Скачать презентацию The Fall of Communism Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Скачать презентацию The Fall of Communism Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High

5bddebb3159bdd784c785b6edb76ce55.ppt

  • Количество слайдов: 152

The Fall of Communism Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High School Jacksonville, FL The Fall of Communism Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High School Jacksonville, FL

7 Satellite Eastern Countries: Bloc Bulgaria, Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia 7 Satellite Eastern Countries: Bloc Bulgaria, Czech Republic, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia Union of Soviet Socialist Republics 15 Republics: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan

Poland Post Molotov/Ribbentrop Pact Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote Poland Post Molotov/Ribbentrop Pact Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

4 4

Informational Source! The main sources for this presentation come from Vladislav M. Zubok’s: A Informational Source! The main sources for this presentation come from Vladislav M. Zubok’s: A Failed Empire: The Soviet Union in the Cold War from Stalin to Gorbachev (2007) & Tony Judt’s: Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 (2005). n All sources are listed at the close of this presentation. n Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Chapter Nine: A Failed Empire, by Vladislav M. Zubok (2007, Chapel Hill Press) The Chapter Nine: A Failed Empire, by Vladislav M. Zubok (2007, Chapel Hill Press) The early eighties are called the “Second Cold War, ” it had a feeling of déjà vu: n n Rampant arms race; Missile Delivery Systems build -up Covert battles via secret services around the world, Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, NATO’s “Dual Track Decision” Fierce psychological warfare gave the situation “a resemblance to the last years of Stalin” [1] n [1] Zubock, p. 265 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

A Failed Empire n The last Brezhnev years, followed by Andropov and Chernenko were A Failed Empire n The last Brezhnev years, followed by Andropov and Chernenko were times of political and economical deterioration of the Soviet system. I. The CIA had a sense of the economic situation, as well as the shaky hold Moscow had on their satellites, but they did not know the depth of the problems. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

A Failed Empire I. The empire that Stalin built was terribly shaken in the A Failed Empire I. The empire that Stalin built was terribly shaken in the 1980’s with the KOR later the Solidarity movement in Poland (1980 -1981), mixed with the growing dependency of other countries of the Warsaw Pact on the financial and economic power of the Western capitalist states (thus embargoes or economic sanctions by them on the Warsaw nations would be detrimental, especially considering the USSR’s financial woes). Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Poland: A Key Player During the Cold War (Source: van Dijk) Flashpoint in both Poland: A Key Player During the Cold War (Source: van Dijk) Flashpoint in both the ORIGINS and END of the Cold War Disputes over future political System During WWII Between the BIG THREE at YALTA Promise by Stalin for “Free Election” After WWII Fuels the Traditional/Orthodox Theory 9

Poland (Source: van Dijk) Crisis of Communism in the Early 1980’s helped lead to Poland (Source: van Dijk) Crisis of Communism in the Early 1980’s helped lead to the Collapse of Communism Pope John Paul II Jimmy Carter Visit KOR > Solidarity Martial Law Re-emergence of Solidarity Semi-Free Elections in 1989

11 11

Poland & Stalin (Source: van Dijk) Stalin’s attempt to annex caused tension inside and Poland & Stalin (Source: van Dijk) Stalin’s attempt to annex caused tension inside and outside of Poland Before and After WWII Began due to his agreement with Hitler Led to another partitioning of Poland Stalin commits atrocities against the Polish i. e. Katyn Forest, deports 250, 000 Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jax. FL 12

Poland, Stalin & Yalta (Source: Van Dijk) Poland receives German territory for the Soviet Poland, Stalin & Yalta (Source: Van Dijk) Poland receives German territory for the Soviet Annexations “Free” Elections are promised FDR gets Stalin’s approval for the creation of the United Nations Stalin also promises to declare war on Japan after hostilities with Germany ended (FDR “Sell-out”)? Kevin Sacerdote Mandarin High Jax. FL 13

The Polish Crisis of 1980 -81 Broken Down into Four Phases (Source: The following The Polish Crisis of 1980 -81 Broken Down into Four Phases (Source: The following four phases come from, The Encyclopedia of the Cold War, ed. Van Dijk, Vol. II, pp. 705 -706) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Poland, 1980 n Polish and Russian officials sense outside help: ‘Instigators’ n n n Poland, 1980 n Polish and Russian officials sense outside help: ‘Instigators’ n n n Zbigniew Brezinski (Carter’s former Natl. Security Adviser) Ioannes Paulus PP. II (Krakow’s own: Karol Wojtyla). Elected at 58 Yrs. Old, Visits Poland THREE times. His first trip was June 2 nd, 1979. (Pope John Paul II: 1978 – 2005)[1] “What John Paul II lacked in soldiers he made up in visibility—and timing. ” [2] [1] http: //www. vatican. va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/ [2] Judt, p. 586 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Lech Walesa Taken from Zubok's Lech Walesa Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Pope John Paul II Taken from Zubok's Pope John Paul II Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

July-August 1980 Stage One Gdansk Shipyard Strike n August 1980, labor strike in Gdansk July-August 1980 Stage One Gdansk Shipyard Strike n August 1980, labor strike in Gdansk escalates into a crisis (Solidarnosc: Solidarity movement is very organized, “on November 10 th, 1980 it became the first officially registered independent trade union in a Communist country, with an estimated ten million members” Judt, p. 588 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Gdansk Shipyard Strike: July-August 1980 Stage One n n n First Independent Trade Union Gdansk Shipyard Strike: July-August 1980 Stage One n n n First Independent Trade Union in the Eastern Bloc’s History; Goal was Democratic Transformation from a communist system: 700, 000 Strike (Van Dijk, Vol. 2, p. 705) Four Divisions of Soviet Troops were put on Full Alert The Strike Ends Peacefully n Does NOT legalize Solidarity, but it opens that door! Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Economics in the USSR n President Carter’s economic sanctions and the drop in oil Economics in the USSR n President Carter’s economic sanctions and the drop in oil prices (the USA goes to Saudi Arabia and OPEC and requests this during the early portion of the invasion of Afghanistan- thus the Soviet’s could not EXPORT oil for huge profits) are hurting the Soviet economy Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

December 1980 Stage Two Moscow Military Maneuvers n n n Moscow continues pressure on December 1980 Stage Two Moscow Military Maneuvers n n n Moscow continues pressure on Poland to end the Solidarity Movement Moscow Announces an Eastern Bloc Leaders meeting for Dec. 5 th Moscow Announces “Eastern Bloc” Military Maneuvers in Poland (beginning Dec. 8 th) n Maneuvers are nicknamed: SOYUZ 80 (Union 80) n 15 Soviet, 2 Czechoslovak, & 1 E. German Divisions n Reminiscent of 1968 “Maneuvers” that eventually led to the invasion of Czechoslovakia Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Late 1980 -1981 n Would Moscow send in the troops, ala the Prague Spring Late 1980 -1981 n Would Moscow send in the troops, ala the Prague Spring (1968)? n Cost Factor for the USSR n Thoughts of other Warsaw nations watching critically GDR, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Rumania Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

December 1980 Stage Two n President Carter sends “hotline” warnings to Brezhnev (Dec. 3 December 1980 Stage Two n President Carter sends “hotline” warnings to Brezhnev (Dec. 3 rd, and 7 th) n n n Any movement into Poland would encourage the USA to transfer advanced weaponry to the PRC Possible world-wide blockade of Soviet Air and Sea transports Unannounced measures against Cuba Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

December 1980 Stage Two n n “Recent” scholarship states that most of the stern December 1980 Stage Two n n “Recent” scholarship states that most of the stern warnings from the USA came AFTER the Soviets decided NOT to invade or at least postpone it CIA also believes an invasion at this time was a stretch, but n It was certainly a warning to the Polish government to get their house in order Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Poland 1981: USSR gives Poland 1. 5 billion dollars, plus supplies and oil (they Poland 1981: USSR gives Poland 1. 5 billion dollars, plus supplies and oil (they need it so badly it is used very quickly) n Russia (via an angry and bitter Andropov) introduces a new intelligence operation named “RYAN – after the first letters of the Russian words raketnoyadernoye napadeniie (nuclear-missile attack). Andropov feels that a first strike by the Americans is eminent. n Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

March-April 1981: Stage Three: Crackdown on Solidarity March 19, 1981: Members of Solidarity are March-April 1981: Stage Three: Crackdown on Solidarity March 19, 1981: Members of Solidarity are beaten by the police n Another Strike is announced n Soviets call for martial law n Soviets once again call for military maneuvers in Poland: n n SOYUZ 81 (March 17, 1981 - onward) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

SOYUZ 81 (March 1981) Military Maneuvers, not the space program n Took place in SOYUZ 81 (March 1981) Military Maneuvers, not the space program n Took place in Poland n 30, 000 troops from Poland, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and East Germany n An additional 120, 000 standing by n April 5 th the CIA issues an Alert Memo n Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Poland n October 1981, Prime Minister General Wojciech Jaruzelski took over party control from Poland n October 1981, Prime Minister General Wojciech Jaruzelski took over party control from Stanyslaw Kania n n Soviets want him to declare martial law, he will put this off until Dec. 13, 1981 He warns Moscow that the Polish Catholic Church might join forces with Solidarity, but impatient radicals start to demonstrate for radical reforms ASAP Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Polish Crisis: Stage 4 (Martial Law) The CIA gets detailed information beforehand n Evacuated Polish Crisis: Stage 4 (Martial Law) The CIA gets detailed information beforehand n Evacuated agent tells them one week in advance n The Polish army introduces Martial Army on December 13, 1981 n n Suppression of Solidarity Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Poland n n n Walesa was going up against Wojciech Jaruzelsky declared martial law, Poland n n n Walesa was going up against Wojciech Jaruzelsky declared martial law, outlawed Solidarity, and jailed Walesa. Martial law would not be suspended until 1982. The former Archbishop of Krakow Karol Wojtyla was elected Pope John Paul II in 1978, and made his first trip back to Poland in 1979. He was the first Pope to visit a Communist country. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Polish Martial Law: Stage FOUR “The suppression of the Solidarity movement was one of Polish Martial Law: Stage FOUR “The suppression of the Solidarity movement was one of the last attempts by the Kremlin to save the cohesion of the Eastern bloc” (Pawel Machcewicz, van Dijk, ed, p. 707) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Martial Law in Poland n The n n n USA’s Reaction: Economic sanctions An Martial Law in Poland n The n n n USA’s Reaction: Economic sanctions An anti-communist propaganda offensive Support for the underground Solidarity movement, and A massive domestic armament build-up This “opened a new and final stage in the Cold War , which ended with the demise of the Soviet bloc and subsequently the Soviet Union itself” (Machcewicz, P. , van Dijk, ed. p. 707) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

1981 n 1981: the revolutionary spirit begins to spread n Strikes in the Baltic 1981 n 1981: the revolutionary spirit begins to spread n Strikes in the Baltic Republics, especially Latvia n n KGB calls for a strict closure of Poland’s borders Closed down tourism, student programs, jam Polish radio, shut down publications and all cultural exchange (an iron curtail within the Iron Curtain) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

USSR’s Ailing Leadership n Brezhnev’s continued health problems leads to a “troika” n n USSR’s Ailing Leadership n Brezhnev’s continued health problems leads to a “troika” n n Andropov, Ustinov, Gromyko Even though Brezhnev tried in vain to have his loyal disciple Konstantin Chernenko named his successor before he died, Andropov will be next! Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

November 10, 1982 Death of Brezhnev n November 10, 1982: Leonid Brezhnev died in November 10, 1982 Death of Brezhnev n November 10, 1982: Leonid Brezhnev died in his sleep n 68 yr. old Andropov takes over (he is in the final phase of terminal kidney disease at this time) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Yuri Andropv Succeeds Brezhnev n Andropov (KGB Director) is key n “Andropov recognized that Yuri Andropv Succeeds Brezhnev n Andropov (KGB Director) is key n “Andropov recognized that the Soviet economy had begun to collapse under the weight of the disastrous policies of the Brezhnev years…’era of stagnation’”[1] Keylor, p. 310 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Yuri Andrpov Taken from Zubok's Yuri Andrpov Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Andropov v. Reagan Andropov has a deep mistrust of Reagan, “fortified by emotionscontempt, animosity, Andropov v. Reagan Andropov has a deep mistrust of Reagan, “fortified by emotionscontempt, animosity, and a tinge of fear. ”[1] Zubock, p. 273 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Andropov n n n Advocate of the Soviet invasion Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Afghanistan But Andropov n n n Advocate of the Soviet invasion Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Afghanistan But before his terminal kidney disease really takes hold, he comments to an assistant: “the quota of interventions abroad has been exhausted. ”[1] But what exactly is meant by “abroad? ” Stages a fake invasion (full-scale intimidation) on the border of Poland as well as military exercises within its borders for three weeks [1] Zubok, p. 267 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Andropov The future of the Warsaw Pact (Poland’s location) is in jeopardy n Cost Andropov The future of the Warsaw Pact (Poland’s location) is in jeopardy n Cost is a huge factor: “By the 1980’s the Soviet Union assisted or maintained sixty-nine Soviet satellites and clients around the world. ”[1] n [1] Zubock, p. 268 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

The Cold War Cotninues US vs. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Democracy vs. Communism The Cold War Cotninues US vs. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Democracy vs. Communism Capitalism vs. Socialism

The Conservative Rebellion n The Media as Battleground n n Topical sitcoms M*A*S*H People The Conservative Rebellion n The Media as Battleground n n Topical sitcoms M*A*S*H People for the American Way: Norman Lear – more diversity The Election of 1980 n n Ronald Reagan speaks the language of “true conservatism” Reagan makes striking gains among union workers, southern white Protestants, Catholics, and Jews HIST 1302 United States History, part 2 All in the Family – Norman Lear creation

Taken from Zubok's Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

1980 US Presidential Election Taken from Zubok's 1980 US Presidential Election Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

HUAC: Witnesses Ronald Reagan Blames Hollywood Labor Conflicts on Communist Infiltration (1947) n n HUAC: Witnesses Ronald Reagan Blames Hollywood Labor Conflicts on Communist Infiltration (1947) n n n Ronald Reagan was long-time opponent of Communism As President of the Screen Actor’s Guild (SAG), he cooperated with the House Un-American Activities Committee’s inquiry into the potential infiltration of Communism into the Motion Picture industry. In testimony before HUAC, he claimed members of the Communists played a role in a series of Hollywood union strikes.

“A Time for Choosing” Speech (1964) n n n Reagan campaigned for Barry Goldwater “A Time for Choosing” Speech (1964) n n n Reagan campaigned for Barry Goldwater in the 1964 presidential race. His televised "A Time for Choosing" speech propelled the actor from corporate spokesman to conservative champion It became known as "The Speech. ” He implied that liberalism represents a shift toward socialism. He outlined the goals of the modern conservative movement: n smaller government, n lower taxes, personal autonomy, and more n aggressive policy toward Communist states.

Dr. David Lavery Dr. David Lavery

The Strategic Defense Initiative n n n In 1983, President Reagan proposed his Strategic The Strategic Defense Initiative n n n In 1983, President Reagan proposed his Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) as an additional check on Soviet nuclear capability. He envisioned space-based missile defense technology capable of striking down nuclear weapons before they reached the U. S. The Soviets feared SDI would increase the risk of the U. S. launching an attack because it would not fear retaliation. The press derisively dubbed the plan "Star Wars. ” Many believed it was infeasible due to the enormous expense and technical innovation it would require to become operational.

Strategic Defense Initiative “I call upon the scientific community … to give us the Strategic Defense Initiative “I call upon the scientific community … to give us the means of rendering these nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete. ” “I am directing … to define a long-term R&D program to begin to … eliminate threat posed by strategic nuclear missiles. ” Copyright, Kevin W. Bowyer, 2000, 2001, 2006, 2007. All Rights Reserved. (Rev. 2/6/07)

March th, 8 1983 (Orlando, FL) March 8 th : President Reagan gives his March th, 8 1983 (Orlando, FL) March 8 th : President Reagan gives his infamous “evil empire” speech n March 23 rd: Reagan announces his plans for the development of the Strategic Defense Initiative- “SDI” (Star Wars). The Soviet Union realizes that they can NOT effectively compete against due to cost. n Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Taken from Zubok's Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Particle Beam Expert Pace Van. Devender, a physicist working on the Particle Beam Expert Pace Van. Devender, a physicist working on the "Star Wars" missile defense system, peers through a hole.

1983 n n April/May: America’s Pacific fleet conducts a massive military exercise, which includes 1983 n n April/May: America’s Pacific fleet conducts a massive military exercise, which includes simulated assaults on Soviet strategic submarines with nuclear missiles on board Soviets respond with their own exercises which for the first time includes a rehearsal for mobilization and interaction with strategic nuclear forces (Operation RYAN is now constantly being updated) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Downing of Flight KAL 747 n n n September 1 st (1983): a Korean Downing of Flight KAL 747 n n n September 1 st (1983): a Korean Air Lines 747 240 passengers, a cabin crew of 20, a three-man flight crew and six other KAL crew members deadheading back to Seoul Five hours and twenty-six minutes after takeoff, KE 007 was struck by two Anab missiles fired by the pilot of a Soviet SU-15 interceptor. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

November 1983: Operation Able Archer “NATO forces conducted the Able Archer exercises; to Soviet November 1983: Operation Able Archer “NATO forces conducted the Able Archer exercises; to Soviet intelligence sources, this looked almost indistinguishable from preparations for an imminent attack. ” [1] Zubock, pp. 274 -5 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

1984 -85 “The Politburo fiddled, but the Grim Reaper Did Not Wait”[1] Zubock, p. 1984 -85 “The Politburo fiddled, but the Grim Reaper Did Not Wait”[1] Zubock, p. 277 n February 9 th, 1984: Andropov Dies n “His successor, another septuagenarian (7080 yrs. Old), Konstanin Chernenko, was a walking mummy, who suffered from severe asthma and lived on tranquilizers”[1] Zubock, p. 276 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

President Ronald Reagan Taken from Zubok's President Ronald Reagan Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

The Arrival of Gorbachev March 10, 1985: Konstanin Chernenko Dies, (enter Mikhail Gorbachev) n The Arrival of Gorbachev March 10, 1985: Konstanin Chernenko Dies, (enter Mikhail Gorbachev) n After the death of Chernenko, “the new general secretary -the fourth in three years during this prolonged leadership crisis in the Kremlin-was ANDROPOV’S hitherto obscure young disciple Mikhail Gorbachev…Gorbachev also shared the concern of his patron Andropov that the decay of the Soviet economy in the Brezhnev era posed a serious security threat. ”[1] Keylor, pp. 310 -311 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

A Chaotic World n Terrorism in the Middle East n n n American Marines A Chaotic World n Terrorism in the Middle East n n n American Marines sent into Lebanon part of a European-American peacekeeping force Terrorist attacks by Islamic fundamentalists bedevil Reagan Mounting Frustrations in Central America n n Grenada invasion (1983) Boland Amendment

A Chaotic World n The Iran-Contra Connection n Cover Blown n n Arms for A Chaotic World n The Iran-Contra Connection n Cover Blown n n Arms for hostages deal Lieutenant Colonel Oliver “Ollie” North “Irangate” From Cold War to Glasnost n n Mikhail Gorbachev Intermediate Nuclear Force treaty (1987) HIST 1302 United States History, part 2

Mounting Frustrations in Central America HIST 1302 United States History, part 2 Mounting Frustrations in Central America HIST 1302 United States History, part 2

United States of America Growing deficits, 1945 -1995 United States of America Growing deficits, 1945 -1995

Reagan’s Legacy n Upon n n leaving office in 1989: Revolution Spreads Throughout Eastern Reagan’s Legacy n Upon n n leaving office in 1989: Revolution Spreads Throughout Eastern Europe The Berlin Wall Falls The Soviet Union Collapsed The Cold War Ended Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Reagan’s Legacy Reagan Officials Credit Him for Fueling Solidarity, and Bringing a Great Deal Reagan’s Legacy Reagan Officials Credit Him for Fueling Solidarity, and Bringing a Great Deal of Strain upon the Soviet Economy n Reagan as a “Liberator” becomes the “Gospel” for Neo-Conservatives n Compare Reagan’s First Term (19811985) with his second (1985 -1989) n n The Political Evolution of the President Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Cold War ‘End’ Via Reagan? n Academic Scholars Dismiss This Claim as being OVERLY Cold War ‘End’ Via Reagan? n Academic Scholars Dismiss This Claim as being OVERLY SIMPLISTIC n n n Too Many other people (Gorbachev, Pope John Paul II, Havel, Walesa, Brandt, Thatcher) Too Many Events (Long Term Domestic Changes in Eastern Europe, Deployment of Weapons, Invasion of Afghanistan) Economics: Barrel of Oil in 1980 = $40. by 1989 it DROPPED to $10. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Cold War ‘End’ Via Reagan? n The interconnections of a set of complex global Cold War ‘End’ Via Reagan? n The interconnections of a set of complex global events need to be examined n Don’t Forget About Policies, Treaties, Summits, Pacts and the Like as well n n n The Helsinki Accord Perestroika The Intermediate Nuclear Force Reduction Treaty ( “INF”) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Mikhail Gorbachev’s Reform measures (May 1985) 1. Gorbachev announces “Perestroika” (Series of Reforms) as Mikhail Gorbachev’s Reform measures (May 1985) 1. Gorbachev announces “Perestroika” (Series of Reforms) as part of his “NEW THINKING” policy including: 1. 2. 3. Glasnost Democratization, and Reform of the KGB Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Gorbachev’s “New Thinkers” “New Thinking” would be based on voracious reading, including books by Gorbachev’s “New Thinkers” “New Thinking” would be based on voracious reading, including books by Western socialist politicians and thinkers”[1] New thinkers included his college educated wife Raisa, and other “Children of the Twentieth Congress” [1] Zubock, p. 281 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Perestroika n ‘Restructuring’ n n or ‘Rebuilding’ A Set of Political, Economic, and Foreign Perestroika n ‘Restructuring’ n n or ‘Rebuilding’ A Set of Political, Economic, and Foreign Policy Reforms Introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev Led to the Departure of Eastern and Central European Countries from the Soviet control Led to the Reunification of Germany, and the dissolution of the USSR Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Perestroika Evolved Through Several Phases n Was Not Meant To Rid the USSR of Perestroika Evolved Through Several Phases n Was Not Meant To Rid the USSR of Communism n Early Stage Goals were n n Accelerate the Economy (1987 = “Market Socialism” Small Private Businesses were legalized) Combat Corruption Adopt a Liberal Interpretation of the 1977 Soviet Constitution Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Perestroika’s Political Reforms More Success than Economic Reforms n 1985 -1987 Modest Measures n Perestroika’s Political Reforms More Success than Economic Reforms n 1985 -1987 Modest Measures n n n Want to Reform Communism, i. e. Democratic Socialism 1987 Multi-Candidate Elections Announced Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Perestroika’s Foreign Policy Reforms Easiest and Most Successful n Announced “Reasonable Sufficiency” in weapons, Perestroika’s Foreign Policy Reforms Easiest and Most Successful n Announced “Reasonable Sufficiency” in weapons, not ‘parity’ n Historic Speech at UN : a unilateral reduction of 500, 000 soldiers n Announces the Withdrawal from Afghanistan n Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Perestroika: Foreign Policy Signed the INF Treaty n Germany was Reunified (USSR Given 15 Perestroika: Foreign Policy Signed the INF Treaty n Germany was Reunified (USSR Given 15 Million DM) n Supports the US –led Coalition to Force Iraq out of Kuwait in 1990 -1991 n Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

August Coup of 1991 August 18, Most of His Cabinet is Involved n Disintegrates August Coup of 1991 August 18, Most of His Cabinet is Involved n Disintegrates in Three Days n Gorbachev’s Credibility is Finished n Dec. 1991, “presidents of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus Dissolved the USSR” n The Commonwealth of Independent States was created n Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Taken from Zubok's Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Glasnost (Encyclopedia of the Cold War, van Dijk, p. 364 -365) Part of Perestroika Glasnost (Encyclopedia of the Cold War, van Dijk, p. 364 -365) Part of Perestroika n Led to Unprecedented Liberalization of Political and Intellectual life (1985 -1991) n Important Tool for “New Thinking” n Led to Shocking Revelations About Soviet System n n It Eroded Public Confidence It Fueled Independence Movements In Republics Led to a Coup Attempt Against Gorby: Aug. 1991) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Glasnost (Encyclopedia of the Cold War, van Dijk, p. 364 -365) Chernobyl – 1986 Glasnost (Encyclopedia of the Cold War, van Dijk, p. 364 -365) Chernobyl – 1986 n Helped Gorbachev Radicalize his Reforms n n n Especially the Ability to have Open Discussions Wanted to use this Popular Movement Against Hard-liners Censorship was Relaxed It Produced “Strident Critiques of Stalinist bi. Polar Views” It Rejected the “inevitability of Class Struggle” Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Gorbachev’s Reforms n Like FDR’s New Deal, he knew change was needed but did Gorbachev’s Reforms n Like FDR’s New Deal, he knew change was needed but did not exactly how to do it n n Attacked national and regional corruption and laxity, nomenklatura, and alcoholism Doubled investment in heavy industry Started to talk openly about the need for true arms control He encouraged “NOVOE MYSHLENIE” (New Thinking). Wants to open the Soviet Union up to the outside world. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Glasnost (Encyclopedia of the Cold War, van Dijk, p. 364 -365) Critical Discussions Regarding Glasnost (Encyclopedia of the Cold War, van Dijk, p. 364 -365) Critical Discussions Regarding the Military allowed Him To Slash Funding n This Policy Enabled the West To Realize Gorbachev’s Call for Reforms were Real n It “Broke down the web of Official Lies” n Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Glasnost (Encyclopedia of the Cold War, van Dijk, p. 364 -365) n Gorbachev “Could Glasnost (Encyclopedia of the Cold War, van Dijk, p. 364 -365) n Gorbachev “Could NOT control the forces that he unleashed” n “What began as a tool for change became a weapon against the state…that he hoped to modernize and preserve. . the Cold War ended, but for Gorbachev it came at a high price” Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan Dec. 24, 1979 Gorbachev in the mid-1980’s did NOT immediately Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan Dec. 24, 1979 Gorbachev in the mid-1980’s did NOT immediately end the war in Afghanistan- his biggest mistake to date? (Could have help save money and international face). He felt it needed to be solved in stages. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Chernobyl Accident April 26, 1986 Second worse man-made nuclear disaster, behind the bombs in Chernobyl Accident April 26, 1986 Second worse man-made nuclear disaster, behind the bombs in Japan Soviet denial, panic spreads with rumors 100, 000 displaced AFTER a few days passed 8, 000 dead The health and well-being of 453, 000 people affected Gorbachev is humiliated Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Chernobyl April 1986 “Chernobyl’s effect on the Soviet political leadership was greater than any Chernobyl April 1986 “Chernobyl’s effect on the Soviet political leadership was greater than any other event since the Cuban Missile Crisis…the catastrophe demanded the end of xenophobia and obsessive secrecy and a reprisal of security policies in the nuclear age…our work is now transparent to the whole people, to the whole world. There are no interests that could force us to hide the truth. ” [1] Zubock, pp. 288 -89 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

President Reagan giving a speech at the Berlin Wall, Brandenburg Gate, Federal Republic of President Reagan giving a speech at the Berlin Wall, Brandenburg Gate, Federal Republic of Germany. June 12, 1987

“Tear Down This Wall” Speech (1987) … as long as this scar of a “Tear Down This Wall” Speech (1987) … as long as this scar of a wall is permitted to stand, it is not the German question alone that remains open, but the question of freedom for all mankind. … …the Soviets themselves may, in a limited way, be coming to understand the importance of freedom. We hear much from Moscow about a new policy of reform and openness. … General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you seek liberalization: Come here to this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate! Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall! …

“Tear Down This Wall” Speech (1987) The Berlin Wall was built by Communists in “Tear Down This Wall” Speech (1987) The Berlin Wall was built by Communists in August 1961 to keep Germans from escaping Communistdominated East Berlin into Democratic West Berlin. The 12 -ft concrete wall extended for 100 miles and included electrified fences and guard posts. The wall was a symbol of the Cold War, in which the politically opposed superpowers continually wrestled for dominance, stopping just short of actual warfare.

May 1987 n n May 1987: “Matthias Rust, a young West German pilot, flew May 1987 n n May 1987: “Matthias Rust, a young West German pilot, flew a sport plane into the USSR from Finlanded on Red Square. The bizarre “Rust affair” allowed Gorbachev to remove most of the old top brass, beginning with the minister of defense…Rust, after spending several months in the KGB Lubianka prison, quietly obtained amnesty. ”[1] July 1987, as part of his GLASNOST policy the “new thinkers” started to publish forbidden manuscripts, criticizing the Brezhnev Era of stagnation, and promoting anti-Stalinist films and novels. [1] Zubock, p. 300 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Gorby and the UN: Dec. 7, 1988 n Gorbachev addressed the United Nations General Gorby and the UN: Dec. 7, 1988 n Gorbachev addressed the United Nations General Assembly. n He Amazed the global community when he announced drastic cuts in the Soviet military presence in Eastern Europe and along the Chinese border -- a move that ultimately allowed Soviet satellites to choose their own paths. [1] http: //www. cnn. com/SPECIALS/cold. war/episodes/23/documents/gorbachev/ Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Soviet Union Military Cuts “In January 1989, Gorbachev announced the reduction of Soviet forces Soviet Union Military Cuts “In January 1989, Gorbachev announced the reduction of Soviet forces in Central and Eastern Europe by 14 percent and cuts in armaments by 19 percent[1]. ” [1]. Zubok , p. 322 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

1989 Taken from Zubok's 1989 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

The Revolutionary Year of 1989 Poland n The Solidarity movement of 1980 made Poland The Revolutionary Year of 1989 Poland n The Solidarity movement of 1980 made Poland the most ripe for a radical political transformation n 1989: Jaruzelski lifted the ban against Solidarity that had been in place for seven years. n Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

The Revolutionary Year of 1989 n n June 4 th, 1989: Poland’s Election: “The The Revolutionary Year of 1989 n n June 4 th, 1989: Poland’s Election: “The results came back as a shock to everyone…Solidarity won 99/100 seats for the Senate. ” [1] “Gorbachev made quite explicit to Jaruzelski in a private phone conversation, the election must stand. ” [2] August 1989: a Solidarity-led coalition took power in Warsaw, the first non-communist government in Eastern Europe since the start of the Cold War. [1] Judt, p. 607 [2] Judt, p. 607 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

The Revolutionary Year of 1989 Hungary n “Hungary, a comparable caution was born of The Revolutionary Year of 1989 Hungary n “Hungary, a comparable caution was born of very different experience. Two decades of ambiguous tolerance had obscured the precise limits of officially condoned dissent. Hungary, after all, was the Communist state where Hilton opened its first hotel behind the Iron Curtain, in December 1976; where Billy Graham undertook not one but three public tours in the course of the Eighties. ” [1] Judt, p. 608 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Hungary n n However, there was NO organized political opposition in Hungary. “The catalyst Hungary n n However, there was NO organized political opposition in Hungary. “The catalyst for change was the frustration of younger, ‘reform-Communists’- openly enthusiastic about the transformations Gorbachev was working in the CPSU-at the inflexibility of their own ageing Party leadership. ”[1] n [1] Judt, p. 609 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Hungary “When the Hungarian authorities took down the barbed wire along the Austrian border, Hungary “When the Hungarian authorities took down the barbed wire along the Austrian border, they had intended only to make it easier for their own citizens…But the word spread, and soon thousands of East Germans…were walking across” (Gaddis, p. 243) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

The Sinatra Doctrine Even before the wall fell: “By October 1989, Gennadi Gerasimov, the The Sinatra Doctrine Even before the wall fell: “By October 1989, Gennadi Gerasimov, the Soviet foreign ministry press spokesman could joke about [the pending changes] ‘You know that Frank Sinatra song My Way…Hungary and Poland are doing it their way. We now have the Sinatra Doctrine. ” (Gaddis, p. 248) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Trouble in East Germany Honecker’s Swan Song Trouble in East Germany Honecker’s Swan Song

Fleeing East Germany (again) “By September [of 1989], there were more than 130, 000 Fleeing East Germany (again) “By September [of 1989], there were more than 130, 000 East Germans in Hungary and the government announced that for , “humanitarian” reasons, it would not try to stop their emigration to the West. Honecker and his associates were furious…Meanwhile guests-including Gorbachev himself-were arriving in East Berlin for the official commemorations on October 7 -8, 1989” (Gaddis, p. 244) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Gorbachev & Honecker Taken from Zubok's Gorbachev & Honecker Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Trouble for Honecker’s East Germany “During the parade…the marchers abandoned the approved slogans and Trouble for Honecker’s East Germany “During the parade…the marchers abandoned the approved slogans and began shouting, ‘Gorby, help us! Gorby, stay here…the regime was doomed…Gorbachev tried to warn the East Germans of the need for drastic changes…[but] trying to get through to him [Honecker] was like throwing peas against the wall” (Gaddis, pp. 244 -245) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

East German Trouble “Anti-government protests had been building for weeks in Leipzig…there was no East German Trouble “Anti-government protests had been building for weeks in Leipzig…there was no Tiananmen-like massacre, but that meant there was no authority left for Honecker, who was forced to resign on October, 18 th…His successor Egon Krenz…decided to relieve the mounting tension…by relaxing-not eliminating-the rules restricting travel to the west…the hastily drafted decree was handed to…a Politburo member who had not been to the meeting” (Gaddis, p. 245) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

The Wall Comes Down (by mistake? ) n Gunter Schabowski, the Politburo member announced The Wall Comes Down (by mistake? ) n Gunter Schabowski, the Politburo member announced to the press “that citizens of the G. D. R. were free to leave ‘through any of the border crossings…within minutes, the word went out that the wall was open. It was not but crowds, but crowds began gathering at crossing points and the guards had no instructions” (Gaddis, p. 246) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Fall of the Wall Taken from Zubok's Fall of the Wall Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Taken from Zubok's Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Gorbachev’s Reaction “Gorbachev in Moscow, slept through the whole thing and heard about it Gorbachev’s Reaction “Gorbachev in Moscow, slept through the whole thing and heard about it only the next morning. All he could do was pass the word to the East German authorities” ‘You made the right decision. ” (Gaddis, p. 246) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Hungary n “In the early months of 1989 the Communist legislature passed a series Hungary n “In the early months of 1989 the Communist legislature passed a series of measures recognizing the right of free assembly; officially sanctioning ‘transition’ to a multi-party system; and, in April, formally jettisoning ‘democratic centralism’ in the party itself. ”[1] Judt, p. 609 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Hungary n Opposition throughout 1989 against the Communists n n n They formally abandoned Hungary n Opposition throughout 1989 against the Communists n n n They formally abandoned the ideology of Leninism, and changing the name of the party to Hungarian Socialist Party Name change FROM the Soviet-style “Hungarian People’s Republic” TO the “Republic of Hungary” The remains of Imre Nagy- the former Prime Minister who had been overthrown and executed after the 1956 Revolution were reinterred with full national honors Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Hungary n n “On June 16 th 1989 -the thirty-first anniversary of his death- Hungary n n “On June 16 th 1989 -the thirty-first anniversary of his death- the remains of Imre Nagy and four of his colleagues were ceremoniously reburied as national heroes. An estimated 300, 000 Hungarians lined the streets, with millions more watching the proceedings live on television. ”[1] It took down the barbed-wire border with Austria to permit free circulation of people [1] Judt, p. 610 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Hungary n n “On August 25, 1989, Kohl (of West Germany) reached an understanding Hungary n n “On August 25, 1989, Kohl (of West Germany) reached an understanding with the reformist leadership of Hungary to open the Hungarian. Austrian border to defectors from the GDR [East Germany]. In return, Hungary received 1 billion Deutsche Marks to cover its budget deficit…In October, Hoenecker told Gorbachev that Nemwth received from the SPD a loan of 550 million Dmarks on the condition that the “Hungarians opened a border with Austria. ”[1] Zubok, p. 324 -325 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Hungary In January of 1990 the Hungarian government asked the Soviets to remove all Hungary In January of 1990 the Hungarian government asked the Soviets to remove all of its troops, which in March the Kremlin promised to do by the summer of 1991 n With Poland Hungary out of the way the rest of the Warsaw Pact began to fall like dominos n Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Bulgaria November 1989: Communist boss the 78 yr. old Todor Zhivkov had been ruling Bulgaria November 1989: Communist boss the 78 yr. old Todor Zhivkov had been ruling since 1954 was replaced by a coalition of Communist reformists. n Zhikov had been the longest-serving leader in the Communist bloc, but the economy had been in trouble for a long while. n Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Bulgaria n n Zhikov had stressed ethnic nationalism at the EXPENSE of the Turkish Bulgaria n n Zhikov had stressed ethnic nationalism at the EXPENSE of the Turkish minority in Bulgaria (900, 000 in the land of Nine Million). The Turkish minority was still a symbol of the hated Ottoman Empire: “a tottering Party autocracy turned the full fury of ethnic prejudice upon a helpless domestic victim. ” [1] Judt, p. 626 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Bulgaria n n n Bulgaria stripped the “Turkish Bulgarians” of many rights, and the Bulgaria n n n Bulgaria stripped the “Turkish Bulgarians” of many rights, and the international community complained bitterly An exodus by the minority to Turkey began (300, 000 in the summer of 1989). These fleeing numbers cut the supply of labor in Bulgaria. November 10 th, 1989: “not coincidently the day after the fall of the Berlin Wall”-they ousted Zhikov. [1] Judt, p. 627 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Bulgaria n Opposition from Bulgarian intellectuals, and Bulgaria was denounced by the UN and Bulgaria n Opposition from Bulgarian intellectuals, and Bulgaria was denounced by the UN and the European Court of Justice n Change did come to Bulgaria and “Bulgaria successfully avoided the catastrophe awaiting Yugoslavia” [1] n December 29 th , 1989, “in the face of angry nationalist protests, Muslims and Turks were granted full and equal rights. ” [2] [1] Judt, p. 627 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Czechoslovakia n Czech Communists were actually rather successful at maintaining total control to the Czechoslovakia n Czech Communists were actually rather successful at maintaining total control to the very end. Neither the Catholic Church nor intellectual opposition gained significant support in society at large. ”[1] Judt, p. 616 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Czechoslovakia n Havel and thirteen other Charter 77 activists were arrested and once again Czechoslovakia n Havel and thirteen other Charter 77 activists were arrested and once again imprisoned: (excerpt) n “In January 1977, 230 prominent Czech intellectuals signed and published a manifesto announcing the formation of Charter 77, a “loose, informal and open association of people” committed to human rights. Signatories included the playwrights Vaclav Havel and Pavel Kohout. The manifesto was published in various Western newspapers on January 6. Czech authorities arrested several of the signatories the next day, denounced them and began cracking down on dissident activities. The United States charged Czechoslovakia with violating the 1975 HELSINKI ACCORDS on human rights. ” [1] www. cnn. com/SPECIALS/cold. war/episodes/19/documents/charter. 77/ Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Czechoslovakia n November 17 th, 1989: “Prague police officially approved a student march through Czechoslovakia n November 17 th, 1989: “Prague police officially approved a student march through the inner-city to commemorate…the 50 th anniversary of the Nazi murder of a Czech student. But when marching students began to chat anti-Communist slogans the police attacked, scattering the crowd and beating up isolated victims. ” [1] n A FALSE RUMOR CIRCULATED THAT A STUDENT WAS KILLED. THIS LED TO MORE PROBLEMS FOR THE GOVERNMENT. WITHIN A WEEK THE ENTIRE PRAESIDIUM RESIGNED! (NOV. 24 TH, 1989) n [1] Judt p. 618 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Czechoslovakia n n Nov. 25 th, 1989: half a million people gathered at the Czechoslovakia n n Nov. 25 th, 1989: half a million people gathered at the Letna Stadium just because they could! December 1989: The “Velvet Revolution” (peaceful exit from communism) like the changes in most of Eastern Europe during 1989 occurred in a peaceful manner. “The playwright Vaclav Havel, the country’s most famous dissident, was elected president, while the parliament chose as its speaker former prime minister Alexander Dubcek, who had been ousted by the Russians after the “Prague Spring” of 1968. ”[1] n [1] Keylor, p. 316 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Czechoslovakia n n Nov. 25 th, 1989: half a million people gathered at the Czechoslovakia n n Nov. 25 th, 1989: half a million people gathered at the Letna Stadium just because they could! December 1989: The “Velvet Revolution” (peaceful exit from communism) like the changes in most of Eastern Europe during 1989 occurred in a peaceful manner. “The playwright Vaclav Havel, the country’s most famous dissident, was elected president, while the parliament chose as its speaker former prime minister Alexander Dubcek, who had been ousted by the Russians after the “Prague Spring” of 1968. ”[1] n [1] Keylor, p. 316 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Czechoslovakia n Jan. 1, 1990: 16, 000 political prisoners were released in Czechoslovakia n Czechoslovakia n Jan. 1, 1990: 16, 000 political prisoners were released in Czechoslovakia n NOTE: “In response to requests by Czechoslovakia and Hungary for the removal of troops, Gorbachev’s agreement in February and March 1990, respectively, to a total military withdrawal from the two countries by the end of June 1991 sounded the death knell of Moscow’s hegemony in Eastern Europe. ” [1] Keylor, p. 317 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Romania (NASTY ENDING) n n n The exception to a relatively non-violent transfer of Romania (NASTY ENDING) n n n The exception to a relatively non-violent transfer of power in the former eastern bloc was Romania. Brutal Communist rule in the 1950’s under “Dej” (Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej who was the General Secretary of the Romanian Communist from 1944 – 65) Pro-Stalin ruler, angered by Khrushchev’s anti. Stalin comments, followed by Ceausescu! Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Nicolae Ceausescu General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party 1965 -1989 Nicolae Ceausescu General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party 1965 -1989

Nicolae Ceausescu n Compared to DEJ, Nicolae Ceausescu (Ciao-Sessh-Koo) flew under the radar: i. Nicolae Ceausescu n Compared to DEJ, Nicolae Ceausescu (Ciao-Sessh-Koo) flew under the radar: i. e. Within one year of violently putting down a miner’s strike in 1977, Ceausescu visited the United States as a guest of President Jimmy Carter. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Nicolae Ceausescu (rules 1965 – 1989) Taken from Zubok's Nicolae Ceausescu (rules 1965 – 1989) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Nicolae Ceausescu In the early stages of the “Second Cold War” of the 1980’s Nicolae Ceausescu In the early stages of the “Second Cold War” of the 1980’s was happy to criticize the USSR, and he even sent his gymnasts to the Los Angeles Olympics…Americans and others kept silent about his domestic crimes. o o To increase population he outlawed abortions for women under forty with fewer than four children, he raised the age to 45 in 1986 1984 the minimum age to married was dropped to 15 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Nicolae Ceausescu n n Compulsory monthly medical exams for women-in order to prevent abortions Nicolae Ceausescu n n Compulsory monthly medical exams for women-in order to prevent abortions Abortions were only allowed if a member of the Communist Party were in attendance Doctors in districts that had a declining birth rate had their salaries reduced Population did not increase, but the death rate from abortions far exceeded that of any other European country (from 1966 -1989 at least 10, 000 women died via illegal abortions)[1] Judt p. 622 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Ceausescu n n n Portraits of Ceausescu and his wife were put everywhere, almost Ceausescu n n n Portraits of Ceausescu and his wife were put everywhere, almost as many as North Korea’s Kil Il Sung November of 1989 he was re-elected Secretary-General December 1989 Ceausescu cracked down on a Hungarian pastor in a western Romanian city, the Hungarian minority held an all night vigil for the pastor Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Romanian Violence n In December of 1989, Communist dictator Nicolae Ceausescu ordered his troops Romanian Violence n In December of 1989, Communist dictator Nicolae Ceausescu ordered his troops to fire on the demonstrators o After a trip to Iran, Ceausescu decided to appear before a huge crowd that jeered him, he tried again the next day and was jeered again and he fled with his wife via a helicopter (while portions of his military began to switch sides) Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

End of Ceausescu’s Rule He was caught, returned, tried and on Dec. 25 1989 End of Ceausescu’s Rule He was caught, returned, tried and on Dec. 25 1989 was executed with his wife. His successors removed all remnants of the former dictator’s rule and planned for the country’s free elections. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

The Reunification of Germany Taken from Zubok's The Reunification of Germany Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

German Reunification n n “The fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, German Reunification n n “The fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, caught everyone in Moscow by surprise. The East German leaders, acting under growing public pressure and without any advice from Moscow, decided to allow the controlled movement of population between East and West Berlin”[1] Zubok, p. 326 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

German Reunification n n “Credit for German re-unification-a unique case of fusion in a German Reunification n n “Credit for German re-unification-a unique case of fusion in a decade of fission-must go in the first instance to Helmut Kohl (West German Chancellor)”. [1] November 28 th, 1989: Kohl presents, to the Bundestag, a five-year series of cautious steps towards German unification [1] Judt p. 638. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

German Reunification n But after listening to East Germans-and getting Washington’s backing- he felt German Reunification n But after listening to East Germans-and getting Washington’s backing- he felt that unification had to happen ASAP Like previous German unification, the first stage was to be a “currency union” with the political unification to follow East Germany (GDR) called for elections (March 1990) n n n Alliance for Germany (Christian Democrats) ran on a unification ticket and took 48% of the vote Social Democrats took 22% Communists took 16% Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

German Reunification n May 1990: The CDU/PD Liberal Coalition took steps to unify n German Reunification n May 1990: The CDU/PD Liberal Coalition took steps to unify n May 18 th 1990: “a MONETARY, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL UNION was SIGNED BETWEEN THE TWO GERMANIES, AND ON July 1 st its crucial clause-the EXTENSION OF THE DEUTSCHMARK TO EAST GERMANY-came into force. East Germans could now exchange their virtually useless German marksup to the equivalent of DM 40, 000 - at a highly advantageous rate of 1: 1. ”[1] Judt, p. 639 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

German Reunification n August 23 rd, 1990: “the Volkskammer voted to accede to the German Reunification n August 23 rd, 1990: “the Volkskammer voted to accede to the Federal Republic. A week later a Treaty entered into force: the GDR ‘acceded’ to the Federal Republic and ceased to exist”[1] NOTE: E. Germans had 360, 000 Soviet troops still in their country as late as 1989 France and the Brits were NOT excited about German Reunification [1] Judt p. 639 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Money to the USSR n The Soviet’s were open to financial persuasion regarding German Money to the USSR n The Soviet’s were open to financial persuasion regarding German reunification. n n Gorbachev tried to hold the reunification process “hostage” by demanding $20. Billion (before finally settling for $8 plus an additional $2 billion in interestfree credits). [1] “Overall from 1990 through 1994 Bonn (W. German Capital) transferred to the Soviet Union (and Latterly Russia) the equivalent of $71 billion (with a further $36 billion going to the former Communist states of Eastern Europe)”[2] [1] Judt, p. 642 [2] Judt, p. 642 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Reunification in Germany n German reunification led to an ERASURE of HISTORY, not a Reunification in Germany n German reunification led to an ERASURE of HISTORY, not a RECOVERY of HISTORY. In the former East Germany, “the names of towns, streets, buildings and counties were changed, often reverting to pre-1933 usage…rather than engage the GDR’s troubled history…its former subjects were encouraged to forget it”[1] n [1] Judt, p. 642 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

German Reunification n “In the three years following unification total transfers from Western into German Reunification n “In the three years following unification total transfers from Western into Eastern Germany amounted to the equivalent of 1, 200 Billion Euros; by the end of 2003 the cost of absorbing the former GDR had reached 1. 2 Trillion Euros. East Germans were subsidized into the Federal Republic: their jobs, pensions, transport, education and housing underwritten by huge increases in government expenditure. ”[1] n Gorbachev’s concessions of the German Reunification issue hurt his popularity at home. [1] Judt, p. 643 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

The Fall of the U. S. S. R. Taken from Zubok's The Fall of the U. S. S. R. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Soviet Withdrawal From Afghanistan The Withdrawal From Afghanistan n Not completed until February of Soviet Withdrawal From Afghanistan The Withdrawal From Afghanistan n Not completed until February of 1989 n “By late 1986 it became clear to Gorbachev…[that] the invigorated Soviet strategy in Afghanistan was not working[1]” [1] Westad, p. 372 n Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Afghanistan n “American willingness to supply an almost unlimited quantity of arms to the Afghanistan n “American willingness to supply an almost unlimited quantity of arms to the Mujahedin, the improved organization of the guerillas, and the participation of foreign fightersmostly Pakistanis and Arabs-on the side of the resistance had upped the ante to a level where fighting for a better position prior to withdrawal seemed impossible. In February 1987 Gorbachev was close to desperation. ”[1] Westad, p. 372 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Afghanistan n “On the chilly winter morning of 15 February 1989 Lieutenant General Boris Afghanistan n “On the chilly winter morning of 15 February 1989 Lieutenant General Boris Gromov, the last commander of Soviet forces in Afghanistan, walked across the bridge over the Amu Darya River and back into Uzbekistan, from where the Red Army had come almost ten years before…the ignoble Soviet exit from Afghanistan became a global symbol for the failure of Moscow’s Third World policies”[1] Westad, pp. 377 -378 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

According to Westad, the three major reasons for the Soviet’s withdrawal: n “(first) the According to Westad, the three major reasons for the Soviet’s withdrawal: n “(first) the Soviet critique of Third World socialism that found its way into the party leadership through Gorbachev’s choice of advisers…(secondly) the Soviet hope that it could remove American hostility through making compromises in the Third World…(lastly) the ideological adherence to the principle of national self-determination that Gorbachev’s reading of Lenin gave rise to, and which led the CPSU both out of Afghanistan and eventually, out of the Kremlin. ”[1] Westad, p. 380 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

A Failed Coup n “On August 18, 1991, Gorbachev, his wife Raisa, and his A Failed Coup n “On August 18, 1991, Gorbachev, his wife Raisa, and his foreign policy minister Anatoly Chernyaev, were on vacation in the Crimea when the majority of Gorbachev’s ministers took power into their own hands…tanks and troops flooded Moscow…[they] lacked the will to use violence and spill blood…for three days, the leader of a superpower was a prisoner of the KGB in his Crimean residence… the architects of the coup claimed he was “sick. ”[1] The coup failed! [1] Zubok, p. 321 -332. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Last Days of Gorbachev n “Gorbachev was seen as a pathetic and procrastinating figure, Last Days of Gorbachev n “Gorbachev was seen as a pathetic and procrastinating figure, hated and despised by many of his fellow countrymen and by former Soviet allies around the world. Intellectual and artistic elites abandoned Gorbachev (although he and his wife had cultivated and helped them so much) and enthusiastically supported the anti-Communist course and rhetoric of Boris Yeltsin. ” [1] Zubok, p. 332. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

The Rise of Yeltsin n “The resistance to the coup was the golden hour The Rise of Yeltsin n “The resistance to the coup was the golden hour of the ‘men and women of the sixties’…young people, students, businessmen and intellectuals [rushed] to defend the Russian Parliament, where Yeltsin stood in defiance of the Kremlin’s hard-liners…the international media, including CNN, beamed the image of a defiant Boris Yeltsin, standing on an armored troop carrier in front of the threatened Russian parliament, around the world…As the leaders dithered, the coup lost its momentum and collapsed like a house of cards…the active participants of this “revolution never numbered more than 50, 000 to 60, 000 demonstrators does not diminish its significance[1]” [1] Zubok, p. 333. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Fall of Communism n Yeltsin, the President, banned the Communist party and separated from Fall of Communism n Yeltsin, the President, banned the Communist party and separated from the USSR. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Yeltsin December 8 th, 1991 Yeltsin and other former communist leaders from the Ukraine, Yeltsin December 8 th, 1991 Yeltsin and other former communist leaders from the Ukraine, and Belorussia disbanded the Soviet Union. “One last time Gorbachev refused to use force to remain In power…On December 25 th, 1991, the triumphant Yeltsin and his followers forced Gorbachev out of his Kremlin office. A bit later, the Soviet flag went down the Kremlin mast one more time”[1] Zubok, p. 334 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

The Legacy of Mikhail Gorbachev “The peaceful and rapid end of the Cold War The Legacy of Mikhail Gorbachev “The peaceful and rapid end of the Cold War secured Gorbachev’s place in international history. The unwitting destruction of the Soviet Union made him one of the most controversial figures in Russian history”[1] Zubok, p. 335 Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Bibliography CNN Cold War. Retrieved July 6, 2008, from Episode 23: The Wall Comes Bibliography CNN Cold War. Retrieved July 6, 2008, from Episode 23: The Wall Comes Down Web site (1998): http: //www. cnn. com/SPECIALS/cold. war/episodes/2 3/documents/gorbachev/ Gaddis, J. L. (2005). The Cold War: A new history. New York, NY: Penguin Press. Ioannes Paulus PP. II. Retrieved July 6, 2008, from The Holy See Web site: http: //www. vatican. va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/ Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote

Bibliography Judt, T. (2005). Postwar: A history of Europe since 1945. New York, NY: Bibliography Judt, T. (2005). Postwar: A history of Europe since 1945. New York, NY: Penguin Press. Keylor, W. R. (2003). A world of nations: The international order since 1945. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press) Van Dijk, ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Cold War, Vol. 2. New York: Routledge. Westad, O. A. (2007). The global Cold War: Third world interventions and the making of our times. New York, NY: Cambridge Press Zubok, V. M. (2007). A failed empire. Chapel Hill, NC: Chapel Hill Press. Taken from Zubok's "A Failed Nation, " Developed by Kevin R. Sacerdote