseoutrageousproportionsdepictthecorticalarea devotedtoeachstructure. Ex: Yourhandsrequiremanyintricatemovementsand sensationstofunctionproperly. Thisrequiresagreatdealof corticalsurfaceareatocontrolthesedetailedactions. Your backisquitetheopposite, requiringlimitedcorticalareato carryoutitsactionsandfunctions, ordetectsensation. Back. Hom. *Note: Homunculusliterallymeans“littleperson, ”andmayrefertoonewhosebodyshapeis governedbythecorticalareadevotedtothatbodyregion.

Further. Investigation Phineas. Gage: Phineas. Gagewasarailroadworkerinthe 19 thcenturylivingin Cavendish, Vermont. Oneofhisjobswastosetoffexplosivechargesinlargerockin ordertobreakthemintosmallerpieces. Ononeoftheseinstances, thedetonation occurredpriortohisexpectations, resultinginaFurther. Investigation Phineas. Gage: Phineas. Gagewasarailroadworkerinthe 19 thcenturylivingin Cavendish, Vermont. Oneofhisjobswastosetoffexplosivechargesinlargerockin ordertobreakthemintosmallerpieces. Ononeoftheseinstances, thedetonation occurredpriortohisexpectations, resultingina 42 inchlong, 1. 2 inchwide, metalrod tobeblownrightupthroughhisskullandoutthetop. Therodenteredhisskullbelow hisleftcheekboneandexitedafterpassingthroughtheanteriorfrontallobeofhis brain. Frontal

Remarkably, Gageneverlostconsciousness, orquicklyregainedit(thereisstillsome debate), sufferedlittletonopain, andwasawakeandalertwhenhereachedadoctor approximately 45 minuteslater. Hehadanormalpulseandnormalvision, and followingashortperiodofrest, returnedtoworkseveraldayslater. However, hewas notunaffectedbythisaccident.Remarkably, Gageneverlostconsciousness, orquicklyregainedit(thereisstillsome debate), sufferedlittletonopain, andwasawakeandalertwhenhereachedadoctor approximately 45 minuteslater. Hehadanormalpulseandnormalvision, and followingashortperiodofrest, returnedtoworkseveraldayslater. However, hewas notunaffectedbythisaccident. Learnmoreabout. Phineas. Gage: http: //en. wikipedia. org/ wiki / Phineas _Gage Frontalhttp: //www. sruweb. com/~walsh/gage 5. jpg

Q: Recallingwhatyouhavejustlearnedregardingthefrontallobe, what possibleproblemsorabnormalitiesmay. Gagehavepresentedwith subsequenttothistypeofinjury (rememberthepreciselocationoftherod throughhisbrain) ? A: Gage’spersonality, reasoning, andcapacitytounderstandandfollowsocial normshadbeendiminishedordestroyed. Heillustratedlittletonointerestin hobbiesorotherinvolvementsthatatonetimehecaredforgreatly.Q: Recallingwhatyouhavejustlearnedregardingthefrontallobe, what possibleproblemsorabnormalitiesmay. Gagehavepresentedwith subsequenttothistypeofinjury (rememberthepreciselocationoftherod throughhisbrain) ? A: Gage’spersonality, reasoning, andcapacitytounderstandandfollowsocial normshadbeendiminishedordestroyed. Heillustratedlittletonointerestin hobbiesorotherinvolvementsthatatonetimehecaredforgreatly. ‘Afterthe accident, Gagebecameanasty, vulgar, irresponsiblevagrant. Hisformer employer, whoregardedhimas»themostefficientandcapableforemanin theiremployprevioustohisinjury, «refusedtorehimbecausehewasso different. ’ Q: Itissuggestedthat. Gage’sinjuryinspiredthedevelopmentofwhatatone timewasawidelyusedmedicalprocedure. Whatmightthisprocedurebe, and howdoesitrelateto. Gage’sinjury? A: Thefrontallobotomy. Thishasbeenusedwiththeintentiontodiminish aggressionandrageinmentalpatients, butgenerallyresultsindrastic personalitychanges, andaninabilitytorelatesocially. Thisprocedureis largelyfrownedupontoday, withthedevelopmentofneurologicaldrugsas treatments. Frontal

Resources Images:  • http: //www. dalbsoutss. eq. edu. au/ Sheepbrains _Me/human_brain. gif • http: //www.Resources Images: • http: //www. dalbsoutss. eq. edu. au/ Sheepbrains _Me/human_brain. gif • http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/18. tif. jpg • http: //www. bioon. com/book/biology/whole/image/1/16. tif. jpg • http: // williamcalvin. com/ Brain. For. All. Seasons / img / bonobo. LH human. LH via. TWD. gif • http: //www. math. tu dresden. de/~ belov /brain/motorcor 2. gif • Larson, Gary. The. Far. Side. Phineas. Gage: • http: //www. sruweb. com/~ walsh /gage 5. jpg • http: //soma. npa. uiuc. edu /courses/bio 303/Image 7. jpg • http: //en. wikipedia. org/ wiki / Phineas _Gage • http: //scienceeducation. nih. gov / nih. HTML / ose /snapshots/multimedia/ ritn /Gage/Broken_brain 1. html

Suggested. Supplementary. Materials: 1. Skeleton. Outlinefornotetaking. 2. Multiple. Diagramsofthe. Human. Brain. *Studentswilllabelfeatures/lobes *Studentswillcolorcodecorticalregions 3. Worksheets(matching, shortanswer,Suggested. Supplementary. Materials: 1. Skeleton. Outlinefornotetaking. 2. Multiple. Diagramsofthe. Human. Brain. *Studentswilllabelfeatures/lobes *Studentswillcolorcodecorticalregions 3. Worksheets(matching, shortanswer, etc. ), centeredaroundthefunctionsofthe lobesandregionsofthecerebrum. 4. Amoreindeptharticleon. Phineas. Gage. Readanddiscussasaclasstime permitting. Suggested. Assessments: 1. Class/individualquestioningthroughout(especiallyattheconclusionof)the presentation. 2. Homeworksheetsdiscussedorcollectedinclass. 3. Studentswilltakeatestonthenervoussysteminwhichtheywillberesponsible forthestructures, lobes, regions, functions, etc.

Broad. Concept: Thereisarelationshipbetweenstructureand functioninorgansystemsofhumans. 4. 1 Explainhowmajororgansystemsinhumans(e. g. , kidney, muscle, lung)havefunctionalunits(e. g. , nephron, sarcome,Broad. Concept: Thereisarelationshipbetweenstructureand functioninorgansystemsofhumans. 4. 1 Explainhowmajororgansystemsinhumans(e. g. , kidney, muscle, lung)havefunctionalunits(e. g. , nephron, sarcome, alveoli)withspecificanatomythatperformthe functionofthatorgansystem. 4. 2 Describehowthefunctionofindividualsystemswithin humansareintegratedtomaintainahomeostaticbalancein thebody. *Note: This. Power. Pointhasbeendevelopedfor. Juniorsand Seniorsenrolledin. Anatomyand. Physiology. Courses. Thus, the detailoftheconceptsandinformationcontainedhereinisfar greaterthanrequiredbythestate. Biologystandardslistedabove. Massachusetts. State. Biology. Standards

National. Standards: THE BEHAVIOR OF ORGANISMS: • Multicellular animals have nervous systems that generate behavior. NervousNational. Standards: THE BEHAVIOR OF ORGANISMS: • Multicellular animals have nervous systems that generate behavior. Nervous systems are formed from specialized cells that conduct signals rapidly through the long cell extensions that make up nerves. The nerve cells communicate with each other by secreting specific excitatory and inhibitory molecules. In sense organs, specialized cells detect light, sound, and specific chemicals and enable animals to monitor what is going on in the world around them. • Organisms have behavioral responses to internal changes and to external stimuli. Responses to external stimuli can result from interactions with the organism’s own species and others, as well as environmental changes; these responses either can be innate or learned. The broad patterns of behavior exhibited by animals have evolved to ensure reproductive success. Animals often live in unpredictable environments, and so their behavior must be flexible enough to deal with uncertainty and change. Plants also respond to stimuli. • Like other aspects of an organism’s biology, behaviors have evolved through natural selection. Behaviors often have an adaptive logic when viewed in terms of evolutionary principles. • Behavioral biology has implications for humans, as it provides links to psychology, sociology, and anthropology.