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The 11 th Asian Postgraduate Course on Victimology and Victim Assistance History of Victimology The 11 th Asian Postgraduate Course on Victimology and Victim Assistance History of Victimology By Gerd Ferdinand Kirchhoff

In the sixties of last century, Israel Drapkin – medical doctor and historian from In the sixties of last century, Israel Drapkin – medical doctor and historian from Chile living in Israel - traveled the world, from one university institute to another, in America, Asia and in Europe, and asked: What research do you do in victimology What would be your contribution to an international conference on victims? 1973 1 st International Symposium on Victimology, in Jerusalem 1976 2 nd International Symposium on Victimology in Boston, USA Stephan Schafer Chair of Criminology – Regina Ryan 1979 3 rd International Symposium on Victimology in Muenster, Germany. Foundation of the WSV. 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 2

Look at the first Executive Committee 4 law professors with a specialization in criminal Look at the first Executive Committee 4 law professors with a specialization in criminal law/ criminology 2 psychology professors with a specialization in treatment and community organization 1 sociologist Today 2 directors of special Institutes (Jp, Nl) 2 professors of victimology (both Tokiwa University) 2 Police (Victim Commissioner, Police Academy Director) 6 professors of Law (South America, Japan, Australia, China, Indonesia) 2 psychologist (Dean of Criminology (South Africa) and 1 psychotraumatologist 1 lawyer/victim assistance activist leader (Mexico) 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 3

Interest driven …. . Big split in the leadership of WSV One group wanted Interest driven …. . Big split in the leadership of WSV One group wanted WSV to promote victimology as a social science One group wanted to promote victimology as a part of criminology One group wanted WSV to become an international vehicle for victim assistance Really not very much happened in theoretical victimology and a lot happened in victim assistance 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 4

1973 -2012 1983 The WSV EC discussed the document that later became the UN 1973 -2012 1983 The WSV EC discussed the document that later became the UN Declaration 1984 First Postgraduate Course Dubrovnik 27, Mito, 10, South Africa 3, San Salvador 2, USA 1 In these courses the teaching is developed Look at the history of the symposiums! Israel, USA, Germany, Japan, Yugoslavia, Israel, Brazil, Australia, Netherlands, Canada, South Africa, USA, Japan, Netherlands 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 5

World Society of Victimology 1985 WSV Hans von Hentig - Award to Marlene Young World Society of Victimology 1985 WSV Hans von Hentig - Award to Marlene Young bridge between victimology and victim assistance, especially demanded by the influential American EC members difficult to maintain a separation between victim assistance and victimology – in victimology, victim assistance is included – consequences – sympathy between practitioners and scientists 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 6

1985 UN Declaration 1. Two years international discussion of victim in the criminal justice 1985 UN Declaration 1. Two years international discussion of victim in the criminal justice system streamlines the international discussion 2. Zagreb Symposium prepares the position of the block-free and the communist countries for a success in the UN deliberations and consolidates the position of the Western countries together with Non Aligned countries. 3. UN Congress 1985 in Milan culminates in an UN Declaration 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 7

Elections to the EC show a growing influence of victim assistance activists to move Elections to the EC show a growing influence of victim assistance activists to move the cause internationally Very skilled leadership in USA, UK and Mexico, Argentina Peak of influence of activists in 2006 Motto of the Symposium “Enhancing the Mission” 2006 Orlando 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 8

Institutes of Victimology (1968 - 1992 Koichi Miyazawa’s institute in Keio, Tokyo, Japan) Bellagio Institutes of Victimology (1968 - 1992 Koichi Miyazawa’s institute in Keio, Tokyo, Japan) Bellagio Institute 1975 (Emilio Viano) 1998 Sarajevo Institute (WSV and University of Sarajevo, dormant) 2003 Tokiwa University (Hidemichi Morosawa, John Dussich) 2004 Intervict in University of Tilburg (Groenhuijzen, van Dijck, Winkel) Jakarta 2005, Spain. . . 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 9

The “home faculty” Problem of finding a “home faculty” for a study that draws The “home faculty” Problem of finding a “home faculty” for a study that draws from sociology, psychology, medicine, social work, political science, criminology and law, especially criminal law and criminal procedure. Integrating knowledge from so many faculties, the field has no own single unifying theory This is a reason that it is often not regarded as a science - but it behaves like a science. and it is more and more accepted as such. Social Reconstruction of Reality 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 10

Recognition of a problem We can interpret this as a kind of “recognition” Insights Recognition of a problem We can interpret this as a kind of “recognition” Insights from the “Sociology of Social Movements” The concern The publics and “their” problem Getting heard: The creation of the social problem 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 11

Reactions of the host society The different ways of the host society to react Reactions of the host society The different ways of the host society to react indifferent rejecting Incorporating, embracing Politicians take notice and take positions 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 12

Recognition This recognition is facilitated: only if there is enough disquieting noise and unrest, Recognition This recognition is facilitated: only if there is enough disquieting noise and unrest, the stakeholders of the traditional way of thinking (or the existing social order) will listen and finally politicians will react. “Maus and the circles” Outer circle of sympathizers Inner circle of supporters Center of leaders of the movement Recognizing reactions are applauded by the outer circle and often by the inner circle as well. When is the problem solved? Dangerous moment: 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 13

Official recognition is a dangerous moment for a social movement: sympathizers start to leave Official recognition is a dangerous moment for a social movement: sympathizers start to leave the movement. The social auditorium believes that the problem is solved The “true believers” continue to fight for more improvements Inside the movement, a cleaning process is tried 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 14

The Themes in 2009 1. Theory on Victimology and Human Security 2. A Victim The Themes in 2009 1. Theory on Victimology and Human Security 2. A Victim Convention in the light of International Instruments and national Norms 3. The Work of the UNHCR and victims of Abuse of Power, refugee Victims and Displaced Persons 4. The Development of Victim Issues in the National Justice Systems, especially in Asia 5. Responses to Disaster Victimization 6. Psycho – traumatological and Psychological Interventions, building a network and coordination of victim specialized interveners (professionals and volunteers) 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 15

Victimology and Human Security 7. Victimization of Indigenous People and other marginalized groups 8. Victimology and Human Security 7. Victimization of Indigenous People and other marginalized groups 8. Special Victimizations: Victims of Family Violence, Torture, Terrorist Attacks, Consumer Fraud and Cyber Victims 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 16

Till now I have introduced into victimology and I have tried to give you Till now I have introduced into victimology and I have tried to give you an idea where the field stands today. In the following I will more formally describe victimology in a more theoretical framework. 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 17

History of Victimology starts when scientists look at victims abstractly and when they try History of Victimology starts when scientists look at victims abstractly and when they try to develop a theory that explains victimization. The Example “Job” The example “Beccaria” (1738 -1794) 1764 The Example “von Hentig” Schafer (Functional Responsibility 1967) Wolfgang 1958 (Victim Precipitation) 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 18

Ben David (2000): Victim’s Victimology Post-Graduate Courses on Victimology, Victim Assistance and Criminal Justice Ben David (2000): Victim’s Victimology Post-Graduate Courses on Victimology, Victim Assistance and Criminal Justice since 1984 Restorative Justice Transitional Justice Trauma and Psycho-Traumatology (since 1990)( Winkel 2007) 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 19

Mainstream victimologists can be found under an invisible umbrella who is centered in the Mainstream victimologists can be found under an invisible umbrella who is centered in the UN Crime Commission and it Vienna Crime Center. Traditional reasons UNHC HR UNHC R ILO IOM Victimologists must not take over social constructions of the ruling groups too long neglected: examples “Domestic Violence” “Exploitation by human traffickers” “Man” as victims Victims of modern forms of slavery Victims of poor social planning, poor preparations and rescue work for disasters 3/16/2018 Jakarta 2011 - Prof. Dr. Kirchhoff 20