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The future of manufacturing in Europe and the role of nanotechnologies Ezio ANDRETA Director The future of manufacturing in Europe and the role of nanotechnologies Ezio ANDRETA Director “Industrial Technologies” Research Directorate-general European Commission These pages do not represent any commitment on behalf of the European Commission. Please refer to official documents. See, e. g. : http: //www. cordis. lu/fp 6; http: //europa. eu. int/comm/research/fp 6/index_en. html; http: //www. cordis. lu/nanotechnology Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

Manufacturing today worldwide… • Around 25% of GDP (22% in EU) EU • In Manufacturing today worldwide… • Around 25% of GDP (22% in EU) EU • In Europe about 2. 5 million enterprises (of which 99% SMEs) and 28% of employment European strengths: knowledge generation, products customisation, creativity European weaknesses: low productivity growth, low development of high-tech industries, low innovation, skill gaps • • Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

Important economic changes to come … Bucharest, 14 th May 2004 Important economic changes to come … Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

Source : “ Will ‘Made in USA’ Fade Away”, Fortune Nov 24, 03 Bucharest, Source : “ Will ‘Made in USA’ Fade Away”, Fortune Nov 24, 03 Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

ICT GLOBALISATION HAVE REVERSED TIME AND SPACE CONCEPTS TIME=ZERO EFFICENCY SPACE=GLOBAL DIMENSION NEW CHALLENGES ICT GLOBALISATION HAVE REVERSED TIME AND SPACE CONCEPTS TIME=ZERO EFFICENCY SPACE=GLOBAL DIMENSION NEW CHALLENGES Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

Economic development: a vision • • OLD Time: extended Space: local time space zero Economic development: a vision • • OLD Time: extended Space: local time space zero global NEW • Time: zero (real time) • Space: global efficiency Sustainability subsidiarity role dimension organisation - Concentration on added value - collaborations Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

 • LINEARITY = a simple function expanded step by step in time • • LINEARITY = a simple function expanded step by step in time • COMPLEXITY = a system composed of many linear functions characterized by a global dynamic which is different from the dynamic of each function • LINEAR APPROACH = chain of production • COMPLEX APPROACH = simultaneous engineering Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

SIX MAIN CHANGES • From linearity to complexity • From individual to system competitiveness SIX MAIN CHANGES • From linearity to complexity • From individual to system competitiveness • From resources-based to knowledge-based economy • From macro to micro • From top down to bottom up production systems • From mono-disciplinarity to trans-disciplinarity Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

Transition from a « traditional economy » based on traditional resources to a new Transition from a « traditional economy » based on traditional resources to a new economy based on knowledge The triplet « land-labour-capital » is replaced by knowledge –capital …this implies moving from an economy of ‘quantity‘ to an economy of ‘quality’, from an economy of ‘use and waste’ to a sustainable economy Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

NEW OLD • • Compact enterprise Production chain Mass production Quantity driven Resource-intensive Production NEW OLD • • Compact enterprise Production chain Mass production Quantity driven Resource-intensive Production driven Linear approach (Taylorism in production) • • Extended enterprise Network of suppliers Focus to added value Quality driven Brain intensive Demand driven Simultaneous approach Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

Novel activities and the new generation of high-tech industries are showing up on the Novel activities and the new generation of high-tech industries are showing up on the market The shift from labour-intensive to brain–intensive operations modifies jobs and skills required Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

DISCIPLINES CONVERGING TECHNOLOGIES FROM MONO INFO BIO NANO COGNITIVE TO MULTI INFO/BIO NANO/INFO INTER DISCIPLINES CONVERGING TECHNOLOGIES FROM MONO INFO BIO NANO COGNITIVE TO MULTI INFO/BIO NANO/INFO INTER NANO/INFO/BIO TRANS NANO/INFO/ BIO/COGN Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

Main challenges q Interdisciplinarity q Entrepreneurship q Ethics, health & safety q Information + Main challenges q Interdisciplinarity q Entrepreneurship q Ethics, health & safety q Information + dialogue q Acceptance Societal Issues Education and Training A Competitive R&D System Knowledge Generation q Fiscality q Finance q Patents, IPRs q Norms/regulations q Administrative rules q Demand Encourage Innovation Infrastructure q Industries q Universities q Research inst. q Finance q Policy makers Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

Key issues from the Conference Manufuture n The importance of the multi-disciplinary approach to Key issues from the Conference Manufuture n The importance of the multi-disciplinary approach to improve EU competitiveness in the context of socio-economic sustainability n Highlight the importance of international cooperation n Improve the image of Manufacturing n The need of a competitive EU research Finally, two main challenges: n To conceive the entire production system in such a way that high added value and quality of final products and services can substantially absorb labour costs n To build up competitive knowledge-based systems Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

Rapid Growth of Interest in Nanotechnology R&D Public expenditure ( 1€ = 1$ ) Rapid Growth of Interest in Nanotechnology R&D Public expenditure ( 1€ = 1$ ) Public expenditure in nanotechnology is growing by ~40% annually to around 3. 5 billion €/$ in 2003. FP 6 (EU) NNI (USA) Source: European Commission (2003) Total: Our “Nano” Economy in the next 15 -20 Years…? 1, 000 Billion US$ p. a. Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

Why is nanotechnology important for European society and industry? Analysts estimate that the market Why is nanotechnology important for European society and industry? Analysts estimate that the market for products based on nanotechnology could rise to hundreds of billion by 2010 and exceed one trillion after European Activities in Nanotechnology R&D: l l l Several countries started national nanotechnology between the mid-1980’s and mid 1990’s Overall investment of around 200 million € in 1997 has risen to around 1, 000 million € in 2003 Levels of public investment vary considerably between 0. 05 and 5. 6 € per citizen Transnational projects in the EU’s 4 th (~30 M€/year) and 5 th (~45 M€/year) Framework Programmes Nanotechnology identified as a main priority area in the 6 th Framework Programme (~250 M€/year) Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

Nanotechnology Applications Expected to impact upon virtually all technological sectors as an “enabling” or Nanotechnology Applications Expected to impact upon virtually all technological sectors as an “enabling” or “key” technology Medicine and Health Information Technology Drug delivery GMR Hard Disk Energy Production / Storage Hydrogen Fuel Cells Materials Science Lightweight and strong Food, Water and the Environment Remediation methods Instruments Tunneling microscopy Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

The European approach: integrated and responsible Nanotechnology R&TD+I require actions on several fronts Societal The European approach: integrated and responsible Nanotechnology R&TD+I require actions on several fronts Societal Issues Infrastructure Research and Development International Cooperation Industrial Innovation Health, safety, environmental and consumer protection Human Resources COM(2004)/338 Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

R&D: Building the Momentum l l l European public investment in nanotechnology R&D should R&D: Building the Momentum l l l European public investment in nanotechnology R&D should increase by a factor of 3 by 2010 Focus upon transforming our knowledge into wealth generating products and processes Reinforce the next FP for added-value via critical mass, transnational collaboration and competition Effective coordination of national programmes with both OMC and ERA-NET mechanisms Bring public and private stakeholders together to strengthen roadmap and foresighting activities Bucharest, 14 th May 2004

EU RTD FRAMEWORK PROGRAMMES FP 1 (1983 -87) National oriented Market Indust. Supplier approach EU RTD FRAMEWORK PROGRAMMES FP 1 (1983 -87) National oriented Market Indust. Supplier approach oriented RTD approach years FP 2 (87 -91) European FP 4 (94 -98) Globalised 1986 Single act System oriented 1990 FP 5 (98 -02) E-commerce & user driven Market Environment & oriented customer driven Technology Market push pull 1983 FP 3 (90 -94) Knowledge based society Concentration & Networking Society oriented FP 6 (02 -06) High A. V. & integration Sustainability Radical & probleminnovation solving & Breakthrough 1993 1997 Maastricht Amsterdam 1999 Euro 2000…. . . Enlargem. Bucharest, 14 th May 2004