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The Books of Moses © John Stevenson, 2013
Course Objectives • • • Recognize the unity of the Torah--one book in five parts--and its major themes and purposes and its “spirit” or “heart. ” Explore the various genres within this book and how to understand them and how to relate the parts to the whole. Observe New Testament connections to the major themes of the Torah/ Pentateuch.
From Paradise to Promised Land: An Introduction to the Pentateuch by T. D. Alexander
The Gospel According to Moses: What My Jewish Friends Taught Me About Jesus by Athol Dickson
Respond to the charge that the Mosaic Law is obsolete for today Compare & contrast Jewish versus Christian readings of the Torah
Torah Hebrew: “Law, Instruction” Pentateuch Greek: “Five-Part Book”
Genesis Origins of God’s people from creation to Egypt Exodus God’s deliverance of Israel from Egypt and establishing His covenant Leviticus Laws of worship Numbers Wilderness wanderings Gives the Law to a new generation with special Deuteronomy emphasis to those entering the land
Documentary Hypothesis Deuteronomy Jean Astruc: Jehovah Elohim Moses utilized two different source documents Wilhelm de Wette: Deuteronomy penned by alternate author
Documentary Hypothesis Deuteronomy Jehovah E-1 Herman Hulfeld: Julius Wellhausen: Elohim E-2 J – Jehovah E – Elohim D – Deuteronomy P – Priestly
The Unity of the Torah • • Genesis 50: 24 - Exodus 1: 7. Exodus 40: 34 - Leviticus 1: 2. Leviticus 27: 34 - Numbers 1: 4. Numbers 36: 13 - Deuteronomy 1: 5.
The Book of Beginnings
“These are the generations…” • Hebrew: t. Adl. At h. L, ae - Elleh toledoth • Ten sets • History of account follows: “These are things that followed…” Adam Genesis 2: 4 – 11: 26 5 Toledoth from Adam to Abraham Israel Abraham Genesis 11: 27 – 50: 26 5 Toledoth from Abraham to Israel
Genesis 1 -11 Genesis 12 -50 Events Predominant People Predominant – Creation – Fall – Flood – Tower of Babel – Abraham – Isaac – Jacob – Joseph Race as a whole Family of Abraham Over 2000 years 250 years
Beginning & Ending • Genesis begins with God: “In the beginning God created…” • Genesis ends with a corpse: “…in a coffin in Egypt”
Genesis 1: 1 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. • The “who” of creation. • The work of creation. • The “what” of creation.
Genesis 1: 1 -2 In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was unformed and unfilled, and darkness was over the surface of the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of the waters.
Unformed Unfilled Day 1: Light Day 4: Light-bearers (sun, moon, stars) Day 2: Water & sky divided Day 5: Fish & birds to fill water & sky Day 3: Dry land & vegetation Day 6: Land animals & man Day 7: Sabbath Rest
Theories of Creation • • • Supernatural versus Evolutionary. A Superficial Appearance of History. The Gap Theory. The Day/Age Theory. The Non-Sequential Theory / Framework Theory. • The Literal Interpretation.
Genesis 1: 26 -27 The God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping that creeps on the earth. ” And God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. (Genesis 1: 26 -27).
Genesis 1: 28 God blessed them; and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over every living that moves on the earth. ” – In the Image of God – Federal Headship – Stewardship and a basis for Ecology
The image of God
Why are there two separate accounts of creation?
Genesis 1 Genesis 2 The heavens and the earth are created in six days. Man in his cosmic setting Creation of the man and woman (no time elementioned). Man as central to God’s purpose Panorama of creation Detailed focus on one as a whole aspect of creation Centers on God Centers on man as the creating the heavens crowning act of God’s and the earth creation
Compare & Contrast these three views: Romantic View of the Natural World Resource View of the Natural World Biblical View of the Natural World
Creation complete: Heavens & earth created; God finished His work (1 -3) Man created: Formed from dust (4 -9) Trees & Rivers in garden given names (9 -14)
Creation complete: Heavens & earth created; God finished His work (1 -3) Man created: Formed from dust (4 -9) Trees & Rivers in garden given names (9 -14) Man assigned task of guarding & keeping the garden (15) Forbidden fruit (16 -17)
And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, "From any tree of the garden you may eat freely; 17 but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat from it you shall surely die. “ (Genesis 2: 16 -17)
Creation complete: Heavens & earth created; God finished His work (1 -3) Man created: Formed from dust (4 -9) Trees & Rivers in garden given names (9 -14) Man assigned task of guarding & keeping the garden (15) Forbidden fruit (16 -17) Man in need of a helper: not good to be alone (18) Animals in garden are given names (19 -20) Woman created: Formed from rib (21 -24) Creation complete: Man & woman naked & unashamed in presence of God (25)
When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable to make one wise, she took from its fruit and ate; and she gave also to her husband with her, and he ate. (Genesis 3: 6)
What are the results from their actions of taking and eating the forbidden fruit?
And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise you on the head, and you shall bruise him on the heel. (Genesis 3: 15)
Seed of the Serpent Seed of the Woman Cain & Abel How is the Cain & Abel narrative related to the larger story of Genesis?
Seed of the Serpent Cain Lamech Literally, “another SEED” Seed of the Woman Abel And Adam had relations with his wife again; and she gave birth to a son, and named him Seth, for, she said, "God has appointed me another offspring in place of Abel; for Cain killed him. " (Genesis 4: 25).
Seed of the Serpent Cain Seed of the Woman Abel & Seth Enoch Lamech Noah Ham Shem Canaan Abraham
Ten Generations Noah Ten Generations Adam Noah Terah Three sons
Adam 900 Noah 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Enoch Morris & Whitcomb, The Genesis Flood
Genesis 9: 20 -22 Then Noah began farming and planted a vineyard. 21 He drank of the wine and became drunk, and uncovered himself inside his tent. 22 Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brothers outside.
Genesis 9: 23 But Shem and Japheth took a garment and laid it upon both their shoulders and walked backward and covered the nakedness of their father; and their faces were turned away, so that they did not see their father's nakedness.
Genesis 9: 24 -25 When Noah awoke from his wine, he knew what his youngest son had done to him. 25 So he said, “Cursed be Canaan; A servant of servants He shall be to his brothers. ”
Genesis 9: 26 -27 He also said, “Blessed be the LORD, The God of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant. 27 May God enlarge Japheth, And let him dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant. ”
Genesis 9: 26 -27 He also said, “Blessed be the LORD, The God of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant. 27 May God enlarge Japheth, And let him dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant. ” T. p. y: tp, y<
Genesis 9: 26 -27 He also said, “Blessed be the LORD, The God of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant. 27 May God enlarge Japheth, And let him dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant. ” To whom does the pronoun refer?
May God enlarge Japheth, And let him dwell in the tents of Shem; And let Canaan be his servant. ” 27 To whom does the pronoun refer?
Adam Noah Placed into a Garden Plants a Garden Eats the fruit of the Drinks of the fruit of tree the vine Results in recognizing Results in lying naked his nakedness in his tent Results in a curse Results in a lasting division of the seed Followed by a genealogy to demonstrate the division
If we do not count the three sons of Noah, there a total of 70 names in this table. What is significant about this number? …all the persons of the house of Jacob, who came to Egypt, were seventy (Genesis 46: 27)
When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, When He separated the sons of man, He set the boundaries of the peoples According to the number of the sons of Israel. 9 For the Lord’s portion is His people, Jacob is the allotment of His inheritance. (Deuteronomy 32: 7 -9).
Israel is a microcosm of the world
Jesus is the “better Israel” who came to save the world