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THE COLLAVORATIVE LEARNING MODEL TO ENHANCE STUDNETS’ GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS Yoshihiko Shimizu Toyama National College THE COLLAVORATIVE LEARNING MODEL TO ENHANCE STUDNETS’ GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS Yoshihiko Shimizu Toyama National College of Technology E-Mail shimizu. [email protected] ac. jp

National College of Technology 国 立 高 等 専 門 学 校   (KOSEN) HQ (Institute) in Tokyo, JAPAN 51 Branches 45, National College of Technology 国 立 高 等 専 門 学 校   (KOSEN) HQ (Institute) in Tokyo, JAPAN 51 Branches 45, 000 students

Ph. D (3 years) Get the Job Master (2 years) 21 Advanced course (2 Ph. D (3 years) Get the Job Master (2 years) 21 Advanced course (2 years) University (4 years) Regular course (5 years) High School (3 years) 16 Junior High School (3 years) 13 7 Age Elementary School (6 years) Compulsory Education System in Japan

Departments • • Mechanical Engineering Electrical & Electronics Engineering Information Engineering Civil & Architecture Departments • • Mechanical Engineering Electrical & Electronics Engineering Information Engineering Civil & Architecture Engineering Materials Science Bio Science Maritime technology International Business

THE COLLAVORATIVE LEARNING MODEL TO ENHANCE STUDNETS’ GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS Yoshihiko Shimizu Toyama National College THE COLLAVORATIVE LEARNING MODEL TO ENHANCE STUDNETS’ GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS Yoshihiko Shimizu Toyama National College of Technology E-Mail shimizu. [email protected] ac. jp

Telecollaboration Project between the U. S. and Japan to Enhance Students' Global Competitiveness Yoshihiko Telecollaboration Project between the U. S. and Japan to Enhance Students' Global Competitiveness Yoshihiko Shimizu Toyama National College of Technology Email: shimizu. [email protected] ac. jp

Telecollaboration Project between the U. S. and Japan to Enhance Students' Global Competitiveness Not Telecollaboration Project between the U. S. and Japan to Enhance Students' Global Competitiveness Not only English skills… Yoshihiko Shimizu Toyama National College of Technology Email: shimizu. [email protected] ac. jp

Telecollaboration Project between the U. S. and Japan to Enhance Students' Global Competitiveness -Based Telecollaboration Project between the U. S. and Japan to Enhance Students' Global Competitiveness -Based on “the Five Proposals for Developing Proficiency in English for International Communication” - Yoshihiko Shimizu Toyama National College of Technology Email: shimizu. [email protected] ac. jp

Today’s Procedure a. Introduction b. Experiment         7 min c. Results & Discussion Today’s Procedure a. Introduction b. Experiment         7 min c. Results & Discussion 4 . Conclusion 5 min    7 min    1 min

Questions! Check our image ! Please raise your hands! Two questions! Generally speaking, 1. Questions! Check our image ! Please raise your hands! Two questions! Generally speaking, 1. English level of Japanese students is        high?   low? 2. The number of students who don’t like English is       big?   small?

Questions! Check our image ! Please raise your hands! Two questions! Generally speaking, 1. Questions! Check our image ! Please raise your hands! Two questions! Generally speaking, 1. English level of Japanese students is        high?   low? 2. The number of students who don’t like English is       large?   small?

Probably, Many Japanese students   don’t like English.   Cited from the report and Probably, Many Japanese students   don’t like English.   Cited from the report and data of Benesse cooperation

【The reasons students don’t like English study】 1 The experiences at junior high school 【The reasons students don’t like English study】 1 The experiences at junior high school Test score is too bad even though I studied hard. I really struggle English, but I cannot realize my improvement. 2 No achievement. Less-motivated form the score. I’m not interested in English. 3 Luck of future need toward I don’t need English is the subject for the people who need English in business or work. English. Cited from the report and data of Benesse cooperation 14

【The reasons students don’t like English study】 I cannot understand English conversation. It’s too 【The reasons students don’t like English study】 I cannot understand English conversation. It’s too difficult to memorize English words. 1. The experiences at junior high school English is too difficult. Test score is too bad even though I studied hard. I really struggle English, but I cannot realize my improvement. No achievement. Less-motivated form the score. I’m not interested in English. Luck of future need I don’t need English is the subject for the people who need English in business or work. toward English. Cited from the report and data of Benesse cooperation 15

【The reasons students don’t like English study】 1 The experiences at junior high school 【The reasons students don’t like English study】 1 The experiences at junior high school Test score is too bad even though I studied hard. I really struggle English, but I cannot realize my improvement. 2 No achievement. Less-motivated form the score. I’m not interested in English. 3 Luck of future need toward I don’t need English is the subject for the people who need English in business or work. English. Cited from the report and data of Benesse cooperation 16

【The reasons students don’t like English study】 I cannot understand English conversation. It’s too 【The reasons students don’t like English study】 I cannot understand English conversation. It’s too difficult to memorize English words. The experiences at junior high school English is too difficult. Test score is too bad even though I studied hard. I really struggle English, but I cannot realize my improvement. 2. No feelings of achievement or success. I’m not interested in English. Luck of future need I don’t need English is the subject for the people who need English in business or work. toward English. Cited from the report and data of Benesse cooperation 17

【The reasons students don’t like English study】 1 The experiences at junior high school 【The reasons students don’t like English study】 1 The experiences at junior high school Test score is too bad even though I studied hard. I really struggle English, but I cannot realize my improvement. 2 No achievement. Less-motivated form the score. I’m not interested in English. 3 Luck of future need toward I don’t need English is the subject for the people who need English in business or work. English. Cited from the report and data of Benesse cooperation 18

【The reasons students don’t like English study】 I cannot understand English conversation. It’s too 【The reasons students don’t like English study】 I cannot understand English conversation. It’s too difficult to memorize English words. The experiences at junior high school English is too difficult. Test score is too bad even though I studied hard. I really struggle English, but I cannot realize my improvement. No achievement. Less-motivated form the score. I’m not interested in English. 3. Luck of future needs I don’t need English is the subject for the people who need English in business or work. toward English. Cited from the report and data of Benesse cooperation 19

【The reasons students don’t like English study】 I cannot understand English conversation. It’s too 【The reasons students don’t like English study】 I cannot understand English conversation. It’s too difficult to memorize English words. 1. The experiences at junior high school English is too difficult. Test score is too bad even though I studied hard. I really struggle English, but I cannot realize my improvement. 2. No feelings of achievement or success. I’m not interested in English. 3. Luck of future needs I don’t need English is the subject for the people who need English in business or work. toward English. Cited from the report and data of Benesse cooperation 20

This is a BIG problem! This is a BIG problem!

The Number of Japanese Company which has Foreign Branches Cited from the report and The Number of Japanese Company which has Foreign Branches Cited from the report and data of Benesse cooperation

・Many of the students don’t or cannot realize the situation in the global society. ・Many of the students don’t or cannot realize the situation in the global society. ・Teachers have to make the students realize the requirement from the global society. ・ Not well-motivated.   ・Ministry of Education launched the program called “the Five Proposals for Developing Proficiency in English for International Communication” in 2011.

The brief explanation of “the Five Proposals. ” Proposal two To have the students The brief explanation of “the Five Proposals. ” Proposal two To have the students realize the necessity of English in the global society and to make students well-motivated.   Proposal three To provide students with more opportunities to use English with native speakers of English with the help of ICT. Collaborative Learning” with foreigners through “ICT. ” Proposal one To introduce the regular use of “academic achievement test”, such as TOEIC. To have students regularly see their development of English competence by their scores.

2.1 the five Proposals and this research Based on three proposals Proposal three:         Keyword 2.1 the five Proposals and this research Based on three proposals Proposal three:         Keyword : To create many English use      Device :  ICT,    ⇒ Collaborative Learning” with foreigners through “ICT. ”    Proposal         two: Keyword : Motivation ⇒quantify “a change in awareness” The necessity of English The skills in the global society       Device :  Activity in Proposal three   Proposal one: Keyword : The regular use of “Communication Test”       Device  : TOEIC

Toyama in Japan Proposal three:   Collaborative Learning” with foreigners   through “ICT. ” Toyama in Japan Proposal three:   Collaborative Learning” with foreigners   through “ICT. ”

California In the U. S. California In the U. S.

2.1 the five Proposals and this research Based on three proposals Proposal three:         Keyword 2.1 the five Proposals and this research Based on three proposals Proposal three:         Keyword : To create many English use      Device :  ICT,    ⇒ Collaborative Learning” with foreigners through “ICT. ”    Proposal         two: Keyword : Motivation ⇒quantify “a change in awareness” The necessity of English The skills in the global society       Device :  Activity in Proposal three   Proposal one: Keyword : The regular use of “Communication Test”       Device  : TOEIC

2.1 Outline of this research • How long: Ten months  April, 2012~January, 2013             2.1 Outline of this research • How long: Ten months  April, 2012~January, 2013             One a week in the regular class ・ How often: 30 minutes discussion per class 43 students (19 -year-old) • How many:      International Business Course • With whom: 1. The University of California, Irvive 2. Pacific University in Oregon

2.2 Experiment 2.2 Experiment

Japanese end Japanese end

California end California end

Japanese end Japanese end

Learning Model 2012 (Shimizu 2012) No Learning styles Activities Contents 1 Group Goal setting Learning Model 2012 (Shimizu 2012) No Learning styles Activities Contents 1 Group Goal setting Brainstorming 2 Individual Topic selection Designated goals 3 Individual Pre-research Data gathering 4 Pair Collaborative learning Discussion with American students 5 Group Sharing Information sharing 6 Individual Analysis Report writing Instruction Teachers’ correction Modification Rewrite reports 7 8 Individual

Japanese end Japanese end

California end California end

Learning Model 2012 (Shimizu 2012) No Learning styles Activities Contents 1 Group Goal setting Learning Model 2012 (Shimizu 2012) No Learning styles Activities Contents 1 Group Goal setting Brainstorming 2 Individual Topic selection Designated goals 3 Individual Pre-research Data gathering 4 Pair Collaborative learning Discussion with American students 5 Group Sharing Information sharing 6 Individual Analysis Report writing Instruction Teachers’ correction Modification Rewrite reports 7 8 Individual

The first report in April • • • I talked with students of University The first report in April • • • I talked with students of University of California, Irvine. We talked about our school life, travel, and Orange Country (California). Also we asked them (students of UCI) some questions about the vending machine in America, because we studied about foreign countries’ vending machines when we were K 3. Before the EVC, I researched that difference of vending machine between America and Japan. In America, there are some vending machines and American people sometimes use them. Japan has a lot of the vending machines everywhere, so we always can buy drinks, alcohol, cigarettes, and so on anywhere. The vending machines are a great convenience, but its need much electric power. If we pay a vending machine’s electricity charges, it amounts to house’s one for a month. Judging from this, they’re not ecology system.

Learning Model 2012 (Shimizu 2012) No Learning styles Activities Contents 1 Group Goal setting Learning Model 2012 (Shimizu 2012) No Learning styles Activities Contents 1 Group Goal setting Brainstorming 2 Individual Topic selection Designated goals 3 Individual Pre-research Data gathering 4 Pair Collaborative learning Discussion with American students 5 Group Sharing Information sharing 6 Individual Analysis Report writing Instruction Teachers’ correction Modification Rewrite reports 7 8 Individual

The final report in Jan. • • • Custom of Tipping in America K The final report in Jan. • • • Custom of Tipping in America K 09435 In America, we pay tip in many situations, for example good restaurants, taxi, hotel, etc. When we have a restaurant meal, we often pay 10~20% of total amount. Tip is given as an appreciation of service by customers. When we enjoy the service, we give money in recompense for a service. Tip--- this custom started in Europe in 18 century. A pub set a box with “To Insure Promptness” written on it. It was set for people who want to receive prompt service. If someone set in box some money, he or she could receive a better service. “TIP” is abbreviation of the phrase. However, nowadays we don’t know about the true origin of tip. Around 1950 s, labor condition in Europe was made improvement and labor costs were increased. Therefore, tipping system is not necessary now in Europe. Even now custom of tipping is usual among American, but I feel it is a little strange culture. Why do we have to pay extra money? Why this culture pervade in America? The first reason, payment for the simply service people (for example waiter) in the United State is very low. It's not too much to say that they depend in a large part on tip. Basic salary is preset low by employers because of this custom, so tip is not additional gain, with no doubt important “income source”. The second reason, there are many American companies the primary purpose is making a profit. So employees are fewer than Japan’s because of cutting personnel cost. They strengthen formalization and systematization and increase workers desire to work by tip. But through my research and Skype, their service is not always good. It is natural. One of UCI students said, “Even if service is bad, I almost always have to tip service people. Some of customers have complaints for tipping system. When I receive good service, I leave a lot of tip; conversely, if their service is bad, I skimp on the tip. It’s my rule. ” In contrast, we don’t have tipping system, or we involuntarily pay service charge in Japan. So even if we work too hard, we cannot get much money from customers. Before the last war there was some tipping in Japanese style inns. Nowadays we are little seen such an act in Japan. Almost Japanese don’t require giving tips. Even now for some foreign customers, it is amazing because Japanese service quality is very high. Amount of money varies somewhat with quality of their service. To be sure, tip is dreamboat for person who can work in a thriving service business. Good service person can receive many tips from customers, like him. But, in other words, service workers are in a very precarious state. The tip is influenced directly a great deal by business slump, season, hours, and off course, service people’s attitude. It’s a little bit difficult for me to understand culture that I don’t have. I think tip is complicated culture. It has both good and bad points. As I mentioned earlier, this system generates and fosters workers’ motivation. I approve this advantage because we can get much payment with effort. But we already know that their position is not ensured, especially salaries. With the rapid progress of globalization, I submit that it is needed to improve employment conditions for service people in America. It's hard for American to ignore, because it's an old custom. I think Americans will have to establish the society which customers and employees feel comfortable to pay for tips.

Learning Model 2012 (Shimizu 2012) No Learning styles Activities Contents 1 Group Goal setting Learning Model 2012 (Shimizu 2012) No Learning styles Activities Contents 1 Group Goal setting Brainstorming 2 Individual Topic selection Designated goals 3 Individual Pre-research Data gathering 4 Pair Collaborative learning Discussion with American students 5 Group Sharing Information sharing 6 Individual Analysis Report writing Instruction Teachers’ correction Modification Rewrite reports 7 8 Individual

2.Experiment two Based on three proposals Proposal three:         Keyword : To create many 2.Experiment two Based on three proposals Proposal three:         Keyword : To create many English use      Device :  ICT,    ⇒ Collaborative Learning” with foreigners through “ICT. ”    Based on         “Proposal two” Keyword : Motivation ⇒quantify a change in awareness The skills in the global society       Device :  Activity in Proposal three    Proposal one: Keyword : The regular use of “Communication Test”       Device  : TOEIC

25 Skills(minds) supporting “Intrinsic Motivation”      (Okazaki 2012) 1) problem-finding skill, 2) skill to map 25 Skills(minds) supporting “Intrinsic Motivation”      (Okazaki 2012) 1) problem-finding skill, 2) skill to map out, 3) understanding and cultivating knowledge, 4) self-learning skill, 5) skill to collect information, 6) skill to arrange information, 7) skill of information analysis, 8) expressiveness with text, 9) expressiveness without text, 10) skill to create simple explanations, 11) presentation skill, 12) questioning mind, 13) communication skill, 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) skill of self-assessment, skill of assessment to others, skill of self-modification, intellectual curiosity skill of action, collaborative learning skill, problem-solving skill, knowledge construction skill, creative mind, fulfillment, accomplishment, research mind.

Skills and Minds supporting “Intrinsic Motivation”      (Okazaki 2012) 4. Collect information 5 Arrange information Skills and Minds supporting “Intrinsic Motivation”      (Okazaki 2012) 4. Collect information 5 Arrange information 6. Information analysis 1. Problem-finding 2. Mapping out a plan 3. Problem-solving 7. Collaborative learning 8. Communication 9. Action 19. Knowledge construction 20. Intellectual      curiosity 21. Self-learning 10. Expressing with text 11. Expressing without text 12. Create simple explanations 13. Creative mind 14. Presentation 15. Questioning mind Awareness 16. Assessment to others 17. Self-assessment 18. Self-modification

Skills and Minds supporting “Intrinsic Motivation”      (Okazaki 2012) 4. Collect information 5 Arrange information Skills and Minds supporting “Intrinsic Motivation”      (Okazaki 2012) 4. Collect information 5 Arrange information 6. Information analysis 1. Problem-finding 2. Mapping out a plan 3. Problem-solving 19. Knowledge construction 20. Intellectual      curiosity 21. Self-learning 7. Collaborative learning 8. Communication 9. Action 22. Deepening knowledge 23. Research mind 24. Fulfillment 25. Accomplishment 16. Assessment to others 17. Self-assessment 18. Self-modification 10. Expressing with text 11. Expressing without text 12. Create simple explanations 13. Creative mind 14. Presentation 15. Questioning mind

3.The Results & Discussion 3.The Results & Discussion

All students wrote “I’m well-motivated toward English study. ” How did the students’ awareness All students wrote “I’m well-motivated toward English study. ” How did the students’ awareness toward 25 skills or minds change?

20 significant differences out of 25 The results of t-test about the development of 20 significant differences out of 25 The results of t-test about the development of students’ awareness toward skills or mind to be well-motivated     Key words of questions  6 Arrange information 5 Collect information 23 Fulfillment 1 Problem-finding 12 Questioning mind 17 Intellectual curiosity 22 Creative mind 3 Deepening knowledge 15 Assessment to others 25 Research mind 4 Self-learning 24 Accomplishment 16 Self-modification 11 Presentation 13 Communication 9 Expressing without text 21 Knowledge construction 14 Self-assessment 20 Problem-solving 19 Collaborative learning 18 Action 2 Mapping out a plan 10 Create simple explanations 7 Information analysis 8 Expressing with text Differences of samples standard AVG deviation 1. 47 1. 16 1. 11 0. 95 1. 00 0. 84 1. 05 1. 21 1. 42 1. 00 1. 11 0. 95 0. 84 1. 00 0. 84 1. 05 0. 89 0. 68 0. 47 0. 63 1. 52 1. 37 1. 59 1. 37 1. 52 1. 28 1. 66 1. 95 2. 32 1. 66 1. 84 1. 59 1. 44 1. 79 1. 52 1. 65 t levels 5. 98 5. 22 4. 28 4. 25 4. 04 3. 91 3. 83 3. 77 3. 71 3. 70 3. 67 3. 60 3. 45 3. 42 3. 14 2. 07 3. 14 1. 78 3. 09 1. 90 2. 90 1. 56 2. 70 1. 35 2. 16 1. 92 2. 02 1. 98 1. 97 2. 08 1. 87 **: p<0. 01 *: p<0. 05 ♯: p<0. 1 differrence (both). 000. 001. 002. 003 ** ** ** ** * *. 003 *. 004 *. 006 #. 010. 037. 050. 057. 070

2.2 Experiment Based on three proposals Proposal three:         Keyword : To create many English 2.2 Experiment Based on three proposals Proposal three:         Keyword : To create many English use      Device :  ICT,    ⇒ Collaborative Learning” with foreigners through “ICT. ”    Proposal         two: Keyword : The necessity of English The global society          The improvement of motivation       Device :  Activity in Proposal three    Based on Proposal one: ⇒意識の変化を数値化 Keyword : The regular use of “Communication Test”       Device  : TOEIC

the results of TOEIC class average   The start The end Development Listening (495 the results of TOEIC class average   The start The end Development Listening (495 points) Reading (495 points) Total (990 points) 298. 0 183. 0 481. 0 331. 3 224. 9 556. 2 +33. 3 +41. 9 +75. 2

Individual rise and fall of TOEIC total scores May, 2012 ⇒ Jan. 2013 Individual rise and fall of TOEIC total scores May, 2012 ⇒ Jan. 2013

Individual rise and fall TOEIC Listening scores May, 2012 ⇒ Jan. 2013 Individual rise and fall TOEIC Listening scores May, 2012 ⇒ Jan. 2013

Individual rise and fall TOEIC Reading scores May, 2012 ⇒ Jan. 2013 Individual rise and fall TOEIC Reading scores May, 2012 ⇒ Jan. 2013

4.Conclusion • The students’ motivation   Extrinsic → Intrinsic  The students noticed the meaning 4.Conclusion • The students’ motivation   Extrinsic → Intrinsic  The students noticed the meaning of learning  → the development of their skills and minds  The students became positive.  → Autonomous Learners  The procedure of English class changed.  → student-centered  English skills   →TOEIC score up (secondary gain)

Skills and Minds supporting “Intrinsic Motivation”      (Okazaki 2012) 4. Collect information 5 Arrange information Skills and Minds supporting “Intrinsic Motivation”      (Okazaki 2012) 4. Collect information 5 Arrange information 6. Information analysis 1. Problem-finding 2. Mapping out a plan 3. Problem-solving 7. Collaborative learning 8. Communication 9. Action 19. Knowledge construction 20. Intellectual      curiosity 21. Self-learning 10. Expressing with text 11. Expressing without text 12. Create simple explanations 13. Creative mind 14. Presentation 15. Questioning mind Awareness 16. Assessment to others 17. Self-assessment 18. Self-modification

Telecollaboration Project between the U. S. and Japan to Enhance Students' Global Competitiveness Yoshihiko Telecollaboration Project between the U. S. and Japan to Enhance Students' Global Competitiveness Yoshihiko Shimizu Toyama National College of Technology Email: shimizu. [email protected] ac. jp

The students’ motivation should be up! • This activity is special.    →The motivation , The students’ motivation should be up! • This activity is special.    →The motivation , but generally speaking it’s not sustainable…. .

How can students keep their high motivation?  →The students need “Intrinsic Motivation. ”   How can students keep their high motivation?  →The students need “Intrinsic Motivation. ”   →The students need the opportunities to realize how their skills or minds improved.

The results of t-test about the development of students’ awareness toward collaborative learning   The results of t-test about the development of students’ awareness toward collaborative learning     Key words of questions    Differences of samples standard AVG deviation t levels   differrence (both)  29. Collaborative learning develop your thinking. 1. 74 1. 81 5. 91 . 000 ** 28. Collaborative learning is important. 1. 53 1. 64 5. 74 . 000 ** 1. 63 1. 84 2. 02 2. 48 4. 98 4. 58 . 000 ** 1. 16 1. 53 1. 47 1. 00 1. 11 0. 89 1. 21 0. 42 1. 72 2. 48 2. 49 2. 66 2. 07 2. 36 2. 01 2. 77 2. 42 4. 16 3. 79 3. 65 3. 42 2. 98 2. 89 2. 74 2. 69 1. 07 . 000. 001. 002. 005. 006. 009. 011. 291 30. Collaborative learning with foreigners leads to your understanding the purposes of English learning. 31. Communication activity with foreigners develops your thinking. 38. Collaborative learning with foreigners makes learners well-motivated toward research. 33. Collaborative learning with foreigners widens ideas. 35. This class is a good upskilling program. 27. Collaborative learning with foreigners is fun. 39. Collaborative learning with foreigners leads to a positive outcome in English. 37. Collaborative learning with foreigners is meaningful. 36. Collaborative learning is informative for future career. 34. Skype is useful to collect information. 32. Collaborative learning is useful to prepare for Eiken or TOEIC. **: p<0. 01 *: p<0. 05 ♯: p<0. 1 ** ** ** * * # #

Details of No. 4 “collaborative learning” No. Activities Contents 4 -1 Pair-matching Video conference Details of No. 4 “collaborative learning” No. Activities Contents 4 -1 Pair-matching Video conference (10 min. ) 4 -2 Japanese time Ice-break 4 -3 English time Research for Kosen students        (20 min. ) (15 min. )