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The Civil Rights Movement: Heroes, Sheroes, and the Struggle for Equitable Citizenship
Unit Sketch • Richard Scott Rennert. Hank Aaron. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1993. General Collections. (9 -26) Courtesy of Chelsea House
Time Frame • This unit could take longer than six weeks. Ideally students would be allowed to investigate this topic for a full quarter. • Time limits in specific lessons have intentionally been left out to allow for flexibility in planning specifics.
Essential Questions • What are our civil rights? – What was the Civil rights Movement about? – How has the Civil Rights Movement impacted daily life, housing, schools, dining, entertainment, transportation, and employment? • What do I have the right to do? – How has society changed? – Are changes still taking place?
Unit Standards Alignment Illinois Learning Standards • 16. E. 2 c (US) Describe the influence of key individuals and groups, including Susan. B Anthony/suffrage and Martin Luther King/civil rights, in the historic eras of IL and the US • 14. F. 2. Identify consistencies and inconsistencies between expressed US political traditions, ideas, and actual practices (e. g. , freedom of speech, right to bear arms, slavery, voting rights). • 16. A 2 a. Read historical stories and determine events which influenced their writing. • 16 A 2 c Ask questions and seek answers by collecting and analyzing data from historic documents, images and other literary and non-literary sources. • 14 F 2 Identify consistencies and inconsistencies between expressed United States political traditions and ideas and actual practices (e. g. , freedom of speech, right to bear arms, slavery, voting rights). • 18 B 2 a Describe interactions of individuals, groups, and institutions in situations drawn from the local government (e. g. , local response to state and local reforms).
Unit Standards Alignment National Standards • Culture • Time, Continuity, and Change • People, Places, and Environments • Individual Development and Identity • Individuals, Groups, and Institutions • Power, Authority, and Governance • Global Connections • Civic Ideals and Practices
A Variety of Instructional Methods – Short term - Whole class/small group assignments conducted daily – Long term – Read The Watsons go to Birmingham 1963 and other children’s literature in language arts. – Long term - Students create a timeline identifying important events • Timeline circles the room • Includes pictures, drawings, and written descriptions – Long term- Small Group Research Assignment culminating in a power point presentation, documentary, play, newspaper, or other presentation format • Small group of three students choose a topic to study • Synthesizes material • Presents data • Responds to questions from the audience (other students) • Topics to choose from include: Where were the Women? , Native Americans, Marches on Washington, Latinos/Latinas, Different Faiths/Same Cause, Freedom Singers, Freedom Riders, Freedom Summer, NAACP, SNCC, Black Power, Rainbow Coalition, Segregation, De facto Segregation in Champaign. Urbana, Freedom Schools
Freedom Film Festival • Toward the beginning of the unit, there will be a film festival that is at least one day long. • We recommend And the Children Shall Lead, Malcolm X, Mississippi Burning, Hoop Dream, and Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner. • This film festival will help students decide what they would like to study in their long-term group research project and will reach students with visual and auditory intelligences.
Music • This unit will utilize the broad spectrum of music produced during and about the Civil Rights Movement. • The unit will begin with students listening to and discussing several powerful songs. • Questions: – What do you think these songs are about? – What do you think the writers & singers of these songs are feeling? – What does freedom mean? – What are rights? • See the bibliography for suggestions. Some selections are included on this CD and may be downloaded for educational purposes.
Lesson Ideas - Constitutional Rights – Description: What are our constitutional rights? • Using a series of readers theater dramatizations of letters and speeches written/spoken by civil rights activists and politicians, reading children’s literature, and viewing film of speeches on the history channel website (as listed in bibliography) have students examine their constitutional rights. – What are your constitutional rights? – What do I have the right to do? – What was the Civil rights Movement about? – How has society changed? – Purpose: • Students will determine what their constitutional rights are by examining primary resources and question how some members of society may be denied their civil rights.
Lesson Ideas - Constitutional Rights (Continued) – Stages of Inquiry: • Tuning in • Preparing to find out • Finding out – Instructional Strategy: • Guided inquiry – Assessment: • Formative assessment of group discussions • Summative assessment of journal entries.
Lesson Ideas - Role of Government • Brown v. Board of Education – Description: Students will be placed into groups. Each group will study one of the cases in Brown v. Board of Education and will investigate the details of the case and present their findings to the class. As a class, students will discuss the decision and the impact the decision has had on education in the United States. – Purpose: To allow students to investigate the legalities involved in the Civil Rights Movement. – Stages of Inquiry: • Tuning in • Preparing to find out • Finding out • Sorting out • Making connections – Instructional Strategy • Full inquiry – Assessment • Formative assessment of classroom discussion
Lesson Ideas - Political Activism Then – Description: “If Not Us, Then Who? ” • As an extension of the readings and discussions in the previous lesson regarding constitutional rights this project will give students the opportunity to research the life of a civil rights activist and groups and create a book or power point presentation to the class. • Begin with student discussion and read from The Civil Rights Movement for Kids (chapter 4 “If Not Us, Then Who? ” Freedom Riders, 1961). • View and discuss photos from “If Not Us, Then Who? ” • Stage student run reenactments.
Lesson Ideas - Political Activism Then (Continued) – Lesson Continued: • Discuss essential questions – How has the Civil Rights Movement impacted daily life, housing, schools, dinning, entertainment, transportation, and employment? – How has society changed? – Are changes still taking place? – Purpose: • To provide students the opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the sacrifices that the activist made in his/her fight for justice. – Stages of Inquiry • Sorting out • Going further • Taking action
Lesson Ideas - Political Activism Then (Continued) – Instructional Strategy • Full inquiry – Assessment • Formative assessment - discussions & reenactments • Summative - film reenactments & organizing a protest
Lesson Ideas - Political Activism Then and Now in C-U – Discuss current civil rights issues in the Champaign with members of the community – Begin this lesson with a discussion of “What is stereotyping? ” – Bring in two community members, one to discuss the school issue and one to discuss the police profiling issue – This is be an introduction to oral histories. Students will interview these speakers, and then students will find others in the community to interview about this issue. – Take Action: Organize a demonstration/protest, write a letter to someone in power, or write a letter to the editor of the local paper.
Lesson Ideas - MLK’s Birthday • Lesson: – Description: Listen to MLK Jr. speeches from MLK tape while reading them print outs of the text. Students will highlight areas that they feel important/moving and relevant to their research. – Purpose: Students need to hear the power, passion, and conviction in MLK’s voice to fully grasp the magnitude and impact of his words. – Stage of Inquiry: • Finding out • Making connections – Instructional Strategy: Focus on auditory and visual intelligences. – Assessment: Formative assessment of classroom discussion.
Lesson Ideas - Diversity within the Civil Rights Movement • Lesson: pick who you are mask and persons name – Description: Each student will randomly pick a mask from a bin. Each mask be painted a different skin color representing a different race and will also have a name written on it. There will be a wide range of races represented in the selection. The student will have to research this person and assume the attitudes and actions of this person during a class reenactment dealing with issues/events related to the civil rights movement. – Purpose: Students will not be able to choose their race and will place in the position of experiencing life in someone else’s skin. Students will gain an understanding of the diversity within the Civil Rights Movement and the common injustices that they experienced. – Stage of Inquiry: • Going further – Instructional Strategy: Guided inquiry – Assessment: Formative assessment of reenactments, research, and discussion
Lesson Ideas - Urban America Then and Now • Lesson: Newspaper Media Inquiry – Description: Have students bring in newspaper articles that deal with an issue of discrimination and compare these articles to some newspaper articles from the civil rights era. Student will interview each other and respond to the following: • What do I have the right to do? – Compared to the 1960 s : » How has society changed? » Are changes still taking place? » Where do we go from here? – Purpose: Compare and contrast the civil rights issues (racism) “then and now”in order to ascertain where we as a society are at and where we need to go from here.
Lesson Ideas - Urban America Then and Now (Continued) – Stage of Inquiry • Making connections • Sorting out – Instructional Strategy • Guided inquiry – Students respond and document responses to essential questions using video. – Assessment • Formative - ongoing classroom discussion • Summative - media inquiry documentation
Assessment • Summative Assessment - Formal - culmination/summation of learning from inquiry, could be done in a power point presentation, written as a newspaper article, poetry, theatrical performance • Formative Assessment - Informal, ongoing assessments made during lessons based on students understanding of subject, can be used to modify/adjust/change course of lesson: small/large group discussions.
Unit Bibliography - Teacher Literature • • Bode, J. The Colors of Freedom - Immigrant Stories. Grolier Publishing. (1999. ) New York, NY. Hine, D. C. , William C. Hine and Stanley Harrold. The African American Odyssey, Vol. 2: since 1865. 2 nd ed. (Ch 21: The Freedom Movement 1954 -1965 & Ch 22: The Struggle Continues 1965 -1980) – Best as reference for teachers and it also has CD with music and speeches. • Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities: Children’s in America’s Schools. Crown Publishers, • • • Inc. (1991. ) New York, NY. Levstik, L. S. and Keith C. Barton. Doing History: Investigating With Children in Elementary and Middle Schools Second Edition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. ( 2001. ) Mahwah, NJ. – A resources that explains how inquiry is used to teach History. March, C. Celebrating Black Heritage. Gallopade International. (2003. ) – A collection of activities for teaching African-American history. Mazel, E. (selected and Arranged. ) “And don't call me a racist!": A treasury of quotes on the past, present, and future of the color line in America. Parker, W. D. Social Studies for Elementary Education Twelfth Edition. Pearson - Merrill Prentice Hall. (2005. ) Upper Saddle river, NJ. Steffey, S. and Wendy J. Hood. If This Is Social Studies, Why Isn’t It Boring? Stenhouse Publishers. (1994). Portland, ME. – A narrative resource that provides strategies for teaching history and making it relevant and meaningful to students.
Unit Bibliography - Teacher Literature (Continued) • Turk, M. C. The Civil Rights Movement for Kids: A History with 21 Activities. Chicago Review Press, Incorporated. (2000). Chicago, IL. – A collection of background information and activities for teaching and learning about the Civil Rights Movement. • Welton, D. A. Children and Their World: Strategies for Teaching Social Studies Eighth Edition. Houghton Milffin Company. (2005. ) Boston, MA – A resources that provides strategies and lesson plan ideas for teaching Social Studies.
Unit Bibliography – Children’s Literature and Resource Books • • Andryszewski, T. The March On Washington 1963 Gathering To Be Heard. The Millbrook Press. (1963. ) Brookfield, CN. Birdseye, D. H. and Tom Birdseye. Under Our Skin: Kids Talk About Race. Holiday House. (1997. ) Bridges, Ruby. Through My Eyes Ruby Bridges. Scholastic Press. (1999. ) New York, NY Curtis, C. P. The Watsons Go to Birmingham - 1963. Delacorte Press Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc. (1995. ) New York, NY. – The story of an African-American family that takes a trip from their home in Flint, Michigan to visit family in Birmingham, Alabama. The story takes place during the height of the Civil Rights Movement, in 1963. • Englebert, P. and Betz Des Chenes (Editors. ) American Civil Rights Primary Sources (Volume 1). U. X. L. The Gale Group. (1999. ) Detroit, MI. – • A primary sources Cooks that provides nineteen documents. This book reflects the diversity with in the Civil Rights Movement. Grimes, N. Talkin’ About Bessie The Story of Aviator Elizabeth Coleman. Orchard Books - Scholastic Inc. . (2002. ) New York, NY. – Historical fiction is used tell the story of the live of Bessie Coleman • Haskins, Jim. I Have a Dream: The life and words of Martin Luther King, Jr. The Millbrook Press. (1992). Brookfield, CT. • • . Haskins, J. Freedom Rides Journey for Justice. Hyperion Books for Children. (1995. ) New York, NY. Howard, M. S. The Civil Rights Marches. ABDO Publishing Company. (2004. ) Edina, MN.
Unit Bibliography – Children’s Literature and Resource Books (Continued) • January, B. Witness to History: Civil Rights. Heinemann Library - Reed Elsevier, Inc. (2003. ) Chicago, IL. • Mc. Kissack, P. C. Goin’ Someplace Special. Antheneum books for Young Readers Simon & Schuster Children’s Publishing Division. (2001. ) New York, NY. – A young African-American girl living in the south takes a trip to the library. It is the one public facility where everyone (regardless of their race) is welcome. • Mc. Kissack, Patricia and Fredrick. The Civil Rights Movement in America: from 1865 to the Present, 2 nd Ed. Childrens Press. (1994. ) Chicago, IL. • Mc. Whorter, Diane. A Dream of Freedom: Civil Rights Movement from 1954 to 1968. Scholastic Inc. (2004. ) New York, NY. • Morrison, T. Remember the Journey to School Integration. Houghton Mifflin Company. (2004. ) Boston. • Munoz Ryan, P. When Marian Sang. Scholastic Inc. (2002. ) New York, NY. – A biography of opera singer Marin Anderson. She sang for royalty in Europe but in her own country the color of her skin prohibited her from achieving the same success. • Parks, R. Rosa Parks My Story. Dial Books. (1992. ) New York, NY. • Pinkney, A. D. Let It Shine Stories of Black Women Freedom Fighters. Gulliver Books-Harcourt, Inc. , (2000. )New York, NY. – • . Short biographies of ten African-American women who’s actions helped shape U. S. history and improve the lives of African Americans
Unit Bibliography – Children’s Literature and Resource Books (Continued) • Raines, Howell. My Soul is Rested: Days in the Deep South Remembered. Penguin Books. (1983). New York, NY. • Rappaport, D. Martin’s Big Words The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Jump At The Sun Hyperion books for Children. (2001. ) New York, NY. • Summer, L. S. Rosa Parks Journey to Freedom The African American Library. The Child’s World, Inc. (2000. ) Chanhassen, MN. • Thomas, J. C. (editor) Linda Brown, You Are Not Alone The Brown v. Board of Education Decision. Jump At The Sun - Hyperion Books For Children. (2003. ) New York, NY. – A collection of writings by children, s authors who experienced the changes brought forth by the Brown v. BOE decision. The authors share their viewpoints and experiences in this collection
Unit Bibliography – Children’s Literature (Continued) • • • Venable, R. The Civil Rights Movement. The Child’s World, Inc. (2002. ) Chanhassen, MN. . . Walsh, F. The Montgomery Bus Boycott. World Almanac Library - Discovery Books. (2003. ) Milwaukee, WI. Woodson, J. The Other Side of the Fence • Zinn, H. A People's History of the United States, 1492 to Present. (Ch. 17: "Or Does it Explode? ") Harper. Collins. (1999. ) New York, NY. • Zinn, H. The People Speak: American Voices, Some Famous, Some Little Known. Harper. Collins. (2004. ) New York, NY.
Unit Bibliography - Music • • India Arie. “Intro (‘cuz of you change gonna come). ” Tracy Chapman. “Freedom Now”, “ Material World”, “Subcity” Billie Holiday. “Strange Fruit” also sung by Nina Simone. Zilphia Horton, Frank Hamilton, Guy Carawan, and Pete Seeger. "We Shall Overcome”. • Nina Simone. “Mississippi Goddamn. ” • Sweet Honey in the Rock. . “Ella’s Song”, “More Than A Paycheck”, “Crying for Freedom in South Africa”, “I’m ‘Gon Stand”, “Seven Principles. ” • Blood, P. & Patterson, A. Rise Up Singing: The Group Singing Book. Sing-Out Publications, Bethlehem, PA. (1992. )
Unit Bibliography - Internet Resources • http: //memory. loc. gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart 9. html – Hank Aaron quote/ photo from web site - Richard Scott Rennert. Hank Aaron. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1993. General Collections. (9 -26) Courtesy of Chelsea House • http: //www. historychannel. com/classroom/brownvboard/ – The History Channel has film clips of Charles Houston's film documentation of inequality of the educational system The site includes other film clips of critical events that took place during the Civil Rights Movement. • http: //memory. loc. gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aointro. html – The Library of Congress - African American Odyssey - A internet documentary regarding the struggle of the African-American for equity and justice.
Unit Bibliography - Internet Resources • http: //www. infoplease. com/spot/civilrightstimeline 1. html – This web site has a timeline that includes current civil rights issues (affirmative action). • http: //www. cr. nps. gov/nr/travel/civilrights/index. htm – This website provides an introduction/overview of the Civil Rights Movement and lists historic sites (written documentation, photos, and maps) associated with the Civil Rights Movement. • http: //www. usdoj. gov: 80/crs/pubs/prevyouhatecrim. htm – This article addresses hate crimes and provides suggestions as to how hate crimes can be prevented.
Unit Bibliography - Film • • • And the Children Shall Lead Malcolm X Mississippi Burning Hoop Dream Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner.
Reflections on Process • The ability to work with others whom I have already shared many positive work experiences with dramatically increased my motivation and the amount I learned during the writing of this unit. It’s really amazing to me how much three minds and bodies can get done when communication, support, and understanding are strong and honest. Working with others who are as interested in civil rights and equality was also inspirational. I truly learned from this process. • This has been the most engaging group project that I have experienced during my course of study at UIUC. I had the opportunity to work with two individuals (both masters cert students) that welcomed my ideas and challenged my thinking. There was never any doubt that the assignment was ours and that everyone’s input was valued. • This was a fabulous process since I got to work with two other graduate students and the synergy that was created was so much fun and so inspiring. The power of three minds working together generates a lot of interesting ideas.
Reflections on Content – I was born in 1963, in the north, to biracial parents of Caribbean ethnicity. Perhaps it was my overprotective parents or the fact that I was so young that I don’t have and distinct memories of events that were taking place while I was growing up. This unit made me more aware of the extent to which people went to fight for equality. Every day people were heroes and sheroes. There is so mush that I take for granted that I now feel a bit ashamed. Men, women, and children laid down their live to fight for not only their civil rights but the rights of people that they world never know. – I have been interested lately in learning more about the Civil Rights Movement, especially through the eyes and lives of women and African Americans. I will be the mother of a child of color and was embarrassed by my knowledge of this important period of American history. Although I still have much to learn, I feel I am armed with the resources necessary to teach myself and to learn from my students.
Reflections on Content (continued) • There is so much to be studied and learned on this topic. A teacher could spend years working with all these source books and literature. I find this so exciting and am sure that I could easily inspire students to feel this excitement as well!!!! There are so many lessons to be learned and applied to today’s society. We still have very separate worlds in our country. Our education system favors upper-class white Americans at the expense of all other races and classes. The war in Iraq and post 9/11 America show the glaring need for tolerance and acceptance of all peoples. There is so much obvious racism that we hear about and see in our country!! The more we expose students to the ideas of tolerance and accepting others, the more we move our country forward to being a healthier and happier place.
Reflections on Pedagogical Influences – The difference between teaching social studies using direct instruction, reading our of a text, and doing worksheet activates that do not require critical thinking and teaching social studies using inquiry is like comparing night and day. Even thought I have not taught any of these lessons I know that the level of engagement increases when students are involved in their learning. Entire class discussion where student use what the know and explore topics using a variety of media increase their engagement. I have seen it happen. When the student have choices, when material is taught in a context that is relevant to their lives the classroom comes alive. The concern becomes having enough time to hear all the voices of the student who want to participate in the conversation. This is quite different than the disengaged students that I see using outdated text that speak only partial truths. Making it real and taking action will be how I teach. – I am a visual and auditory learner and was thrilled to be able to incorporate these intelligences into the unit. Students need to feel the Civil Rights Movement, not just read about it.
Reflections on Pedagogical Influences (continued) • I hope as a teacher to be able to expose my students to ways of thinking of their society as a nurturing community for all. I fear that we are bombarded with media messages of rich, white people so frequently that the idea of a multi-cultural and diverse America is so often lost. The role of a teacher is to expose young minds to new ways of thinking and understanding everyone’s importance and rights. I would hope to show students the struggles that they will benefit from: Civil Rights, Women’s Rights, etc. There are so many battles still to fight to make sure that our country is a fairer place for all of its citizens and everyone’s voice is recognized by our government. The idea of fighting for one’s rights is so essential for the ongoing process of democracy. I would hope to help all children see that they will be active members of society and that they will have responsibilities to express their needs for the benefit of not only themselves, but everyone in their community.