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The Cold War Abroad The Cold War Abroad

Origins • • • WWII fighting tactics U. S. “dragging their feet” Korea Atomic Origins • • • WWII fighting tactics U. S. “dragging their feet” Korea Atomic bomb Division of Germany, Berlin and Korea Postwar goals: USSR buffer zone, Britain and Greece, France and Southeast Asia (Ho Chi Minh)

Iron Curtain • Winston Churchill • Truman Doctrine = containment – $ to Greece Iron Curtain • Winston Churchill • Truman Doctrine = containment – $ to Greece and Turkey to fight communism • Marshall Plan = economic rebuilding in Western Europe, but not USSR • Threat of atomic bomb • Berlin Blockade and Airlift

Growing Tensions • • • NATO USSR tested the atomic bomb U. S. created Growing Tensions • • • NATO USSR tested the atomic bomb U. S. created the hydrogen bomb Nuclear arms race Space race China and Chiang Kai-shek vs. Mao Zedong • North Korea invades South Korea • UN demands a cease fire

Red Scare • Fear of communism spread b/c of the fall of China, Korean Red Scare • Fear of communism spread b/c of the fall of China, Korean War, and USSR having the bomb • Truman’s Federal Loyalty Program and the FBI uncovered no spies • Senator Joseph Mc. Carthy (R) anticommunist crusader • Mc. Carthyism = Big Lie = witch hunt

USSR Responds • Warsaw Pact • Sputnik • Fidel Castro and Cuba USSR Responds • Warsaw Pact • Sputnik • Fidel Castro and Cuba

Close Calls • • • U 2 spy plane Bay of Pigs Berlin Wall Close Calls • • • U 2 spy plane Bay of Pigs Berlin Wall Cuban Missile Crisis Middle Eastern Oil Development of third world countries and the UN • CIA actions in South Africa, Iran, and Angola

Close Calls (cont’d) • Suez Canal • Eisenhower Doctrine-containment in Middle East • Israel Close Calls (cont’d) • Suez Canal • Eisenhower Doctrine-containment in Middle East • Israel • Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) • Camp David Accords (Carter) • Iran Hostage Crisis • U. S. S. R. and Afghanistan

Vietnam • The French vs. Viet Minh and Ho Chi Minh • Truman and Vietnam • The French vs. Viet Minh and Ho Chi Minh • Truman and Eisenhower aided the French with weapons and $, but they were defeated • Geneva Accords (17 th parallel) • Domino Theory caused Eisenhower to back the South Vietnamese • South Vietnam refused to hold elections

Vietnam (cont’d) • Viet Cong (N. Vietnam) • U. S. backed S. Vietnam • Vietnam (cont’d) • Viet Cong (N. Vietnam) • U. S. backed S. Vietnam • Kennedy sent more advisors to help S. Vietnam • Hamlet Project • CIA coup to overthrow S. Vietnam leader • JFK killed LBJ takes over • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution • Operation Rolling Thunder

Vietnam (cont’d) • The draft and it’s exceptions • “Poor man’s fight” • Students Vietnam (cont’d) • The draft and it’s exceptions • “Poor man’s fight” • Students for a Democratic Society and the Free Speech Movement • Nation was divided between “hawks and doves” • Tet Offensive • Democratic Party split giving Nixon (R) an easy victory in 1968

Vietnam (cont’d) • • Nixon and Vietnamization Bombing of Laos and Cambodia Draft ends Vietnam (cont’d) • • Nixon and Vietnamization Bombing of Laos and Cambodia Draft ends and gives way to a lottery Invading Cambodia to close the Ho Chi Minh trail Kent State Massacre Nixon and China 1972 a peace treaty was agreed upon Saigon falls in 1975

 • • • Vietnam beyond the War 58, 000 soldiers killed My Lai • • • Vietnam beyond the War 58, 000 soldiers killed My Lai Massacre Agent Orange Napalm “fragging” Mistreatment of returning veterans The Pentagon Papers Watergate War Powers Act Vietnam syndrome Civil wars Lowered voting age