GULF WAR GEOGRAPHY.pptx
- Количество слайдов: 13
THE GULF WAR: OIL AND TRANSPORTATION 1990 -1991 K S E N I A D I A N A S U M K I N A G O L U B I T S K A Y A C H R I S T I N A M O N I K A C H E R V O T K I N A O G A N O S Y A N
GEOGRAPHY Located in Southwest Asia Extension of the Indian Ocean Located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula
К 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. RESOURCES AND SIGNIFICANCE - Сoastal areas are the world's largest single source of crude oil (http: //www. persianorarabiangulf. com/index. php? c_page=5) - The Safaniya oil field is considered the largest offshore oil field in the world. (https: //www. dovregroup. com/news/safaniya-oil-field. html) - Large gas finds and dominations of related industries (https: //www. dovregroup. com/news/safaniya-oil-field. html) Conclusion: Because of its natural resources, access to the Persian Gulf has become the focus of international tension, such as the 1990 -1988 Iraq-Iran War and 1990 -1991 Persian Gulf War. (http: //www. newworldencyclopedia. org/entry/Persian_Gulf)
SAFANIYA OIL FIELD
COUNTRIES PARTICIPANTS Main Participants Iraq(Saddam Hussein) Kuwait(Emir of Kuwait) USA(George Bush)
INTERESTS OF THE MAIN MEMBERS get large oil reserves from Kuwait in case of canceling a large debt Iraq owed Kuwait; expanding their power in the region (https: //www. britannica. com/event/Persian-Gulf. War) protection of Saudi. Arabia and Liberation of Kuwait (https: //www. britannica. com/event/Persian-Gulf. War) To be saved
COURSE OF THE WAR After Geneva Conference (25 July 1990) Hussein: - delivered a speech in which he accused neighboring nation Kuwait of siphoning crude oil from the Ar-Rumaylah oil fields located along their common border. - insisted that Kuwait and Saudi Arabia and cancel out $30 billion of Iraq’s foreign debt, and accused them of conspiring to keep oil prices low in an effort to pander to Western oil-buying nations. Two-thirds of the 21 members of the Arab League condemned Iraq's act of aggression, and Saudi Arabia's King Fahd, along with Kuwait's governmentin-exile, turned to the United States and other members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization support (http: //www. history. com/topics/persian-gulfwar)
RESULTS OF THE WAR § 1) Iraq expelled from Kuwait Ø 2) Kuwaiti monarchy restored • 3) Destruction of Iraqi and Kuwaiti infrastructure • 4) Saddam Hussein retains power • 5) UN sanctions against Iraq maintained until 2003 • 6) United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 establishes cease-fire terms, beginning of the Iraq disarmament controversies • 7) Ecological Problems http: //www. reviewfund. com/article? sq=Fund&q=Gulf_War
THE TRANSPORT IMPORTANCE OF THE PERSIAN GULF Some 85% of oil extracted here is exported Provide 20% of the world oil production http: //www. tandfonline. com/doi/pdf/10. 1080 /01441649008716749 Supply about 40% of the world's crude oil exports About 15% of oil product exports
• Large gas finds have also been made, with Qatar and Iran sharing a giant field across the territorial median line (North Field in the Qatari sector; South Pars Field in the Iranian sector). Using this gas, Qatar has built up a substantial liquefied natural gas (LNG) and petrochemical industry. • http: //www. newworldencyclopedia. org/entry/Persian _Gulf
HTTP: //WWW. TANDFONLINE. COM/DOI/PDF/10. 1080/01441 649008716749 q Petroleum is mainly loaded onto tankers in the Gulf, although some is pumped through pipelines to ports on the Mediterranean and Red Seas. • Most of the oil is carried out from the Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz. The bulk of the supply is directed towards Western Europe and Japan. • The economic existence of many states depends upon this petroleum supply from the Gulf.
FUNNY FACT • After the USA set off to the operation desert Shield in the Persian Gulf, an unusual thing began in the US: yellow ribbons tied around trees and various other objects in public places. the yellow sighified that servicemen off on a mission were not forgotten and their homecoming was waiting for them.
REFERENCES • http: //www. persianorarabiangulf. com/index. php? c_page=5 • https: //www. dovregroup. com/news/safaniya-oil-field. html • http: //www. newworldencyclopedia. org/entry/Persian_Gulf • https: //www. britannica. com/event/Persian-Gulf-War • http: //www. history. com/topics/persian-gulf-war • http: //www. reviewfund. com/article? sq=Fund&q=Gulf_War • http: //www. tandfonline. com/doi/pdf/10. 1080/01441649008716749 • http: //www. newworldencyclopedia. org/entry/Persian_Gulf