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The Executive Branch The Presidency The Executive Branch The Presidency

The Executive Branch: The Presidency Qualifications The Executive Branch: The Presidency Qualifications

The Executive Branch: The Presidency Formal Qualifications: • 35 years old • Natural Born The Executive Branch: The Presidency Formal Qualifications: • 35 years old • Natural Born Citizen • U. S. resident for 14 years Informal Qualifications: • • Experience Money Moderate political beliefs Personal characteristics

The Executive Branch: The Presidency “Informal” Qualifications: – Evidence of change 1. ) 1960: The Executive Branch: The Presidency “Informal” Qualifications: – Evidence of change 1. ) 1960: JFK became 1 st Catholic President 2. ) 1984: Dem. party nominated Geraldine Ferraro as the first Vice. Presidential candidate

The Executive Branch: The Presidency “Informal” Qualifications: – Evidence of Change cont. 3. ) The Executive Branch: The Presidency “Informal” Qualifications: – Evidence of Change cont. 3. ) 44 th President of the United States First African American President

Other Presidential Facts! • JFK was the youngest elected to office at 43 years Other Presidential Facts! • JFK was the youngest elected to office at 43 years old • Roosevelt took the presidency through succession at age 42 (following Mc. Kinley’s assassination) • Obama is the 7 th president to take office before age 50 • James Polk, Franklin Pierce, Ulysses Grant, James Garfield, Grover Cleveland, JFK, Barack Obama • All but 9 Presidents went to college– George Washington, Andrew Jackson, Martin Van Buren, Zachary Taylor, Millard Fillmore, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Grover Cleveland, and Harry Truman.

“Who is your President? ” Meet President Barack Obama. • • • “Coolest Moments “Who is your President? ” Meet President Barack Obama. • • • “Coolest Moments of Barack Obama while in office” DOB: 8/4/1961 Political Party: Democratic Party 44 th President of the U. S. A. 1 st African American president Former Illinois Senator (05 -08) Graduate of Columbia University & Harvard Law – 1 st African American president of the Harvard Law Review – Community organizer in Chicago prior to earning his law degree – Practiced as a civil rights attorney in Chicago before serving three terms in the Illinois Senate

The Executive Branch: The Presidency Salary and Benefits The Executive Branch: The Presidency Salary and Benefits

The Executive Branch: o te t o st v ry u s m sala The Executive Branch: o te t o st v ry u s m sala The Presidency ongres any e C rove r th o app nge f !! t cha siden Pre History of Salary: Year Salary 1789 $25, 000 1873 50, 000 1909 75, 000 1949 100, 000 1969 200, 000 2001 400, 000

The Executive Branch: The Presidency Benefits: • Receives $50, 000/year for expenses and up The Executive Branch: The Presidency Benefits: • Receives $50, 000/year for expenses and up to $100, 000/year for travel • Salary cannot be changed during term • Free lodging at the White House and Camp David Burgers at the White House

Camp David Camp David

Inside the White House with Brian Williams Inside the White House with Brian Williams

Compensation • • • Monetary Compensation – Originally: $25, 000/year (1789) – Currently: $400, Compensation • • • Monetary Compensation – Originally: $25, 000/year (1789) – Currently: $400, 000/year (2001) – Expense Account: $50, 000/yr - non-taxable – Travel Allowance: $100, 000/yr- non- taxable – Entertainment Allowance: $19, 000/yr Benefits – Medical/dental coverage – Secret Service (protection) – The White House w/ household staff (chef, etc. ) – Automobiles, Air Force One – Camp David – Resort hideaway in the Catoctin Mtns. Retirement Benefits: – Pension $191, 300/year as of March 2008 • matches the current salary of Cabinet members (or Executive Level I personnel) – Office Help Allowance: up to $96, 000/yr – Office space and mailing services

The Executive Branch: The Presidency Benefits: • President has plane (Air Force One) and The Executive Branch: The Presidency Benefits: • President has plane (Air Force One) and a personal helicopter (Marine One) at his disposal Obama’s First Flight

The Executive Branch The Presidency The Vice President The Executive Branch The Presidency The Vice President

“Who is your Vice President? ” Meet VP Joe Biden • DOB: 11/20/1942 • “Who is your Vice President? ” Meet VP Joe Biden • DOB: 11/20/1942 • Political Party: Democratic Party • Former Senator of Delaware 1973 -2009 • BA History & Political Science from University of Delaware • JD Syracuse University College of Law

The Executive Branch The Presidency – Vice President • Qualifications § Same as the The Executive Branch The Presidency – Vice President • Qualifications § Same as the President • Duties and Responsibilities § Serves as President of the Senate (only Constitutional duty) § President delegates out many responsibilities to VP: Ø Taking part in Presidential Cabinet meeting Ø Helping with Diplomatic relations with other countries Ø Advising and helping President make important decisions

The Executive Branch The Presidency – Vice President • Salary and Benefits § $198, The Executive Branch The Presidency – Vice President • Salary and Benefits § $198, 000/year § Receives $10, 000/year for expenses § Benefits similar to President’s ØFree Residence ØLarge Staff ØVariety of personal services – Secret Service protection

Vice Presidential Mansion Vice Presidential Mansion

The Executive Branch The Presidency – Vice President • Elections and Terms of Office The Executive Branch The Presidency – Vice President • Elections and Terms of Office § Original procedure for electing a VP was: - Electoral college members in each state voted for 2 candidates for President – candidate with most votes became President and runner up became the VP § After tie of 1800, procedure changed Ø 12 th Amendment: electoral college votes for president and VP on separate ballots § VP term of office is not limited (although no VP has ever served more than two terms)

The Executive Branch: The Presidency Elections and Terms of Office The Executive Branch: The Presidency Elections and Terms of Office

The Executive Branch: The Presidency Elections: • Elections held every 4 years • President The Executive Branch: The Presidency Elections: • Elections held every 4 years • President elected by an electoral college • Candidate with most electoral votes wins the election

The Executive Branch: The Presidency Term of Office: • 4 years = 1 presidential The Executive Branch: The Presidency Term of Office: • 4 years = 1 presidential term • Constitution originally placed no limit on number of Presidential terms • George Washington established a tradition when he stepped down after 2 terms

The Executive Branch: The Presidency Term of Office: • 1940: FDR became the 1 The Executive Branch: The Presidency Term of Office: • 1940: FDR became the 1 st President to not step down after 2 nd term – was elected 4 times • 1951: 22 nd Amendment added to Constitution Ø Limits President to 2 consecutive terms

The Executive Branch: The Presidency Presidential Succession President Johnson taking his oath of office The Executive Branch: The Presidency Presidential Succession President Johnson taking his oath of office when he took over after JFK’s assassination

The Executive Branch: The Presidency Presidential Succession: • 1841: William Henry Harrison became 1 The Executive Branch: The Presidency Presidential Succession: • 1841: William Henry Harrison became 1 st President to die while in office • Vice President John Tyler set a tradition by declaring himself President Ø 1967: 25 th Amendment turned tradition into law; says if Presidency is vacant, the VP becomes President and then appoints a new VP

The Executive Branch: The Presidency • Since ratified, 25 th Amendment has been used The Executive Branch: The Presidency • Since ratified, 25 th Amendment has been used 3 times: 1. ) 1973: VP Spiro Agnew resigned; Pres. Nixon replaced him with Gerald Ford 2. ) 1974: Pres. Nixon resigned and Gerald Ford became President 3. ) 1985: Pres. Reagan was shot and during surgery VP George Bush became president for 8 hours

The Executive Branch: The Presidency • 8 U. S. Presidents have died while in The Executive Branch: The Presidency • 8 U. S. Presidents have died while in office: n i LE I WH As Harding ted e a sin offic sas Garfield Taylor Lincoln Roosevelt Harrison l ura at of N s d Die cause Mc. Kinley JFK

The Executive Branch: The Presidency Presidential Succession: • 1947: Congress passed the Presidential Succession The Executive Branch: The Presidency Presidential Succession: • 1947: Congress passed the Presidential Succession Act which indicates the order of succession to the Presidency

The Executive Branch: The Presidency Line of Succession: • • • • • The The Executive Branch: The Presidency Line of Succession: • • • • • The Vice President Speaker of the House President pro tempore of the Senate Secretary of State Secretary of the Treasury Secretary of Defense Attorney General Secretary of the Interior Secretary of Agriculture Secretary of Commerce Secretary of Labor Secretary of Health and Human Services Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Secretary of Transportation Secretary of Energy Secretary of Education Secretary of Veterans Affairs Secretary of Homeland Security

The Executive Branch: The Presidency Presidential Roles The Executive Branch: The Presidency Presidential Roles

The Executive Branch: The Presidency • 7 Major Roles of the President 1. ) The Executive Branch: The Presidency • 7 Major Roles of the President 1. ) Chief Executive § Carries out the nation’s laws § Issues Executive Orders (rule or command the President issues that has the force of law; usually during time of crisis) § Appoints cabinet members, ambassadors, judges, heads of govt. agencies

The Executive Branch: The Presidency 2. ) Chief Diplomat § Responsible for making treaties The Executive Branch: The Presidency 2. ) Chief Diplomat § Responsible for making treaties with other countries with Senate approval § Meets with foreign leaders § Can make Executive Agreements with leaders of other countries Ø Has the force of law but does not require Senate approval § Responsible for appointing ambassadors with Senate approval Ø An official representative of a country’s government

The Executive Branch: The Presidency 3. ) Commander in Chief – President is final The Executive Branch: The Presidency 3. ) Commander in Chief – President is final authority over all military matters o Founding Fathers believed in civilian control over the military; person elected by the people has final say over all military matters – President can use military in times of war or peace 1957: President Eisenhower sent Federal Troops into Little Rock, Arkansas when attempts to integrate public schools led to violence between locals and police

The Executive Branch The Presidency 3. ) Commander in Chief continued. . . President The Executive Branch The Presidency 3. ) Commander in Chief continued. . . President Barrack Obama with his Joint Chiefs of Staff

The Executive Branch The Presidency 3. ) Commander in Chief, cont. . – Stretching The Executive Branch The Presidency 3. ) Commander in Chief, cont. . – Stretching of this power by former Presidents has led to legislation limiting the President’s power over the military President Truman sent troops to fight in Korean War, but we never declared War (1950 -53) Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon sent troops to Vietnam, but we never declared war (1954 -75)

The Executive Branch The Presidency 3. ) Commander in Chief continued…. – 1973: War The Executive Branch The Presidency 3. ) Commander in Chief continued…. – 1973: War Powers Act passed by Congress ØPresident must notify Congress when troops sent anywhere ØTroops must be brought home after 60 days unless Congress declares war, or gives approval for troops to stay

The Executive Branch The Presidency 4. ) Political Party Leader – Supports party members The Executive Branch The Presidency 4. ) Political Party Leader – Supports party members in election campaigns and helps unify the party – Appoints members of party to key govt. jobs President Bush confers w/ Republican members of Congress

The Executive Branch The Presidency 5. ) Legislative Leader – Proposes legislation and uses The Executive Branch The Presidency 5. ) Legislative Leader – Proposes legislation and uses many tactics to get the bill passed – Prepares the federal budget – Approves or vetoes legislation

The Executive Branch The Presidency 6. ) Judicial Leader – Appoints judges to Federal The Executive Branch The Presidency 6. ) Judicial Leader – Appoints judges to Federal Courts and the U. S. Supreme Court § Appoints Justices whose point of view is similar to their own President Obama announces Mrs. Sonia Sotomayor as his nominee to the Supreme Court

The Executive Branch The Presidency 6. ) Judicial Leader continued…. • Can issue pardons, The Executive Branch The Presidency 6. ) Judicial Leader continued…. • Can issue pardons, reprieves and amnesty to those convicted of federal crimes: Pardon – declaration of forgiveness and freedom from punishment § Reprieve – an order to delay a person’s punishment until a higher court can rule on the case (usually death sentence § Commutation – substitutes a less severe punishment for the one originally imposed by the court § Amnesty – same as a pardon; applies to a group of people rather than an individual §

The Executive Branch The Presidency 456 total pardons. Over 100 on the day before The Executive Branch The Presidency 456 total pardons. Over 100 on the day before he left office President Carter gave amnesty to all Vietnam draft dodgers who fled to Canada

The Executive Branch The Presidency 7. ) Chief of State – Role is symbolic The Executive Branch The Presidency 7. ) Chief of State – Role is symbolic – President is representing people from all 50 states – Gives a human face to American govt. – Can be demonstrated in many ways ØGreeting heroes ØThrowing first pitches at baseball games ØInviting musicians to perform at White House ØAttending funeral of another country’s leader, or past Presidents of U. S. ØSpeeches and ceremonies

The Executive Branch The Presidency- Chief of State President and First Lady at Pope’s The Executive Branch The Presidency- Chief of State President and First Lady at Pope’s funeral and at former President Reagan’s funeral