The Cumulative Impact of the U S Land

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The Cumulative Impact of the U. S. Land Border Customs and Security Measures on The Cumulative Impact of the U. S. Land Border Customs and Security Measures on the Canadian Trucking Industry Presentation to Transportation Border Working Group June 2, 2005 Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures

Study Objectives • To assess the cumulative impact of the U. S. land border Study Objectives • To assess the cumulative impact of the U. S. land border and security measures on Canadian motor carriers operating into the United States • To assess the impacts on the three main trucking industry segments: • For-hire carriers • Private fleet operators • Owner-operators Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 2

Study Scope • The goal was to be as representative as possible of: • Study Scope • The goal was to be as representative as possible of: • Canada’s four major regions: Atlantic Canada, Quebec, Ontario, Western Canada • Motor carrier truck fleet sizes • Products transported/industries served (e. g. automotive, forest, food) • Research carried out in the January-March 2005 time frame Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 3

Approach and Methodology • Consultative process with a broad spectrum of industry stakeholders: motor Approach and Methodology • Consultative process with a broad spectrum of industry stakeholders: motor carriers, shippers, industry associations, government • Literature review and review of applicable U. S. security measures • Structured interview process for each of the three trucking industry segments and for key shippers • Results of survey formed the basis for assessment of cumulative impact of U. S. security measures. Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 4

Key U. S. Security Measures • Advanced Electronic Presentation of Cargo Information (U. S. Key U. S. Security Measures • Advanced Electronic Presentation of Cargo Information (U. S. Trade Act) • Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) • Free and Secure Trade (FAST) • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) prior notice arrival (Bio-Terrorism Act) Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 5

Fleet Sizes of Respondents Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 6 Fleet Sizes of Respondents Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 6

For-hire Carriers-Sample Profile • Total fleet size: 6, 400 tractors • Total drivers: 7, For-hire Carriers-Sample Profile • Total fleet size: 6, 400 tractors • Total drivers: 7, 000 • Type of operation: 68% TL; 14% LTL; 18% mix of LTL/TL • Transborder revenue: 48% of total revenue • Transborder trips in 2004: 207, 000 Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 7

U. S. Cargo Release Mechanisms • • Regular Inspection Pre-Arrival Processing System (PAPS) National U. S. Cargo Release Mechanisms • • Regular Inspection Pre-Arrival Processing System (PAPS) National Customs Automation Program (NCAP) Border Release Advanced Screening and Selectivity (BRASS) • In-bond transactions • QP/WP (customs broker in-bond transaction) • CAFES (Customs Automated Forms Entry System) Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 8

U. S. Customs Procedures Usage prior to pre-notification Impact of U. S. Land Border U. S. Customs Procedures Usage prior to pre-notification Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 9

U. S. Customs Procedures Usage after pre-notification requirement Impact of U. S. Land Border U. S. Customs Procedures Usage after pre-notification requirement Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 10

FAST Approved Status (February-March, 2005) • • For-hire carriers: >80% Drivers of for-hire carriers: FAST Approved Status (February-March, 2005) • • For-hire carriers: >80% Drivers of for-hire carriers: 60% Owner-operators: 50% Clients of for-hire carriers: 10% on average (one-third of carriers had no clients who were FAST approved) Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 11

Cost Impacts of U. S. Security Measures (since 9/11) • Time delay: at border Cost Impacts of U. S. Security Measures (since 9/11) • Time delay: at border and inland due to prenotification procedures • Driver costs: training, acquisition of FAST cards, bonuses for border crossings • Investments in installations to become C-TPAT compliant • Administration costs principally due to PAPS • Investments in computer systems software Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 12

Approach and Methodology to estimate Cost Impacts • Limited to impacts on for-hire carriers Approach and Methodology to estimate Cost Impacts • Limited to impacts on for-hire carriers • Sampled for-hire carriers represented about 5% of total Canadian for-hire one-way truck crossings in 2004 • Each cost element treated either as an annual operating cost or an an investment depreciated over 5 years at a 7% cost of money • Use of minimum-maximum ranges to reflect “order of magnitude” cost assessment Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 13

For-Hire Carrier Sample Size • Canadian for-hire carriers generated 3. 85 million loaded one-way For-Hire Carrier Sample Size • Canadian for-hire carriers generated 3. 85 million loaded one-way transborder trips or 57% of total one-way transborder trips of 6. 73 million in 2004 • 17% of truck trips are empty • 7. 5% are private fleet trucks • 74. 5% of trucks belong to Canadian carriers • Sampled for-hire carriers generated 207, 000 transborder trips or 5% of the total loaded one-way for-hire transborder trips in 2004 Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 14

Costs of Time Delay • Delay at border due to U. S. security measures Costs of Time Delay • Delay at border due to U. S. security measures estimated to range between one-half hour and one hour based on: • Responses of sampled carriers and shippers • Research project of Transport Canada’s Ontario Region measuring truck delay at six Ontario border crossings • Additional inland truck delay of one-half hour due to processing of invoices by CBP and customs brokers • Hourly cost of truck delay of between $60 to $75 Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 15

Summary of Cost Impacts Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 16 Summary of Cost Impacts Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 16

Cost versus Benefit Impacts • Mid-range cost impact estimate of $290 million/annum on Canadian Cost versus Benefit Impacts • Mid-range cost impact estimate of $290 million/annum on Canadian for-hire carriers • Represents approx. 4% of total Canadian for-hire, long distance transborder trucking expenses • Carriers have not yet experienced any concrete benefits from the U. S. security measures • Benefits may commence to emerge in the longer term Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 17

Conclusions and associated Recommendations • Increased truck delay is the key cost impact factor Conclusions and associated Recommendations • Increased truck delay is the key cost impact factor of the U. S. security measures • Encourage pre-processing initiatives • Improve/standardize customs broker procedures for processing commercial invoices • The U. S. security measures are still in a period of evolution at this time • Update this study once the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) program has been implemented in 2006 and the “dust has settled” Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 18

Conclusions and associated Recommendations (cont’d) • There is a serious lack of FAST approved Conclusions and associated Recommendations (cont’d) • There is a serious lack of FAST approved shippers that is preventing Canadian carriers from taking full advantage of potential benefits from the U. S security regime • Develop appropriate strategies and programs for businesses to become C-TPAT compliant and FAST approved • The U. S. security measures are exacerbating the driver shortage in the transborder lanes • Accommodate/assist drivers to become FAST approved • Develop training programs for drivers re: the U. S. security procedures Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 19

Conclusions and associated Recommendations (cont’d) • The measurement of truck delay and the associated Conclusions and associated Recommendations (cont’d) • The measurement of truck delay and the associated carrier costs needs refinement • Encourage further rigorous research on the measurement of truck delay • Determine the true economic cost of time delay to carriers • The economic impacts of the U. S. security measures extend well beyond the trucking industry • Encourage all sectors of the Canadian economy to conform (i. e. , become C-TPAT compliant and FAST approved) as soon as possible to the U. S. security measures Impact of U. S. Land Border and Security Measures 20




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