- Количество слайдов: 19
The Age of Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson viewed his election as a revolution in the principles of government. • Federalists held expensive public displays to gain respect for the government. Jefferson ended these as aristocratic threats to the republic. • Where the Federalists discouraged public criticism, Jefferson invited debate and discussion. • Thought human beings basically selfish. “Lions and tigers are mere lambs compared with men” • Thought people needed free choice or civilization would grind to a halt.
$80 to $57 million In office, Jefferson reduced the national debt, the government bureaucracy, and the size of the military. He also cut unpopular taxes on land whiskey. He benefited from increased revenues from foreign trade and the sale of western lands.
TJ and Marshall cousins. TJ disliked judges though. • A last-minute appointee, “midnight judge”, Marshall eventually served 35 years and participated in over a thousand court decisions. • Marshall wrote over half of In 1801, those decisions himself, John Marshall became more than any other Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Justice. Supreme Court.
1 Marshall applied four Federalist principles to his decisions: The Court’s role is to determine if acts of Congress or the President are constitutional, a concept known as judicial review. 2 Federal laws are superior to state laws. 3 The Constitution is to be interpreted broadly based on the government’s implied powers. 4 Contracts should be strictly enforced. So state govn’ts couldn’t interfere with business
Marshall established judicial review in Marbury v. Madison • In 1801, outgoing President John Adams appointed William Marbury (Federalist) to be a judge. • Incoming Secretary of State James Madison (Democratic Republican) refused to give Marbury his appointment, so Marbury sued under “writ of mandamus”. • If Marshall refused mandamus, everyone would know he dared not stand up to Jefferson while prestige of court suffered. • If writ issued he would place the Court in direct conflict with the executive branch • Marshall ruled against Marbury stating that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional.
Marshall’s ruling was a stroke of genius that gave the court more power which was a Federalist goal and gave the Democratic Republicans what they wanted by denying Marbury his appointment Because Madison and the Democratic Republicans won the case, he could not appeal even though Marbury should have won. Marshall’s decision set the precedent that the Supreme Court is the institution that determines the constitutionality of laws (judicial review).
• Why did Americans want to expand US territory? • Population was doubling every 25 years and there was also a need for more farmland • Why did Jefferson want to buy Louisiana? • Avoid war with France over control of New Orleans and to expand US territory
• Why might historians say that the Louisiana Purchase was possible only because of good luck? • Jefferson had been preparing for war with Spain, but France’s acquisition of the Louisiana Territory and the rebellion of slaves in Haiti led France to agree to sell the land for very little money • Why might Jefferson have been willing to abandon strict constructionist principles in order to buy the Louisiana Territory? • He saw the chance to double the size of the country, gain control of New Orleans port, and remove a foreign power from North America, and this opportunity was too great for him to refuse
In 1803, Jefferson doubled the area of the United States by purchasing the Louisiana Territory. • Jefferson saw farm ownership as an ideal that freed citizens from a landlord or employer. • He wanted to expand the U. S. westward so more Americans could be free farmers. • But, French Emperor Napoleon owned Louisiana and threatened to forbid American farmers from using the port of New Orleans since wanted to use as breadbasket for sugar growth.
Jefferson asked to buy New Orleans. To his surprise, Napoleon offered to sell the entire Louisiana Territory. • Jefferson decided to • The deal was too good contradict his “strict to pass up! construction” principles. (The power to purchase The Louisiana foreign territory is not Purchase added specifically granted by 828, 000 square miles the Constitution. ) and doubled the U. S. for only $15 million.
Jefferson sent a “Corps of Discovery” led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the territory. The corps was tasked with learning about the climate, plants, seeds, animals, and native people. The Lewis and Clark Expedition was aided by Sacajawea, a Shoshone woman.
Lewis and Clark
Jefferson faced several foreign affairs challenges. • In 1805, the Barbary state of Tripoli raised their price for “protection” against pirates. • Jefferson refused to pay, sending his small navy instead. They defeated the pirates. • This Barbary War was America’s first overseas victory.
War between France and Britain brought profits for American merchants but also led to trouble. • The British Navy began stopping American ships and confiscating their cargo. • To meet a shortage of sailors, they also began to force or “press” American sailors to serve in the British Navy, a practice called impressment.
Jefferson asked Congress for an embargo, hoping a loss of American goods would change Britain’s policies. The embargo failed to hurt Britain, but American merchants and farmers suffered from unemployment, bankruptcy, and loss of profits. Despite the failure of the embargo, the U. S. expanded westward, grew economically, and reduced its debt.