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The Date of Isaiah 56 -66 • Jerusalem destroyed 58: 12; 64: 10 -11 The Date of Isaiah 56 -66 • Jerusalem destroyed 58: 12; 64: 10 -11 • The exiles will return 56: 8; 60: 4 • Temple has been restored and is functioning – 56: 5 in my house a monument and a name ~vw diy 56: 1, 6 -9 Proper 15 A – 56: 7 a house of prayer for all peoples – 66: 6 Listen, a voice from the temple • A sharply divided community

“Servants” in Third Isaiah • I will bring forth descendants from Jacob, and from “Servants” in Third Isaiah • I will bring forth descendants from Jacob, and from Judah inheritors of my mountains; my chosen shall inherit it [Judah], and my servants shall dwell there 65: 9 • Cf. 56: 6; 63: 17; 65: 8, 9, 13, 14, 15; 66: 14 • No weapon fashioned against you shall prosper…This is the heritage of the servants of Yahweh 54: 17

Salvation Judgment Oracle • My servants shall eat, but you shall be hungry • Salvation Judgment Oracle • My servants shall eat, but you shall be hungry • My servants shall drink, but you shall be thirsty • My servants shall rejoice, but you shall be put to shame • My servants shall sing for gladness, but you shall cry out for pain of heart 65: 13 -15 • You = syncretists (65: 1 -7, 11 -12) • 65: 1 -9 Proper 7 C

Social Reality of Third Isaiah • A community in which the poor are exploited Social Reality of Third Isaiah • A community in which the poor are exploited by the wealthy • Syncretised religion, including mortuary rites and cults, with a strong sexual orientation, is still being practiced, and practitioners include the temple priesthood (57: 3 -13; 65: 1 -12; 66: 17) • A community under severe stress—hostility between a prophetic group and the religious authorities. This prophetic group was excluded from the cultic community and marginalized socially and economically.

Social justice vs. ritual practice • The fast that I choose 58: 6 -9 Social justice vs. ritual practice • The fast that I choose 58: 6 -9 – – – To loose the bonds of injustice To let the oppressed go free To share your bread with the hungry To bring the homeless into your house To cover the naked • Then you shall call and Yahweh will answer • Such “fasting” requires greater self denial • 1 -9 a (9 b-12) Epiphany 5 A; 1 -12 (Alt) Ash Wednesday ABC; 9 b-14 Proper 16 C

Themes in Third Isaiah • Missionaries to foreign lands 66: 18 -19—all nations will Themes in Third Isaiah • Missionaries to foreign lands 66: 18 -19—all nations will come and see my glory • Ethnic and physical qualifications for membership are set aside (foreigners and eunuchs welcomed [per contra Deut 23: 1 -8]), but Sabbath observance central. Temple a house of prayer for all peoples (56: 1 -7; per contra Deut 23: 2 -9) • God will create a new community, beginning with his “servants”—my chosen ones will inherit the land (65: 910)

More themes in Third Isaiah • Round-the-clock intercessory prayer 62: 6 -7; prayer is More themes in Third Isaiah • Round-the-clock intercessory prayer 62: 6 -7; prayer is gaining in popularity at the expense of sacrifice • Redemption is conditional on moral regeneration 56: 1 Maintain justice…for soon my salvation will come • Self-indulgent conduct of the community leaders (56: 912) and those who have settled for the syncretistic option (57: 3 -13) • Judgment by fire (66: 15 -16); lurid fate of the reprobate (66: 24); new heavens and earth (65: 17; 66: 22); divine intervention: soon my salvation will come (56: 1); reversal of fortunes and roles (65: 13 -15)

57: 3 -13 Vs. Syncretism • Vs. the children of the sorceress and of 57: 3 -13 Vs. Syncretism • Vs. the children of the sorceress and of a male adulterer: seeking consolation with shades of the dead, sacrificing children (3 -5) • Vs. the sorceress herself. Deviant cults//female sexual transgression. Religious consequences of exogamous marriages (6 -13 a) • The one who takes refuge in me will inherit the land (13 b)

Syncretism 57: 1 -13; 65: 1 -12; 66: 17 • You burn with lust Syncretism 57: 1 -13; 65: 1 -12; 66: 17 • You burn with lust among the oaks 57: 5 • You have set up your bed…you have uncovered your bed…you have made up a bargain for yourself with them, you have loved their bed 57: 7 -8 • Journeyed to Molech = child sacrifice…sent envoys to Sheol v. 9 • Sacrificing in gardens and offering incense on bricks 65: 3 • Eating the flesh of pigs, vermin, and rodents 66: 17 (real sin or hyperbole? )

Isaiah 65 -66 and Isaiah 1 • God spreads out his hands to a Isaiah 65 -66 and Isaiah 1 • God spreads out his hands to a rebellious people 65: 2, 24 • Creation of new heavens and earth 65: 17 • I will answer 65: 24 • Offspring blessed by Yahweh 65: 23 • Critique of animal and grain sacrifices 66: 3 • On new moon and sabbath all flesh will worship me 66: 23 • Inextinguishable fire 66: 24 • Garden cults 66: 17 --they sanctify and purify themselves to go into the garden • Children I have reared, but they have rebelled 1: 2, 28 • Heaven and earth listen to Yahweh’s lawsuit 1: 2 • I will not listen 1: 15 • Offspring who deal corruptly 1: 4 • Offerings, incense, new moon, and sabbath rejected 1: 13 • Inextinguishable fire 1: 31 • Garden cults 1: 29—you shall blush for the gardens you have chosen

Isaiah 60: 1 -6 Epiphany ABC • Your light (God’s epiphany) has come, Zion Isaiah 60: 1 -6 Epiphany ABC • Your light (God’s epiphany) has come, Zion (v 1) • Yahweh’s glory shines like the dawn, but darkness covers the earth (v 2; 40: 5 the glory of Yahweh will be revealed) • Nations shall come to your light; kings to your dawn (v 3) • Your sons shall come from afar; your daughters on their nurses’ arms (v 4) • The abundance of the sea, and the wealth of nations shall come to you by sea (v 5); Countless camels from the east (v 6) • Tribute for sacrifice on Yahweh’s altar (v 7) • OT // to the wise men

Isaiah 61: 1 -4, 8 -11 Advent 3 B 61: 10 -62: 3 Christmas Isaiah 61: 1 -4, 8 -11 Advent 3 B 61: 10 -62: 3 Christmas 1 B • Yahweh has anointed me (the prophet or the servant) to preach good news to the oppressed, to comfort all who mourn (cf. Luke 4: 18 -19) • To provide for those who mourn in Zion a garland instead of ashes • They shall repair the ruined cities • I, Yahweh, love justice and hate wrongdoing • I (the prophet or the servant) will greatly rejoice in Yahweh for he has clothed me with victory (salvation) garments

Isaiah 62: 1 -5 Epiphany 2 C 61: 10 -62: 3 Christmas 1 B Isaiah 62: 1 -5 Epiphany 2 C 61: 10 -62: 3 Christmas 1 B • I will not be silent until Zion is vindicated v 1 • You will be a splendid crown in Yahweh’s hand v 3 • Jerusalem no more called Azubah (forsaken; “Yahweh has forsaken me” 49: 14; 1 Kgs 22: 42) or Shemamah (desolate), but Hephzibah (my delight is in her; 2 Kgs 21: 1) and Beulah (married) v 4. 65: 15 his servants will be called by a different name • Your builder %n. EåAB /sons %y. In"+B' will “marry” [possess, master] you; God will rejoice over you v 5

Isaiah 62: 6 -12 Christmas Day 2 ABC • Sentinels are to give God Isaiah 62: 6 -12 Christmas Day 2 ABC • Sentinels are to give God no rest until he establishes Jerusalem (vv 6 -7) • I will never give your grain and wine to your enemies; those who harvest grain will eat it (vv 8 -9) • Build up the highway (v 10) • Say to daughter Zion: Your salvation comes (v 11) • New names for the people: “Holy people” (v. 12; cf. holy seed in 6: 13); “redeemed of Yahweh” (v. 12; cf. 35: 8 -9 a holy way for the redeemed); “sought out, ” “a city not forsaken” hb'z")[/n< al{ï ry[iÞ

A Community Lament 63: 7 -19 (63: 7 -9 Christmas 1 A) • Yahweh A Community Lament 63: 7 -19 (63: 7 -9 Christmas 1 A) • Yahweh lifted and carried Israel in days of old (9) • They rebelled and grieved his holy spirit (10) • They recalled the days of old: Where is the one who brought them up from the sea? (11) • Look down…. Where is your zeal, your power, your compassion? (15) • You are our father/redeemer even if Abraham and Israel would not acknowledge us (16) • We have been as those who no longer bear your name (19)

Isaiah 64: 1 -9 Advent 1 B • Oh that you (Yahweh) would tear Isaiah 64: 1 -9 Advent 1 B • Oh that you (Yahweh) would tear open the heavens and come down as at Sinai, and make the nations tremble v (19 b [1]) • No God besides you who works for those who wait for him (v 3 [4]) • We have sinned and you have hidden your face (cf. 45: 15) and handed us over to iniquity (vv 5 -6 [6 -7]) • Yet, you are our father; we are the clay and you the potter (v 7 [8])— relationship to God based on his creative acts prior to the saving history. • Do not remember our iniquity forever; we are all your people (v 8 [9]) • [Jerusalem a place of desolation (v 9 [10]); Our temple has been burned by fire (v 10 [11]) • After all this, will you restrain yourself, Yahweh? Will you keep silent and afflict us beyond measure (v 11 [12])]

Isaiah 65: 17 -25 Proper 28; Easter (Alt) Both C • • • New Isaiah 65: 17 -25 Proper 28; Easter (Alt) Both C • • • New heavens and new earth v 17 No more weeping v 18 People live 100+ years v 20 They will build houses and live in them v 21 Peace among animals v 25; cf. 11: 6 -9 Dust will be the serpent’s food. Serpents are the exception to ideal harmony v 25; Cf. Gen 3: 14

Isaiah 66 Outline • 1 -4 vs. syncretistic cult • 5 -6 favor to Isaiah 66 Outline • 1 -4 vs. syncretistic cult • 5 -6 favor to those who tremble at Yahweh’s word; judgment to Yahweh’s enemies • 7 -14 an epilogue to Third Isaiah—population explosion and prosperity; wrath to enemies • 15 -16 These verses develop idea of Yahweh’s wrath from v. 14; original conclusion to 56 -66? • 17 Those slain = syncretists of vv. 3 -4

Isaiah 66 (cont. ) • 18 -21 broad, inclusive approach to membership in Jewish Isaiah 66 (cont. ) • 18 -21 broad, inclusive approach to membership in Jewish community. Conversion of Gentiles; some of them even become priests and Levites • 20 Gentiles limited to providing sacrificial material • 22 -23 new heavens and earth; all flesh worships Yahweh • 24 excipit to book; worshipers go out to witness corpses of the rebels.

Isaiah 66: 1 -9 • Heaven is my throne…what is this house that you Isaiah 66: 1 -9 • Heaven is my throne…what is this house that you would build for me? 56: 7 a house of prayer and sacrifices; 60: 7 Yahweh’s glorious house • I look to the humble…who trembles at my word (vv. 2, 5). Cf. those who trembled at the words of the God of Israel Ezr 9: 4 (also 10: 3) • Great population increase in Jerusalem: Before she goes into labor she gives birth! God stands behind this population explosion: Shall I open the womb and not deliver?

Isaiah 66: 10 -14 Proper 9 C • Rejoice with Jerusalem and be glad, Isaiah 66: 10 -14 Proper 9 C • Rejoice with Jerusalem and be glad, all you who love her • That you may nurse and be satisfied from her consoling breast, her glorious bosom • Yahweh gives prosperity and wealth to her • As a mother comforts her child, I will comfort you (cf. 40: 1 -2) • The hand of Yahweh is with his servants; his indignation against his enemies

The Hand of Yahweh • For all this anger is not turned away, but The Hand of Yahweh • For all this anger is not turned away, but his hand (of judgment) is stretched out still (5: 25; 9: 12, 17, 21; 10: 4) • Yahweh will extend his hand a second time to recover the remnant that is left of his people 11: 11; His hand will divide the Euphrates 11: 15 • The hand of Yahweh will rest on this mountain 25: 10 • Yahweh’s hand is exalted, but the nations don’t see it (26: 11) • Yahweh’s hand with his servants 66: 14