Скачать презентацию The following viewgraphs about RIDL from D A Скачать презентацию The following viewgraphs about RIDL from D A

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The following viewgraphs about RIDL from: D: A Framework for Distributed Programming Cristina Videira The following viewgraphs about RIDL from: D: A Framework for Distributed Programming Cristina Videira Lopes 1

Implementation of the functional specs protected double x_= 0. 0, y_= 0. 0; protected Implementation of the functional specs protected double x_= 0. 0, y_= 0. 0; protected double width_=0. 0, height_=0. 0; double get_x() { return x_(); } void set_x(int x) { x_ = x; } double get_y() { return y_(); } void set_y(int y) { y_ = y; } double get_width(){ return width_(); } void set_width(int w) { width_ = w; } double get_height(){ return height_(); } void set_height(int h) { height_ = h; } void adjust. Location() { x_ = long. Calculation 1(); y_ = long. Calculation 2(); } void adjust. Dimensions() { width_ = long. Calculation 3(); height_ = long. Calculation 4(); } state methods public class Shape { Make it distributed… } Nice functional encapsulation 2

interface Shape. I extends Remote { double void void public class Shape implements Shape. interface Shape. I extends Remote { double void void public class Shape implements Shape. I { protected Adjustable. Location loc; protected Adjustable. Dimension dim; public Shape() { loc = new Adjustable. Location(0, 0); dim = new Adjustable. Dimension(0, 0); } double get_x() throws Remote. Exception { return loc. x(); } void set_x(int x) throws Remote. Exception { loc. set_x(); } double get_y() throws Remote. Exception { return loc. y(); } void set_y(int y) throws Remote. Exception { loc. set_y(); } double get_width() throws Remote. Exception { return dim. width(); } void set_width(int w) throws Remote. Exception { dim. set_w(); } double get_height() throws Remote. Exception { return dim. height(); } void set_height(int h) throws Remote. Exception { dim. set_h(); } void adjust. Location() throws Remote. Exception { loc. adjust(); } void adjust. Dimensions() throws Remote. Exception { dim. adjust(); } get_x() throws Remote. Exception ; set_x(int x) throws Remote. Exception ; get_y() throws Remote. Exception ; set_y(int y) throws Remote. Exception ; get_width() throws Remote. Exception ; set_width(int w) throws Remote. Exception ; get_height() throws Remote. Exception ; set_height(int h) throws Remote. Exception ; adjust. Location() throws Remote. Exception ; adjust. Dimensions() throws Remote. Exception ; } class Adjustable. Location { protected double x_, y_; public Adjustable. Location(double x, double y) { x_ = x; y_ = y; } synchronized double get_x() { return x_; } synchronized void set_x(int x) {x_ = x; } synchronized double get_y() { return y_; } synchronized void set_y(int y) {y_ = y; } synchronized void adjust() { x_ = long. Calculation 1(); y_ = long. Calculation 2(); } } class Adjustable. Dimension { protected double width_=0. 0, height_=0. 0; public Adjustable. Dimension(double h, double w) { height_ = h; width_ = w; } synchronized double get_width() { return width_; } synchronized void set_w(int w) {width_ = w; } synchronized double get_height() { return height_; } synchronized void set_h(int h) {height_ = h; } synchronized void adjust() { width_ = long. Calculation 3(); 3 height_ = long. Calculation 4(); } } }

interface Shape. I extends Remote { double void void public class Shape implements Shape. interface Shape. I extends Remote { double void void public class Shape implements Shape. I { protected Adjustable. Location loc; protected Adjustable. Dimension dim; public Shape() { loc = new Adjustable. Location(0, 0); dim = new Adjustable. Dimension(0, 0); } double get_x() throws Remote. Exception { return loc. x(); } void set_x(int x) throws Remote. Exception { loc. set_x(); } double get_y() throws Remote. Exception { return loc. y(); } void set_y(int y) throws Remote. Exception { loc. set_y(); } double get_width() throws Remote. Exception { return dim. width(); } void set_width(int w) throws Remote. Exception { dim. set_w(); } double get_height() throws Remote. Exception { return dim. height(); } void set_height(int h) throws Remote. Exception { dim. set_h(); } void adjust. Location() throws Remote. Exception { loc. adjust(); } void adjust. Dimensions() throws Remote. Exception { dim. adjust(); } get_x() throws Remote. Exception ; set_x(int x) throws Remote. Exception ; get_y() throws Remote. Exception ; set_y(int y) throws Remote. Exception ; get_width() throws Remote. Exception ; set_width(int w) throws Remote. Exception ; get_height() throws Remote. Exception ; set_height(int h) throws Remote. Exception ; adjust. Location() throws Remote. Exception ; adjust. Dimensions() throws Remote. Exception ; } class Adjustable. Location { protected double x_, y_; public Adjustable. Location(double x, double y) { x_ = x; y_ = y; } synchronized double get_x() { return x_; } synchronized void set_x(int x) {x_ = x; } synchronized double get_y() { return y_; } synchronized void set_y(int y) {y_ = y; } synchronized void adjust() { x_ = long. Calculation 1(); y_ = long. Calculation 2(); } } class Adjustable. Dimension { protected double width_=0. 0, height_=0. 0; public Adjustable. Dimension(double h, double w) { height_ = h; width_ = w; } synchronized double get_width() { return width_; } synchronized void set_w(int w) {width_ = w; } synchronized double get_height() { return height_; } synchronized void set_h(int h) {height_ = h; } synchronized void adjust() { width_ = long. Calculation 3(); 4 height_ = long. Calculation 4(); } } }

thread synchronization remote interaction interface Shape. I extends Remote { double void void public thread synchronization remote interaction interface Shape. I extends Remote { double void void public class Shape implements Shape. I { protected Adjustable. Location loc; protected Adjustable. Dimension dim; public Shape() { loc = new Adjustable. Location(0, 0); dim = new Adjustable. Dimension(0, 0); } double get_x() throws Remote. Exception { return loc. x(); } void set_x(int x) throws Remote. Exception { loc. set_x(); } double get_y() throws Remote. Exception { return loc. y(); } void set_y(int y) throws Remote. Exception { loc. set_y(); } double get_width() throws Remote. Exception { return dim. width(); } void set_width(int w) throws Remote. Exception { dim. set_w(); } double get_height() throws Remote. Exception { return dim. height(); } void set_height(int h) throws Remote. Exception { dim. set_h(); } void adjust. Location() throws Remote. Exception { loc. adjust(); } void adjust. Dimensions() throws Remote. Exception { dim. adjust(); } get_x() throws Remote. Exception ; set_x(int x) throws Remote. Exception ; get_y() throws Remote. Exception ; set_y(int y) throws Remote. Exception ; get_width() throws Remote. Exception ; set_width(int w) throws Remote. Exception ; get_height() throws Remote. Exception ; set_height(int h) throws Remote. Exception ; adjust. Location() throws Remote. Exception ; adjust. Dimensions() throws Remote. Exception ; } class Adjustable. Location { protected double x_, y_; public Adjustable. Location(double x, double y) { x_ = x; y_ = y; } synchronized double get_x() { return x_; } synchronized void set_x(int x) {x_ = x; } synchronized double get_y() { return y_; } synchronized void set_y(int y) {y_ = y; } synchronized void adjust() { x_ = long. Calculation 1(); y_ = long. Calculation 2(); } } class Adjustable. Dimension { protected double width_=0. 0, height_=0. 0; public Adjustable. Dimension(double h, double w) { height_ = h; width_ = w; } synchronized double get_width() { return width_; } synchronized void set_w(int w) {width_ = w; } synchronized double get_height() { return height_; } synchronized void set_h(int h) {height_ = h; } synchronized void adjust() { width_ = long. Calculation 3(); 5 height_ = long. Calculation 4(); } } }

The source of tangling Alignment with classes would be nice, but. . . 6 The source of tangling Alignment with classes would be nice, but. . . 6

The source of tangling . . . issues cross-cut classes 7 The source of tangling . . . issues cross-cut classes 7

During implementation separate issues are mixed together During maintenance individual issues need to be During implementation separate issues are mixed together During maintenance individual issues need to be factored out of the tangled code 8

interface Shape. I extends Remote { double get_x() throws Remote. Exception ; void set_x(int interface Shape. I extends Remote { double get_x() throws Remote. Exception ; void set_x(int x) throws Remote. Exception ; double get_y() throws Remote. Exception ; void set_y(int y) throws Remote. Exception ; double get_width() throws Remote. Exception ; void set_width(int w) throws Remote. Exception ; double get_height() throws Remote. Exception ; void set_height(int h) throws Remote. Exception ; void adjust. Location() throws Remote. Exception ; void adjust. Dimensions() throws Remote. Exception ; } public class Shape implements Shape. I { protected Adjustable. Location loc; protected Adjustable. Dimension dim; public Shape() { loc = new Adjustable. Location(0, 0); dim = new Adjustable. Dimension(0, 0); } double get_x() throws Remote. Exception { return loc. x(); } void set_x(int x) throws Remote. Exception { loc. set_x(); } double get_y() throws Remote. Exception { return loc. y(); } void set_y(int y) throws Remote. Exception { loc. set_y(); } double get_width() throws Remote. Exception { return dim. width(); } void set_width(int w) throws Remote. Exception { dim. set_w(); } double get_height() throws Remote. Exception { return dim. height(); } void set_height(int h) throws Remote. Exception { dim. set_h(); } void adjust. Location() throws Remote. Exception { loc. adjust(); } void adjust. Dimensions() throws Remote. Exception { dim. adjust(); } } class Adjustable. Location { protected double x_, y_; public Adjustable. Location(double x, double y) { x_ = x; y_ = y; } synchronized double get_x() { return x_; } synchronized void set_x(int x) {x_ = x; } synchronized double get_y() { return y_; } synchronized void set_y(int y) {y_ = y; } synchronized void adjust() { x_ = long. Calculation 1(); y_ = long. Calculation 2(); } } class Adjustable. Dimension { protected double width_=0. 0, height_=0. 0; public Adjustable. Dimension(double h, double w) { height_ = h; width_ = w; } synchronized double get_width() { return width_; } synchronized void set_w(int w) {width_ = w; } synchronized double get_height() { return height_; } synchronized void set_h(int h) {height_ = h; } synchronized void adjust() { width_ = long. Calculation 3(); height_ = long. Calculation 4(); } } D public class Shape { protected double x_= 0. 0, y_= 0. 0; protected double width_=0. 0, height_=0. 0; Write this Instead of writing this double get_x() { return x_(); } void set_x(int x) { x_ = x; } double get_y() { return y_(); } void set_y(int y) { y_ = y; } double get_width(){ return width_(); } void set_width(int w) { width_ = w; } double get_height(){ return height_(); } void set_height(int h) { height_ = h; } void adjust. Location() { x_ = long. Calculation 1(); y_ = long. Calculation 2(); } void adjust. Dimensions() { width_ = long. Calculation 3(); height_ = long. Calculation 4(); } } coordinator Shape { selfex adjust. Location, adjust. Dimensions; mutex {adjust. Location, get_x, set_x, get_y, set_y}; mutex {adjust. Dimensions, get_width, get_height, set_width, set_height}; } portal Shape { double get_x() {} ; void set_x(int x) {}; double get_y() {}; void set_y(int y) {}; double get_width() {}; void set_width(int w) {}; double get_height() {}; void set_height(int h) {}; void adjust. Location() {}; void adjust. Dimensions() {}; } 9

Thesis • distribution concerns can be untangled from functionality code by providing new composition Thesis • distribution concerns can be untangled from functionality code by providing new composition mechanisms: – given by new and separate languages – smoothly integrated with OOPL – very low cost • distributed programs are easier to write and understand 10

Presentation Im ple me n D l ma s For antic sem Prog ram Presentation Im ple me n D l ma s For antic sem Prog ram analy sis on Us stu abil die ity s De sig n tat i 11

Outline n lem D D Prog ram analy sis enta tion Us stu abil Outline n lem D D Prog ram analy sis enta tion Us stu abil die ity s Imp sig Overview D: Design D: Implementation Validation Results Conclusion De • • • 12

What is D • COOL: language for programming thread synchronization • RIDL: language for What is D • COOL: language for programming thread synchronization • RIDL: language for programming remote interaction and data transfers • Cooperating with OOPL COOL RIDL OOPL 13

Goals of D • To decrease code tangling by dividing programs both in – Goals of D • To decrease code tangling by dividing programs both in – units of functionality (components) – units of control over concurrency and distribution (aspects) – (can’t do this well with OO…) 14

Programming in D classes Cool aspect (already covered) Ridl aspect 15 Programming in D classes Cool aspect (already covered) Ridl aspect 15

RIDL • provides means for dealing with data transfers between different execution spaces Execution RIDL • provides means for dealing with data transfers between different execution spaces Execution space 1 op Execution space 2 ? ot. m(op) Portals ot 16

RIDL • Identifies “good” abstractions for controlling remote interactions of OO programs – remote RIDL • Identifies “good” abstractions for controlling remote interactions of OO programs – remote method calls – different parameter passing semantics – selective object copying –. . . Sources: Study of many distributed programs 17

RIDL Book Locator / Printer class Book { protected String title, author; protected int RIDL Book Locator / Printer class Book { protected String title, author; protected int isbn; protected OCRImage firstpage; protected Postscript ps; } class Location { private String building; } class Book. Locator { private Book books[]; private Location locations[]; public void register(Book b, Location l){ // Verify and add book b to database } public Location locate (String title) { Location loc; // Locate book and get its location return loc; } } class Printer { public void print(Book b) { // Print the book } } portal Book. Locator { void register (Book book, Location l); Location locate (String title) default: Book: copy{Book only title, author, isbn; } } coordinator Book. Locator { selfex register; mutex {register, locate}; } portal Printer { void print(Book book) { book: copy { Book only title, ps; } } 18 }

Parameter Passing Modes portal ANode { ANode get_right() { return: gref; }; void set_right(Anode Parameter Passing Modes portal ANode { ANode get_right() { return: gref; }; void set_right(Anode r) { r: copy; }; } 19

Selective Marshaling class Book { protected String title, author; protected int isbn; protected OCRImage Selective Marshaling class Book { protected String title, author; protected int isbn; protected OCRImage firstpage; protected Postscript ps; } portal Printer { void print(Book book) { book: copy { Book only title, ps; } } } 20

Selective Marshaling users books Library * User books * borrower * copies * Book. Selective Marshaling users books Library * User books * borrower * copies * Book. Copy the. Book portal Library { Book. Copy get. Book(User u, String title) { return: copy {Book. Copy bypass borrower, Book bypass copies; } u: copy {User bypass books; } } Book find. Book(String title) { return: copy {Book bypass copies, ps; } } } 21

Programming with RIDL Protocol object/portal: 1: remote method invocation 2: request presented to the Programming with RIDL Protocol object/portal: 1: remote method invocation 2: request presented to the portal 3: parameters extracted according to transfer specifications portal 3 7 8 2 4 6 5 m(){ …} 1 object 4: request proceeds to the object 5: method execution 6: return is presented to portal 7: return value processed according to transfer specification 8: method returns; return value sent 22

RIDL View of Classes • Stronger and more global visibility: – portal can access: RIDL View of Classes • Stronger and more global visibility: – portal can access: • all methods of its class, independent of access control; all non-private methods of superclasses • all variables of classes of parameters and of any objects that they contain • Limited actions: – only read variables, not modify them – only define remote methods, not invoke them 23

D Design Points COOL RIDL • provider defines synchronization • smallest unit of synchronization D Design Points COOL RIDL • provider defines synchronization • smallest unit of synchronization is the method • coordination contained within one coordinator • association between coordinator and object is static • provider defines remote interaction • smallest unit of remote interaction is the method • remote interaction contained within one portal • association between portal and object is 24 static

D Design Principles • Separation of concerns • Enforcement of the separation • Add-on D Design Principles • Separation of concerns • Enforcement of the separation • Add-on integration with existing languages 25

Demeter/Java with COOL and RIDL • The two aspect languages of D • Java Demeter/Java with COOL and RIDL • The two aspect languages of D • Java as the component language control of effort – no overloading (constructors ok) – no synchronized qualifier/statement semantic strengthening – no wait/notify methods – no “Remote” or “Serializable” interfaces 26

Summary • D is two languages, add-ons to an OOPL: – COOL for matters Summary • D is two languages, add-ons to an OOPL: – COOL for matters of thread synchronization – RIDL for matters of remote interaction 27

Outline Im ple me nt D D Prog ram analy sis Us stu abil Outline Im ple me nt D D Prog ram analy sis Us stu abil die ity s n atio n sig Overview D: Design D: Implementation Validation Results Conclusion De • • • 28

The Aspect Weaver Tool that automates program transformations Aspect Weaver 29 The Aspect Weaver Tool that automates program transformations Aspect Weaver 29

Target Architectures (the output code) • Translation of aspect modules + Woven code in Target Architectures (the output code) • Translation of aspect modules + Woven code in the classes + library • Simplicity over optimization • In a real tool: re-design these architectures! (must optimize) 30

Implementing COOL Programming with COOL coordinator 3 coordinator object 3 3 7 7 2 Implementing COOL Programming with COOL coordinator 3 coordinator object 3 3 7 7 2 4 6 8 1 2 4 6 8 5 m() {…} object Semantics 1 object Implementation 31

Implementing RIDL Programming with RIDL portal’s proxy portal 3 7 8 2 4 3 Implementing RIDL Programming with RIDL portal’s proxy portal 3 7 8 2 4 3 7 6 8 2 5 m(){ …} 1 portal object Semantics 4 6 5 m() {…} 1 object’s proxy object Implementation 32

RIDL Protocol 33 RIDL Protocol 33

Outline ple D D Prog ram analy sis me nta tion Us stu abil Outline ple D D Prog ram analy sis me nta tion Us stu abil die ity s Im sig n Overview D: Design D: Implementation Validation Results Conclusion De • • • 34

Thesis • distribution concerns can be untangled from functionality code by providing new composition Thesis • distribution concerns can be untangled from functionality code by providing new composition mechanisms: – given by new and separate languages – smoothly integrated with OOPL – very low cost • distributed programs are easier to write and understand 35

Results for DJ (Crista’s implementation of D) • Case-studies – empirical study – benefits Results for DJ (Crista’s implementation of D) • Case-studies – empirical study – benefits of the design • Performance – cost of implementation (target architectures) • Alpha-usage – human understanding – acceptance 36

Case-Studies • 10 small applications – two implementations: DJ and plain Java • analysis: Case-Studies • 10 small applications – two implementations: DJ and plain Java • analysis: identification of aspect code – synchronized qualifier/statement – wait/notify – variables used for synchronization state – Remote interface / Remote. Exception – splitting parts design –. . . 37

Bounded Buffer public class Bounded. Buffer { private Object array[]; private int put. Ptr Bounded Buffer public class Bounded. Buffer { private Object array[]; private int put. Ptr = 0, take. Ptr = 0; private int used. Slots=0; public class Bounded. Buffer { private Object[] array; private int put. Ptr = 0, take. Ptr = 0; private int used. Slots = 0; public void put(Object o) { array[put. Ptr] = o; put. Ptr = (put. Ptr + 1) % array. length; used. Slots++; } public synchronized void put(Object o) { while (used. Slots == array. length) { try { wait(); } catch (Interrupted. Exception e) {}; } array[put. Ptr] = o; put. Ptr = (put. Ptr + 1) % array. length; } if (used. Slots++ == 0) notify. All(); } public Object take() { Object old = array[take. Ptr]; array[take. Ptr] = null; take. Ptr = (take. Ptr + 1) % array. length; used. Slots--; return old; } } coordinator Bounded. Buffer { selfex put, take; mutex {put, take}; cond full = false, empty = true; put: requires !full; on_exit { empty = false; if (used. Slots == array. length) full = true; } take: requires !empty; on_exit { full = false; if (used. Slots == 0) empty = true; } } DJ public synchronized Object take() { while (used. Slots == 0) { try { wait(); } catch (Interrupted. Exception e) {}; } Object old = array[take. Ptr]; array[take. Ptr] = null; take. Ptr = (take. Ptr+1) % array. length; } if (used. Slots-- == array. length) notify. All(); return old; } } Java 38 Case-studies

LOC 39 Case-studies LOC 39 Case-studies

Aspectual Bloat aspectual bloat = LOC in Java - LOC in JCore LOC in Aspectual Bloat aspectual bloat = LOC in Java - LOC in JCore LOC in Cool+Ridl Measures how poorly Java, without D, captures the aspect programs 40 Case-studies

Aspectual Bloat 41 Case-studies Aspectual Bloat 41 Case-studies

Tangling Ratio # of transition points between aspect code and functionality code tangling = Tangling Ratio # of transition points between aspect code and functionality code tangling = LOC Measures intermingling, dispersion 42 Case-studies

Tangling Ratio 43 Case-studies Tangling Ratio 43 Case-studies

Observations • D effectivelly separates aspect code from classes and localizes it in coordinators Observations • D effectivelly separates aspect code from classes and localizes it in coordinators and portals. • Aspect programs in D, in many cases, are shorter; never more lengthy. • DJ versions, in many cases, are smaller; never bigger. 44

Performance COOL 1000 method invocations per thread DJ Single thread calling a selfex method: Performance COOL 1000 method invocations per thread DJ Single thread calling a selfex method: Java 28 ms Two threads calling the same selfex method: 90 ms Two threads calling 2 methods with requires, on_exit: 13 s Single thread calling a synchronized method: Two threads calling the same synchronized method: Two threads, calling 2 methods with wait, notification: 7 ms 30 ms 45 12 s

Performance RIDL 1000 method invocations DJ no parameters: one gref parameter: Java 10 s Performance RIDL 1000 method invocations DJ no parameters: one gref parameter: Java 10 s no parameters: 10 s 24 s one parameter of type Remote: 24 s one copy parameter (object with 4 Integer fields): 26 s copying directive that selects 3 out of 4 Integer fields of a parameter: 35 s one parameter Serializable (object with 4 Integer fields): 30 s parameter with 3 Integer fields that is partially copied from an 46 object of another class: 28 s

Observations • DJ’s performance is within Java’s performance 47 Observations • DJ’s performance is within Java’s performance 47

Alpha-Usage • Four programmers wrote two medium-size applications: space war, distributed library • Learning, Alpha-Usage • Four programmers wrote two medium-size applications: space war, distributed library • Learning, designing, programming: 2 months • A different AW implemented at PARC by Mendhekar, Loingtier, Lamping, Kiczales • Experiment conducted by Murphy 48

Applications • Distributed Space War – 1500 LOC, 19 classes, 2 coordinators, 4 portals Applications • Distributed Space War – 1500 LOC, 19 classes, 2 coordinators, 4 portals • Distributed Library – 1200 LOC, 13 classes, 3 coordinators, 4 portals 49

Observations • Users found COOL and RIDL easy to use • No difficulty in Observations • Users found COOL and RIDL easy to use • No difficulty in understanding effect of aspect code on components • Aspect languages eased burden of programming some distribution issues (E. g. using RMI) • Cannot expect aspect modules to capture intent 50

Outline • • • Overview D: Design D: Implementation Validation Results Conclusion 51 Outline • • • Overview D: Design D: Implementation Validation Results Conclusion 51

Contributions • Support for programming thread synchronization and remote data transfers separately from the Contributions • Support for programming thread synchronization and remote data transfers separately from the implementation of the components • Enforcement of separation • Systematic and simple division of labor • Basis for better documentation • Implementation: DJ 52

Directions in Language Design • Methodological study of code tangling • New kinds of Directions in Language Design • Methodological study of code tangling • New kinds of interfaces between modules not of the type client/provider, but useful for structuring programs • Add-on aspect languages; no modifications or extensions to component language 53

Future Work • Improve/extend existing languages – replication – timeouts – relation between aspect Future Work • Improve/extend existing languages – replication – timeouts – relation between aspect modules – add more imperative features? – error handling • New aspects, new aspect languages 54

EOP 55 EOP 55

Outline • • Overview Code Tangling / Aspect Identification D: Design D: Implementation Validation Outline • • Overview Code Tangling / Aspect Identification D: Design D: Implementation Validation Results Conclusion Demo 56

interface Shape. I extends Remote { double get_x() throws Remote. Exception ; void set_x(int interface Shape. I extends Remote { double get_x() throws Remote. Exception ; void set_x(int x) throws Remote. Exception ; double get_y() throws Remote. Exception ; void set_y(int y) throws Remote. Exception ; double get_width() throws Remote. Exception ; void set_width(int w) throws Remote. Exception ; double get_height() throws Remote. Exception ; void set_height(int h) throws Remote. Exception ; void adjust. Location() throws Remote. Exception ; void adjust. Dimensions() throws Remote. Exception ; } public class Shape implements Shape. I { protected Adjustable. Location loc; protected Adjustable. Dimension dim; public Shape() { loc = new Adjustable. Location(0, 0); dim = new Adjustable. Dimension(0, 0); } double get_x() throws Remote. Exception { return loc. x(); } void set_x(int x) throws Remote. Exception { loc. set_x(); } double get_y() throws Remote. Exception { return loc. y(); } void set_y(int y) throws Remote. Exception { loc. set_y(); } double get_width() throws Remote. Exception { return dim. width(); } void set_width(int w) throws Remote. Exception { dim. set_w(); } double get_height() throws Remote. Exception { return dim. height(); } void set_height(int h) throws Remote. Exception { dim. set_h(); } void adjust. Location() throws Remote. Exception { loc. adjust(); } void adjust. Dimensions() throws Remote. Exception { dim. adjust(); } } class Adjustable. Location { protected double x_, y_; public Adjustable. Location(double x, double y) { x_ = x; y_ = y; } synchronized double get_x() { return x_; } synchronized void set_x(int x) {x_ = x; } synchronized double get_y() { return y_; } synchronized void set_y(int y) {y_ = y; } synchronized void adjust() { x_ = long. Calculation 1(); y_ = long. Calculation 2(); } } class Adjustable. Dimension { protected double width_=0. 0, height_=0. 0; public Adjustable. Dimension(double h, double w) { height_ = h; width_ = w; } synchronized double get_width() { return width_; } synchronized void set_w(int w) {width_ = w; } synchronized double get_height() { return height_; } synchronized void set_h(int h) {height_ = h; } synchronized void adjust() { width_ = long. Calculation 3(); height_ = long. Calculation 4(); } } Questions: What exactly are these? Why are they here? How can we remove them? Make them more localized? 57

How programs become tangled: an example Book locator service specifications: • register book b How programs become tangled: an example Book locator service specifications: • register book b in location l • unregister book b • locate book given title • concurrent accesses • network service 58

public class Book. Locator { private Book books[]; private Location locations[]; private int nbooks public class Book. Locator { private Book books[]; private Location locations[]; private int nbooks = 0; // the constructor public Book. Locator (int dbsize) { books = new Book[dbsize]; locations = new Location[ dbsize]; } public void register (Book b, Location l) throws Locator. Full { if (nbooks > books. length) throw new Locator. Full(); else { // Just put it at the end books[nbooks] = b; locations[nbooks++] = l; } } public void unregister (Book b) { // find the book and take it out of books[] --nbooks; } public Location locate (String title) throws Book. Not. Found { Book abook = books[0]; int i = 0; boolean found = false; while (i < nbooks && found == false) { if (abook. get_title(). compare. To(str) == 0 ) found = true; else abook = books[++i]; } if (found == false) throw new Book. Not. Found (str); return locations[i]; } } How programs become tangled: an example Implementing the functionality: public class Book { public String title, author; public int isbn; Project owner; Postscript ps; public Book (String t, String a, int n) { title = t; author = a; isbn = n; } // other methods. . . } public class Location { public int building, room; public Location (int bn, int rn) { building = bn; room = rn; } // other methods. . . 59 }

How programs become tangled: an example Book locator service implementation: • register book b How programs become tangled: an example Book locator service implementation: • register book b in location l • unregister book b • locate book given title • concurrent accesses • network service 60

public class Book. Locator { private Book books[]; private Location locations[]; private int nbooks public class Book. Locator { private Book books[]; private Location locations[]; private int nbooks = 0; // the constructor public Book. Locator (int dbsize) { books = new Book[dbsize]; locations = new Location[ dbsize]; } public void register (Book b, Location l) throws Locator. Full { if (nbooks > books. length) throw new Locator. Full(); else { // Just put it at the end books[nbooks] = b; locations[nbooks++] = l; } } public void unregister (Book b) { // find the book and take it out of books[] --nbooks; } public Location locate (String title) throws Book. Not. Found { Book abook = books[0]; int i = 0; boolean found = false; while (i < nbooks && found == false) { if (abook. get_title(). compare. To(str) == 0 ) found = true; else abook = books[++i]; } if (found == false) throw new Book. Not. Found (str); return locations[i]; } } How programs become tangled: an example Synchronizing concurrent accesses: register, unregister (writers): disable all locate (reader): disable register, unregister 61

public class Book. Locator { private Book books[]; private Location locations[]; private int nbooks public class Book. Locator { private Book books[]; private Location locations[]; private int nbooks = 0; protected int active. Readers = 0, active. Writers = 0; // the constructor public Book. Locator (int dbsize) { books = new Book[dbsize]; locations = new Location[dbsize]; } public void register (Book b, Location l) throws Locator. Full { synchronized (this) { while (active. Readers > 0 || active. Writers > 0) try { wait(); } catch (Interrupted. Exception e) {} ++active. Writers; } How programs become tangled: an example Synchronizing concurrent accesses: if (nbooks > books. length) throw new Locator. Full(); else { // Just put it at the end books[nbooks] = b; locations[nbooks++] = l; } synchronized (this) {-- active. Writers; notify. All(); } } // similar for unregister public Location locate (String title) throws Book. Not. Found { Location l; synchronized (this) { while (active. Writers > 0) try { wait(); } catch (Interrupted. Exception e) {} ++active. Readers; } Book abook = books[0]; int i = 0; boolean found = false; while (i < nbooks && found == false) { if (abook. get_title(). compare. To(str) == 0 ) found = true; else abook = books[++i]; } if (found == false) { synchronized (this) {--active. Readers; notify. All(); } throw new Book. Not. Found (str); } l = locations[i]; synchronized (this) {-- active. Readers; notify. All(); } return l; } } 62

How programs become tangled: an example Book locator service implementation: • register book b How programs become tangled: an example Book locator service implementation: • register book b in location l • unregister book b • locate book given title • concurrent accesses • network service 63

public interface Locator extends Remote { void register(String title, int isbn, Location l) throws public interface Locator extends Remote { void register(String title, int isbn, Location l) throws Remote. Exception; void unregister(String t) throws Remote. Exception; Location locate(String title) throws Remote. Exception; } public class Book. Locator implements Locator extends Unicast. Remote. Object{ private Book books[]; private Location locations[]; private int nbooks = 0; protected int active. Readers = 0, active. Writers = 0; How programs become tangled: an example Providing for network access and remote data transfers: public Book. Locator (int dbsize) { books = new Book[dbsize]; locations = new Location[dbsize]; } public void register(String title, int isbn, Location l) throws Locator. Full, Remote. Exception { synchronized (this) { while (active. Readers > 0 || active. Writers > 0) try { wait(); } catch (Interrupted. Exception e) {} ++active. Writers; } if (nbooks > books. length) throw new Locator. Full(); else { // Just put it at the end books[nbooks] = b; locations[nbooks++] = l; } synchronized (this) {--active. Writers; notify. All(); } } public void unregister(String title) throws Remote. Exception { /* … */ } public Location locate (String title) throws Book. Not. Found, Remote. Exception { /* … */ } } 64

Two Issues • Synchronization of threads • Remote access and data transfers 65 Two Issues • Synchronization of threads • Remote access and data transfers 65

The source of tangling We would like alignment with classes 66 The source of tangling We would like alignment with classes 66

The source of tangling: cross-cutting issues 67 The source of tangling: cross-cutting issues 67

Code tangling is bad • Harms program structure • Distracts from main functionality • Code tangling is bad • Harms program structure • Distracts from main functionality • Hard to program, error-prone • Code difficult to understand, maintain 68

Ways to decrease the tangling • • Style guidelines Coding rules Design patterns Better Ways to decrease the tangling • • Style guidelines Coding rules Design patterns Better programming languages 69

Ways to decrease the tangling: better programming languages orthogonal approach seems to be promising Ways to decrease the tangling: better programming languages orthogonal approach seems to be promising some languages have tried this approach before D builds on top of all that previous work 70

COOL Assembly Line Candy. Maker process. Pack new. Candy Packer glue. Label. To. Pack COOL Assembly Line Candy. Maker process. Pack new. Candy Packer glue. Label. To. Pack new. Pack Finalizer new. Label new. Candy. Pack DJ candy Candy. Maker DJ candy Laber. Maker 71

coordinator Packer, Finalizer { selfex Packer. new. Candy; cond pack. Done = false, pack. coordinator Packer, Finalizer { selfex Packer. new. Candy; cond pack. Done = false, pack. Full = false; cond got. Pack = false, got. Label = false; COOL Assembly Line Packer. new. Pack: on_exit{pack. Done = true; } Packer. new. Candy: requires !pack. Full && pack. Done; on_exit { if (n. Candy == n. Candy. Per. Pack) pack. Full = true; } Packer. process. Pack: requires pack. Full; Finalizer. new. Pack: requires !got. Pack; on_exit { got. Pack = true; pack. Full = false; pack. Done = false; } Finalizer. new. Label: requires !got. Label; on_exit { got. Label = true; } Finalizer. glue. Label. To. Pack: requires got. Pack && got. Label; Finalizer. new. Candy. Pack: on_exit { got. Pack = false; got. Label = false; } } 72

COOL Syntax cooldef : [ perclass | perobject ] coord class_list { autoex method_list; COOL Syntax cooldef : [ perclass | perobject ] coord class_list { autoex method_list; mutex{method_list}; * type var [ = value]; * cond [ perobject | perclass ] condvar = true | false ; * met hod_list: requires ( boolean_expr ) [orwait t] on_entry { cool_stmt *} * on_exit { cool_stmt *} }; cool_stmt : condvar = true | false ; | var = value; | if (boolean_expr) cool_ stmt [else cool_ stmt ] 73

RIDL Document Service * User Doc. Service users logs docs add. Document(doc) add. User(name, RIDL Document Service * User Doc. Service users logs docs add. Document(doc) add. User(name, passwd) search(title, user) returns a document get. Logs(user) returns the user’s logs Log uid name passwd logs * date user doc * Document * title author summary logs 74

RIDL Document Service * User Doc. Service users logs docs add. Document(doc) add. User(name, RIDL Document Service * User Doc. Service users logs docs add. Document(doc) add. User(name, passwd) search(title, user) returns a document get. Logs(user) returns the user’s logs Log uid name passwd logs * date user doc * Document * title author summary logs 75

RIDL Document Service * User Doc. Service users logs docs add. Document(doc) add. User(name, RIDL Document Service * User Doc. Service users logs docs add. Document(doc) add. User(name, passwd) search(title, user) returns a document get. Logs(user) returns the user’s logs Log uid name passwd logs * date user doc * Document * title author summary logs 76

RIDL Document Service portal Doc. Service { boolean add. Document(Document doc); Integer add. User(String RIDL Document Service portal Doc. Service { boolean add. Document(Document doc); Integer add. User(String name Integer passwd); Document search(String title, Integer uid, Interger passwd){ return: copy { Document bypass logs; } }; DVector get. User. Logs(Integer uid, Integer passwd){ return: copy { Document bypass logs; User bypass logs, passwd; } }; } 77

COOL Design • provider (i. e. the class) defines the synchronization (monitor approach) • COOL Design • provider (i. e. the class) defines the synchronization (monitor approach) • smallest unit of synchronization is the method • no middle ground between one instance and all instances of classes • coordination is contained within one coordinator • association between an object and its 78 coordinator is static

RIDL Design • provider (i. e. the class) defines the remote interaction • smallest RIDL Design • provider (i. e. the class) defines the remote interaction • smallest unit for remote interaction is the method • parameter passing semantics … • remote interaction is contained within one portal • association between an object and its portal is static • no multi-class portals 79

Implementing RIDL portal 3 7 8 2 4 1 object’s proxy m() {…} 5 Implementing RIDL portal 3 7 8 2 4 1 object’s proxy m() {…} 5 6 8 2 5 m(){ …} 1 object Semantics 4 6 7 3 portal’s proxy portal object Implementation 80

RIDL class Book. Locator { private Book books[]; private Location locations[]; public void register(Book RIDL class Book. Locator { private Book books[]; private Location locations[]; public void register(Book b, Location l){ // Verify and add book b to database } public Location locate (String title) { Location loc; // Locate book and get its location return loc; } } portal Book. Locator { void register (Book book, Location l); Location locate (String title) default: Book: copy{Book only title, author, isbn; } } 81

RIDL Protocol 82 RIDL Protocol 82

D’s Remote Objects class Book. Locator { Book. Locator. P _p; // portal object D’s Remote Objects class Book. Locator { Book. Locator. P _p; // portal object Book. Locator. PP _pp = null; // portal proxy Book. Locator(Book. Locator. PP proxy) { _pp = proxy; } Book. Locator(. . . ) { _p = new Book. Locator. P(this); } protected void _d_register(Book b, Location l) { original implementation of f } void register(Book. Locator b, Location l) { if (_pp != null) // this is a proxy _pp. register(b, l); else // this is a real object _d_register(b, l); } // similar for locate } 83

D’s Remote Objects class Book. Locator { Book. Locator. P _p; // portal object D’s Remote Objects class Book. Locator { Book. Locator. P _p; // portal object Book. Locator. PP _pp = null; // portal proxy Book. Locator(Book. Locator. PP proxy) { _pp = proxy; } Book. Locator(. . . ) { _p = new Book. Locator. P(this); } protected void _d_register(Book b, Location l) { original implementation of f } void register(Book. Locator b, Location l) { if (_pp != null) // this is a proxy _pp. register(b, l); else // this is a real object _d_register(b, l); } // similar for locate } 84

D’s Remote Objects class Book. Locator { Book. Locator. P _p; // portal object D’s Remote Objects class Book. Locator { Book. Locator. P _p; // portal object Book. Locator. PP _pp = null; // portal proxy Book. Locator(Book. Locator. PP proxy) { _pp = proxy; } Book. Locator(. . . ) { _p = new Book. Locator. P(this); } protected void _d_register(Book b, Location l) { original implementation of f } void register(Book. Locator b, Location l) { if (_pp != null) // this is a proxy _pp. register(b, l); else // this is a real object _d_register(b, l); } // similar for locate } 85

RIDL Protocol 86 RIDL Protocol 86

class Book. Locator. PP { Book. Locator. PRI rself; Book. Locator. PP(Book. Locator. PRI class Book. Locator. PP { Book. Locator. PRI rself; Book. Locator. PP(Book. Locator. PRI o){ rself = o; } void register(Book b, Location l) { Dargument a 1, a 2; a 1 = new Dargument(b, Book. Locator. Traversals. t 1); a 2 = new Dargument(l, null); rself. register(a 1, a 2); // redirect } // similar for locate } Portal objects class Book. Locator. P implements Book. Locator. PRI { Book. Locator myself; Book. Locator. P(Book. Locator o) { myself = o; } void register(Dargument a 1, Dargument a 2) { myself. register(a 1. obj, a 2. obj); } } 87

Portal objects class Book. Locator. PP { Book. Locator. PRI rself; Book. Locator. PP(Book. Portal objects class Book. Locator. PP { Book. Locator. PRI rself; Book. Locator. PP(Book. Locator. PRI o){ rself = o; } void register(Book b, Location l) { Dargument a 1, a 2; a 1 = new Dargument(b, Book. Locator. Traversals. t 1); a 2 = new Dargument(l, null); rself. register(a 1, a 2); // redirect } // similar for locate } class Book. Locator. P implements Book. Locator. PRI { Book. Locator myself; Book. Locator. P(Book. Locator o) { myself = o; } void register(Dargument a 1, Dargument a 2) { myself. register(a 1. obj, a 2. obj); } } 88

Portal objects class Book. Locator. PP { Book. Locator. PRI rself; Book. Locator. PP(Book. Portal objects class Book. Locator. PP { Book. Locator. PRI rself; Book. Locator. PP(Book. Locator. PRI o){ rself = o; } void register(Book b, Location l) { Dargument a 1, a 2; a 1 = new Dargument(b, Book. Locator. Traversals. t 1); a 2 = new Dargument(l, null); rself. register(a 1, a 2); // redirect } // similar for locate } class Book. Locator. P implements Book. Locator. PRI { Book. Locator myself; Book. Locator. P(Book. Locator o) { myself = o; } void register(Dargument a 1, Dargument a 2) { myself. register(a 1. obj, a 2. obj); } } 89

RIDL Protocol 90 RIDL Protocol 90

Traversal objects class Book. Locator. Traversals { public static Traversal t 1; static boolean Traversal objects class Book. Locator. Traversals { public static Traversal t 1; static boolean once = false; public static synchronized void init() { Incomplete. Class c; if (once) return; t 1 = new Traversal("t 1", "Book. Locator. Traversals"); c = new Incomplete. Class("Book"); c. bypass("first. Page"); c. bypass("ps"); t 1. incomplete. Class(c); } } portal Book. Locator { void register (Book book, Location l); Location locate (String title) default: Book: copy{Book only title, author, isbn; } 91 }