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THE DYNAMICS OF MASS COMMUNCATION Joseph R. Dominick University of Georgia--Athens Mc. Graw-Hill © THE DYNAMICS OF MASS COMMUNCATION Joseph R. Dominick University of Georgia--Athens Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Chapter 9 Chapter Outline Motion Pictures Mc. Graw-Hill The Phi Phenomenon Persistence of Vision Chapter 9 Chapter Outline Motion Pictures Mc. Graw-Hill The Phi Phenomenon Persistence of Vision History of the Motion Pictures in the Digital Age Defining Features of Motion Pictures Organization of the Film Industry Ownership in the Film Industry Producing Motion Pictures Economics Feedback Cable and Video: The Hollywood Connection The Film Industry © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

 The Phi Phenomenon The phi phenomenon: consecutive light sources appear to be one The Phi Phenomenon The phi phenomenon: consecutive light sources appear to be one source that moves Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Persistence of Vision Persistence of vision: seeing an image for a split second after Persistence of Vision Persistence of vision: seeing an image for a split second after it has disappeared. Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

History of the Motion Picture • Early 19 th C Toys – Hand-drawn pictures History of the Motion Picture • Early 19 th C Toys – Hand-drawn pictures – Thaumatrope Praxinoscope • Muybridge’s Galloping Horse (1878) – 24 cameras; 1 photo each Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

History of the Motion Picture • Edison and Dickson – Kinetoscope (1889) • Camera History of the Motion Picture • Edison and Dickson – Kinetoscope (1889) • Camera + viewing device • Used perforated film and sprocket mechanism • Kinetoscope parlors – Expected to sell devices to individuals – Competition from Europe prompts development of Vitascope for mass projection Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

History of the Motion Picture • Early Narrative Films – The Cabbage Fairy - History of the Motion Picture • Early Narrative Films – The Cabbage Fairy - Alice Guy Blache (1886) – A Trip to the Moon - Georges Méliès (1902) – The Great Train Robbery - Edwin S. Porter (1903) • Camera placement and editing • Nickelodeons – 50 -90 seats and 5 cent admission – Audience turnover demands new films Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

History of the Motion Picture • Zukor, Griffith, Johnson – Zukor imports 4 -reel History of the Motion Picture • Zukor, Griffith, Johnson – Zukor imports 4 -reel French film Queen Elizabeth – Birth of a Nation - D. W. Griffith (1915) • 3 hours long • $110, 000 to produce – The Realization of a Negro’s Ambition – George and Noble Johnson (1916) Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

History of the Motion Picture • Birth of the MPPC – Motion Picture Patents History of the Motion Picture • Birth of the MPPC – Motion Picture Patents Company (1908) – Includes Edison – Attempts to restrict movie production and distribution – Independents fight back and eventually move to Hollywood – MPPC had lost power by 1917 Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

History of the Motion Picture • The Star System – ) Carl Laemmle and History of the Motion Picture • The Star System – ) Carl Laemmle and Florence Lawrence • Pulls audiences away from MPPC films • Promotes star competition – Charlie Chaplin • $150/week (1913) $1 Million / 8 films (1917) – Mary Pickford • $20, 000/week + 50% of profits by 1918 – United Artists Studio (1919) – Strand (NY) and Egyptian Theater (Hollywood) Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

History of the Motion Picture • Consolidation and Growth – Economic pressures force consolidation History of the Motion Picture • Consolidation and Growth – Economic pressures force consolidation – Zukor combines production and distribution Paramount Pictures, then adds theaters – Loew (theater chain) purchases studio (which becomes MGM) – Block booking helps production companies Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

History of the Motion Picture • The Roaring 20 s and The Coming of History of the Motion Picture • The Roaring 20 s and The Coming of Sound – Post-war prosperity • Big profits, big salaries, big films, big budgets – Ben Hur made for $6 Million – Lifestyle excesses tempt government censorship – MPPDA heads off government control – The Jazz Singer (1927) is first film with sound Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

History of the Motion Picture • The Studio Years (1930 – 1950) – – History of the Motion Picture • The Studio Years (1930 – 1950) – – MGM RKO Universal Columbia Warner Brothers 20 th Century Fox Paramount United Artists Back lot sets; sound stages; talent “stables” – 1948 Justice Department suits stop vertical control and block booking … Significant Classics Citizen Kane Gone with the Wind Mc. Graw-Hill The Wizard of Oz Stagecoach © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

History of the Motion Picture • Hollywood Reacts to TV – Restrictions • No History of the Motion Picture • Hollywood Reacts to TV – Restrictions • No advertising films on TV • No showing films on TV • No film stars on TV – Technical novelties • 3 -D • Cinerama and Cinemascope • “Spectacle” films such as Cleopatra • Adult themes such as adultery & homosexuality Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

History of the Motion Picture • Realignments: 1960 -1990 – Major studio power declines History of the Motion Picture • Realignments: 1960 -1990 – Major studio power declines – Hollywood affiliates with TV – MPAA introduces film rating system G - PG - R – X – Movies made for TV (180 shown in 1974) – Revenue and budgets trending up since 1970 – Rise of the blockbusters – Introduction of PG-13 (1985) – Replacement of X by NC-17 (1990) PG Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

History of the Motion Picture • Contemporary Film Trends – Concern about “Napsterization” – History of the Motion Picture • Contemporary Film Trends – Concern about “Napsterization” – Admissions slump continues in 2005 – Ticket prices and profits higher – $: Video/DVD sales/rentals > box office – Six firms dominate • Sony/MGM Disney Warner Brothers • Fox NBC Universal • Paramount Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Motion Pictures in the Digital Age • Digital production – Complete films – filmed Motion Pictures in the Digital Age • Digital production – Complete films – filmed or generated – Special effects generation – Computer generated characters – Digital dailies • Digital distribution – No film copying costs – Electronic distribution is faster and cheaper Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Motion Pictures in the Digital Age • Digital projection – Expensive projectors – Digital Motion Pictures in the Digital Age • Digital projection – Expensive projectors – Digital Cinema Initiatives (DCI) – Landmark’s digital projection initiative • Preventing Piracy – Illegal tapings of screenings – Advance copies – Copy protection – Digital Millennium Copyright Act • Mobile Movies Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Defining Features of Motion Pictures • • Expensive Dominated by big conglomerates Strong aesthetic Defining Features of Motion Pictures • • Expensive Dominated by big conglomerates Strong aesthetic dimension A “social experience” Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Organization of the Film Industry • Production • A variety of groups and individuals Organization of the Film Industry • Production • A variety of groups and individuals – Seven major studios: each 15 -20 films/year – Story development, casting, art, makeup, sets • Distribution – Supplying prints to theaters, TV networks, and videocassette/videodisc makers – Advantage of worldwide distribution networks – Financing of independent producers Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Organization of the Film Industry • Exhibition – 37, 400 movie screens in 2000 Organization of the Film Industry • Exhibition – 37, 400 movie screens in 2000 (USA) – 36, 000 in 2004 – Multiplex theaters • 12 -18 screens • Single concession stand • 200 -400 patrons Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Ownership in the Film Industry • Top six conglomerates (2004) 1) The Walt Disney Ownership in the Film Industry • Top six conglomerates (2004) 1) The Walt Disney Company (Touchstone and Buena Vista) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Mc. Graw-Hill Time Warner (Warner Brothers) Paramount (Viacom) (CBS, Infinity) Sony/MGM NBC Universal (GE, NBC) News Corporation (20 th Century Fox) © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Producing Motion Pictures • Preproduction – Idea: plot outline, novel, Broadway play – Write Producing Motion Pictures • Preproduction – Idea: plot outline, novel, Broadway play – Write the screen play: treatment, script drafts, final polish – Producer: Talent search – Producer: Financial backing – Producer: Director and camera crew – Producer and Director: studio and location scouting, and scheduling Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Producing Motion Pictures • Production – Shooting the film – $400, 000 - $500, Producing Motion Pictures • Production – Shooting the film – $400, 000 - $500, 000 per day – Average schedule: 70 days – 2 minutes usable film per shooting day • Postproduction – Editing – Special effects – Postproduction sound – Release print Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Economics • Film revenue sources – Domestic box office – DVD/cassette rental and sales Economics • Film revenue sources – Domestic box office – DVD/cassette rental and sales – Foreign box office – Average ticket price in 2004 - $6. 25 – Hollywood is in good financial shape Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Economics • Financing a Film $ Direct loan from distributor $ Pickup – buy Economics • Financing a Film $ Direct loan from distributor $ Pickup – buy finished film later for set price $ Limited partnership with liability limitations $ Joint venture – Producer and distributor agree on dividing gross receipts – Film must earn 2½ - 3 times production cost to show profit Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Economics • Dealing with the Exhibitor – Exhibition license specifies: • Run of the Economics • Dealing with the Exhibitor – Exhibition license specifies: • Run of the film; Holdover rights • Date available for showing • Financial terms – Split percentage (50/50… 60/40……. 70/30…) – Sliding scale – 90 -10 deal: nut, air, then 90/10 – Concessions: 90 percent of theater profit Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Economics • Promoting a Film – First three days are critical – Common promotion Economics • Promoting a Film – First three days are critical – Common promotion strategies • Pre-opening media blitz • Trailers in a theater’s “Coming Attractions” • Internet exposure using trailers and sound scores • Internet ads on portals and ticket sites Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Feedback • Film companies develop feedback using: – Box-office figures monitored by trade publications Feedback • Film companies develop feedback using: – Box-office figures monitored by trade publications including Variety – Market research • Concept testing • Script analysis • Test screenings of a rough cut • Focus groups Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Feedback Figure 9 -1 Variety Box-Office Revenue Chart Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Feedback Figure 9 -1 Variety Box-Office Revenue Chart Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Feedback Figure 9 -2 Average Weekly Film Attendance in the United States Mc. Graw-Hill Feedback Figure 9 -2 Average Weekly Film Attendance in the United States Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

Cable and Video: The Hollywood Connection • • • Home video – Hollywood’s biggest Cable and Video: The Hollywood Connection • • • Home video – Hollywood’s biggest revenue source DVD/tape sales + rentals: $24 billion (2004) 6 M rent films daily; 12 M go to theater 60% of US homes have DVD player Pay-Per-View (30 million homes) Licensing revenue from premium cable channels – HBO Showtime Cinemax Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

The Film Industry • Getting Experience – Making films independently – Courses of study The Film Industry • Getting Experience – Making films independently – Courses of study in film • 750 colleges and universities with courses • 227 with bachelor’s degrees • Full range of cinematography: equipment, film, history, art, aesthetics, projects Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

The Film Industry • Entry Level – Interview • Know somebody • Get noticed The Film Industry • Entry Level – Interview • Know somebody • Get noticed in internships and training courses • Persistent presentation of resume to companies – Take practically any job to start Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.

The Film Industry • Upward Mobility – Editing room workers tend to stay there The Film Industry • Upward Mobility – Editing room workers tend to stay there – Production Assistants Assistant Directors Director Producer – Distribution or sales management Mc. Graw-Hill © 2007 The Mc. Graw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights reserved.