- Количество слайдов: 71
The Camel Chapter 27
Dromedary – 1 Hump Camel
Bactrian – 2 Hump Camel
Desert Adaptations • • The Hump – Fat Heavy eye lashes Nostrils that squeeze shut Chest & knee pads that protect it from hot sand • 4 -7 days without water when working • 106 degree temp without sweating • Diet – thorns, dry leaves, salt bush
Human Uses • Dozens of them • Create a list of 5
The Middle East in Transition Chapter 27
Pan Arabism • Movement to unite all Arabs on their common language and culture; create one Arab Country • It was a reaction to western imperialism and westernization • Create a world power to rival other world powers • Egypt and Syria briefly united
Pan Arabism • Obstacles to unity – Loyalty to own nation (Iraq, Syria, Egypt) – Too big geographically – Ethnic & religious rivalry – Economic gap between rich & poor nations
Governments change • After the collapse of the Middle Eastern Empires (Ottoman, Safavid) individual countries began to rule themselves • States became Republics or Monarchies
Differences in Governments • Republic – People choose leaders to represent them – Elected officials on many levels run the country – Leader can turn into a dictator • Monarchy – Leadership is passed on through family lineage – Leader can rule with advisors or alone
Monarchies in the Middle East
Saudi Arabia • King and Prime Minister ABDALLAH bin Abd al. Aziz Al Saud
Jordan • King ABDALLAH II
Republics in the Middle East
IRAQ • Officially was a republic when Hussein ruled the country • Currently transitioning
Syria • Republic under military regime
Wearing the Hijab
Challenges to Stability
Conflict in Lebanon • Like many Middle Eastern countries, Lebanon used to be controlled by a European Nation • The French set up a constitution that failed over time
Lebanon’s population changes • Population at time of Constitution (1943) – #1 Maronite Christians – #2 Sunni Muslims – #3 Shiite Muslims • Population at time of Civil War (1975) – #1 Shiite Muslims – #2 Sunni Muslims – #3 Maronite Christians
Why was a changing population a problem? • The Maronites, by the constitution, still had power • They did not want to give up their power • Shiite’s now wanted power because they were the largest population in the country • Civil War broke out
Fundamentalism Belief that society should be based on the principles of one’s religion, esp. a literal interpretation of the scriptures
3 Characteristics of Fundamentalism
1. Desire of a people to return to the values and traditions of their religion
2. Reaction against secularism and the loss of traditions under the nationalists
3. Opposition to westernization. Western influences corrupt the society.
Westernization to Fundamentalism • Western clothes, music, food, and cultural values conflicted with Islamic beliefs • Countries returned to the beliefs in the Koran for laws (Sharia)
Sharia – Living by Islamic Law • It is the sacred law of the Koran • It is the official law of Saudi Arabia and Iran
Some Basic Rules of Sharia from http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sharia • Taking God's name before eating and drinking and using the right hand for the purpose. • When meeting someone, saying As -Salamu Alaykum( , ﺍﻟﺴﻼﻡ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ literally: peace be upon you) and answering with Wa alaykumus. Salam.
Some Basic Rules of Sharia from http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sharia • When sneezing, saying Alhamdulillah ( , ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺪ ﻟﻠﻪ literally: all gratitude is for only Allah) and person who listens, should respond with Yarhamukallah (literally: God have mercy on you).
Some Basic Rules of Sharia from http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sharia • Sharia does not allow freedom of speech on such matters as criticism of Muhammad. Such criticism is considered blasphemy against Muhammad.
Some Basic Rules of Sharia from http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sharia • In accordance with the Qur’an and several hadith, theft is punished by imprisonment or amputation of hands or feet, depending on the number of times it was committed
Some Basic Rules of Sharia from http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Sharia • Women are required to cover all of their body, except face and hands. – Khumur – a scarf that covers the face – Hijab – head covering • Men have a more relaxed dress code: the loins must be covered from knee to waist.
Halal – Muslim food laws • Meat must be slaughtered according to Muslim law • Pork and meat slaughtered not according to law are forbidden • Haram – forbidden foods • Monkey, lion, coffee, tea, drugs, alcohol, cockroaches, owls, worms, turtles = Haram
Islamist Movement • Returning Muslim values and law, Sharia to everyday life • Restore authority to religious leaders • Islamist movement was a response to western influence in the Middle East
Extremism • Islamists groups that use violence • Al Qaeda claims to be using Islam to defeat enemies • Attacks against US & Western nations • War on Terror
Al Qaeda • • • What are some of the Political Social Economic backgrounds of countries where terrorist organizations have recruited members?
Homework • Chapter 27 Cause and Effect WS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. What is Arab socialism? A movement to reduce influence of western nations and to increase Arab ownership of key industries What resources do Arab nations still depend on the Europe, Japan, and the US for? Arab countries look to the western world for high-tech goods and know how Why do nations believe government control is necessary for development? Governments will be most successful in raising funds and running key industries like steel mills, creating infrastructure, like roadways and communication systems. What resources have been strained by the population explosion in the Middle East? Food supply, water supply, homes and jobs have been strained by the population explosion. How have governments tried to expand farming capabilities? Irrigation products, creating infrastructure, desalination, and land distribution have been part of government effort to expand farming capabilities. What is desalination? The removal of salt from water to create freshwater. Why did land reform efforts fail? The technology and know how was not sufficient for farmers to productively farm. How have oil rich nations used profits to develop? Schooling, industries, and technology have all benefited from oil Why are guest workers important in the Middle East? They come from oil poor countries and work in oil fields and send money home to their families. Describe the growth of Middle Eastern cities in the last 40 years. Cities have exploded straining the finite resources. What problems exist in the cities? Overcrowding, lack of housing, jobs, and proper infrastructure. How do the young and old differ on their views of modernizing? The younger generation have more education and are more accepting of western ideas and culture. The older generations look to traditional life for structure and believe the young have their lives corrupted by western ideas. In what places must women be veiled? Where can the remain unveiled? Women wear veils in Iran and Saudi Arabia and they do not need veils across the other countries and cities. How is education/opportunity for girls/women changing? More women and girls have the opportunity to attend schools and work in businesses that used to be exclusively for women. How has education changed since the 1950 s? Greater opportunity exists for women and technology has continued to increase. What does it mean that literacy rates are uneven across the Middle East? Some countries have high literacy rates and others are low. Why do girls receive less education in rural areas? Families have traditional beliefs and do not see the value in girls receiving education How has the population explosion affected education? More students than teachers, schools, and resources make education efforts hard to achieve success.
Identifications • Pan Arabism • Dictatorship • Shariah • Islamist • Extremist • Arab Socialism • Desalination • Fertigation
Identifications • Hijab • Westernization • Halal • Haram • Fundamentalism • Al Qaeda • Republic • Diffusion
Iran • Huge oil reserves (4 th largest in the world) • High population density in northeast • Shah – leader of Iran 1950 -1979; western friendly • His policies failed and was overthrown for being pro west • 1979 Revolution – Islamic Revolution
Iranian Theocracy • Ayatollah took over through violent outburst • “An enlightened heart cannot stand by silently and watch while traditions and honor are trampled upon. ” • Iran’s Shiite leaders wanted a Muslim revolution throughout the world • Sunni Muslims did not revolt with Shiites
Iran’s Economy – post Revolution • US trade boycott slowed growth of Iran’s economy – Boycott – refusal to buy certain goods/services • War with Iraq slowed growth of economy • Population explosion strains resources • Conflicts between reformers and traditionalists
Egypt • Lacks oil reserves • High population density in cities and along Nile River Valley • Agricultural development is central to government policies
Aswan High Dam • Part of governments plan to control industry and development • Pros – Produces hydroelectric power, a lake for fishing industry, irrigation for farming, controlled Nile floods • Cons – benefits of flooding ended, farmers must buy expensive fertilizers, coastal erosion, reduced fish life in Mediterranean
Egypt’s Economy • 1950 s on – built new factories for textiles, steel, and chemicals • War with Israel has devastated economy and destroyed factories • Leaders have tried socialism and privatizing the economy to mixed success • President Anwar Sadat – assassinated for negotiating peace with Israel • Balance of westernization and Islamist ideas
Turkey • • No oil reserves Connects trade routes between Asia and Europe Strong ally of western nations; part of NATO Mix of ethnic groups has caused discrimination and violence against Kurds
Turkey’s Economy • Government is secular, non-religious • Developed modern industries – automobile manufacturing, textiles, food processing, dams • Population explosion strains resources and economy • Conflict between Islamists and western style government
Iran Video • What customs and protocol need to be followed in a holy city? • Describe the lives of Iranian women and children • Who are Hezbollah?
Egyptian holding Koran
Egypt These fundamentalists allegedly bombed a German tour bus
Osama Bin Ladin