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The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference On recent developments in maritime education The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference On recent developments in maritime education and training in Croatia Boris Pritchard Damir Zec Pavao Komadina The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

l “The main objective of MET … is … halting and eventually reversing the l “The main objective of MET … is … halting and eventually reversing the trend towards the European seafarer becoming an “endangered species”. Günther Zade, METNET, Final Report, 2003 The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction MET in Croatia: a brief historical Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction MET in Croatia: a brief historical survey Education and certification of seafarers: meeting international and national requirements Accreditation issues National vs. international stakeholders in the maritime industry and education Conclusions The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

1. Introduction l l The concept of MET – an important aspect of shipping 1. Introduction l l The concept of MET – an important aspect of shipping Education and training of seafarers: l l l STCW levels: management, operational, support MET levels – academic, professional, vocational, specialized MET institutions: university, college, academy, polytechnic, secondary, in-house The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

Pressure of opposing requirements & standards by: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Shipping Pressure of opposing requirements & standards by: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Shipping industry Maritime administrations Safety at sea Environmental protection National employment policies Social security The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

Officers and crew Recent developments: l l Recruiting: from shipping companies to crewing agencies Officers and crew Recent developments: l l Recruiting: from shipping companies to crewing agencies MET: From flag state to main stakeholders Institutional requirements on professional competences (IMO, EU) Transport technology, IT, communications The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

2. MET in Croatia – a historical survey l Beginnings – 16 th cent. 2. MET in Croatia – a historical survey l Beginnings – 16 th cent. : Dubrovnik, Hvar, l l l common cross-Adriatic development shipboard training 19 th cent. - World War I: l l l steady growth of Croatian fleet & shipbuilding under Austrian imperial rule, Maritime Administration in Trieste, railroad links: Vienna-Rijeka, Budapest-Rijeka, etc. free ports & towns First MET institutions (Bakar, Dubrovnik – 1849) The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

2. MET in Croatia – a historical survey l l 1918 – 1945: relative 2. MET in Croatia – a historical survey l l 1918 – 1945: relative industrial stalemate but steady growth of MET system Post World War II l l l Fast growth of shipping & shipbuilding Numerous secondary vocational schools offering MET Nautical / maritime academies (Rijeka 1949): HND / Associate in Science Diploma in maritime studies University MET (Maritime colleges & faculties) – Rijeka 1978, Split, Dubrovnik, Zadar: BSc degrees, MSc degrees, Ph. D Role of MET in the development of the maritime industry The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

3. Education and certification of seafarers in Croatia: meeting international and national requirements l 3. Education and certification of seafarers in Croatia: meeting international and national requirements l MET system in Croatia – pioneering role in adjusting to the challenges of: modern shipping technology § transport and seborne trade § trends on the world maritime labour market § professional and social demands on MET § The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

Croatian MET vs world trends and projects in MET l l l METHAR – Croatian MET vs world trends and projects in MET l l l METHAR – EU (1999 - 2001) METNET – EU (2001 – 2003/4) GLOMET – IAMU (2002 -2005) The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

METHAR (Harmonization of European Maritime Education and Training Schemes) l l Considerable differences in METHAR (Harmonization of European Maritime Education and Training Schemes) l l Considerable differences in MET systems across European maritime nations Identified MET problems and solutions: l l l Maritime employment dependent on competitiveness through quality and mobility Increase of navigational safety, marine environment protection, and efficiency of sea transport through better MET FMS Rijeka – participated in several EU MET projects The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

METNET (Thematic NETWork on Maritime Education, Training and Certification) l The ‘ 4 E’ METNET (Thematic NETWork on Maritime Education, Training and Certification) l The ‘ 4 E’ concept: 1 st. E: ESSENTIALS l 2 nd. E: EXTENSION l 3 rd. E: ENRICHMENT l 4 th. E: ELEVATION l The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

‘ 1 E’: ESSENTIALS l MET programmes, which cover the minimum requirements of the ‘ 1 E’: ESSENTIALS l MET programmes, which cover the minimum requirements of the STCW The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

‘ 2 E’: EXTENSION l the extension of MET programmes beyond STCW Convention requirements. ‘ 2 E’: EXTENSION l the extension of MET programmes beyond STCW Convention requirements. It is still confined to shipboard knowledge and competence. As such, it represents nondegree MET. The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

‘ 3 E’: ENRICHMENT l l l Enrichment normally qualifies MET as degree MET ‘ 3 E’: ENRICHMENT l l l Enrichment normally qualifies MET as degree MET and provides a basic qualification for employment on board and in shore-based maritime industry and a better appreciation of shore-based requirements that can also benefit from shipboard experience. The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

‘ 4 E’: ELEVATION l l l An Elevation programme is offered to students ‘ 4 E’: ELEVATION l l l An Elevation programme is offered to students with 3 E MET. It leads to an MSc or MBA degree, an even Ph. D programmes. An Elevation programme should be directed to a more specific qualification for work in the maritime industry ashore The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

METNET Conclusions - 1 l l l the duration of school time is not METNET Conclusions - 1 l l l the duration of school time is not relevant from the point of view of STCW 95. “The Convention determines minimum requirements for standards of competence which should normally be demonstrated through examination and/or assessment independent of the school time required for acquiring the necessary knowledge and skills” (from METNET Final Report). In some countries the duration of studies corresponds to that for university degrees and a substantial number of subjects may then be added to STCW 95 subjects. The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

METNET Conclusions - 2 l l l in most countries, including Croatia, MET requires METNET Conclusions - 2 l l l in most countries, including Croatia, MET requires a school time of about three years (BSc degree obtainable from maritime academies or university colleges) with some exceptions of four or five years for countries with university level MET traditionally, the school time for deck officers is not uniformly defined. The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

GLOMET (A Study of Global Maritime Education and Training Systems) – Commonalities: l The GLOMET (A Study of Global Maritime Education and Training Systems) – Commonalities: l The offer of four-year 3 E one-step MET programmes in the deck and the engine specialization leading to OOW certificates of competency and a BSc or equivalent academic degree. l The offer of MET for both employment on board and the maritime sector ashore. l Students are mostly 17 or 18 years old when they begin MET and have completed a general education that also meets admission requirements to other national universities. l Member institutions are supervised by a national maritime transport authority and a national higher education authority. l Quality, students, teaching and learning are highest priority commitments of member institutions. The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

GLOMET (A Study of Global Maritime Education and Training Systems) – the differences: l GLOMET (A Study of Global Maritime Education and Training Systems) – the differences: l l l About two thirds of the member institutions operate training vessels and about one third offer also nondegree MET. The institutions which are independent slightly outnumber those which are departments of larger units MET institutions in the world operate under different names (independent maritime universities, faculties, colleges, academies, professional / vocational school of higher/further education, etc. ) but they all offer degree programmes of studies and (less frequently) non-degree programmes The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

GLOMET – general conclusion taken as a whole, the commonalities of basic features of GLOMET – general conclusion taken as a whole, the commonalities of basic features of the MET systems studied by far outweigh the differences. The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

“Double E”: Extreme Excellence l l l l l STCW minimum knowledge and skills “Double E”: Extreme Excellence l l l l l STCW minimum knowledge and skills 4 year B. Sc. academic degree highest Maritime English and general English proficiency high tech capabilities, including computer science maritime security leadership in all respects maritime and international law business (even MBA) logistics and management environmental protection leadership disciplines The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

Summary of approaches to MET l l l the minimalist STCW-based approach supported by Summary of approaches to MET l l l the minimalist STCW-based approach supported by crewing agencies and some minor shipowners mainly engaged in shortsea and coastal trade the systematic approach advocated by the EU as ‘ 4 E’ concept described above, and the elitist system taking the ‘ 4 E’ concept to the extreme The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

Croatian MET: – recent approaches & trends 1 1. Equivalent to EU ‘ 3 Croatian MET: – recent approaches & trends 1 1. Equivalent to EU ‘ 3 E’ concept - Associate Diploma in Maritime Transport, BSc Degree in Maritime Transport for STCW 78/95 – operational & management level – unlimited trade § § offered by four maritime faculties/colleges/univ. departments (Dubrovnik, Rijeka, Split, Zadar) further or higher education: student age: 19 -22 yrs The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

Croatian MET: – recent approaches & trends 2 2. a parallel system of MET Croatian MET: – recent approaches & trends 2 2. a parallel system of MET based on the secondary vocational / maritime training school certificate for basic officer certificates (OOW Deck 500 GT or OOW Engine Room 1500 k. W) for top-level positions in limited trade l l offered by six maritime vocational training schools secondary education - student age: 15 -19 yrs The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

Figure 1 Approaches to MET and IMO STCW 95 Certification in Croatia The 10 Figure 1 Approaches to MET and IMO STCW 95 Certification in Croatia The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

Most recent trends 1. 2. Further or higher education is no more a requirement Most recent trends 1. 2. Further or higher education is no more a requirement for school time Holders of secondary vocational (maritime) training school vertificates can qualify and are eligible for STCW 95 certificates (operational and management level) provided, however, that: l l STCW sea service time requirements are met and supplementary STCW certification courses/exams are successfully passed The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

New industrial and institutional requirements – adjust to: l l technological changes in shipping New industrial and institutional requirements – adjust to: l l technological changes in shipping and transport as a whole, institutional changes imposed mainly through the IMO STCW Convention, advancements in the national educational system placing ever higher minimum demands on professional qualifications (e. g. associate diploma or higher national certificate/diploma in maritime transport, for deck and engineering officers as legal prerequisites for obtaining Certificates of Competency on the operational and management levels), and transitional changes in the nineties in the national economy (corporate changes, reduction of the market, etc. ) and structural changes in the economies of the countries of Central Europe mainly served by the Croatian maritime industry. The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

The Bologna processes & MET - 2 l l l meeting the requirements of The Bologna processes & MET - 2 l l l meeting the requirements of the maritime trade immediate job qualifications mobility of programmes, students, instructors comparability by means of a system of accreditation competitiveness of courses, , MET institutions the “ 3(-1) + 2” MET system: l l l shipboard duties (3 -year full BSc degree course or 2 year ‘associate diploma’ in further education respectively) and shore-based positions (BSc degree) the ‘ 4 E’ MET system – MSc and Ph. D courses – joint course of studies for all Croatian higher MET institutions The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

4. Accreditation issues l l l Comparability Monitoring & evaluation of Croatian MET Open 4. Accreditation issues l l l Comparability Monitoring & evaluation of Croatian MET Open issues The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

Monitoring & Evaluation of Croatian MET l l l Only a few EU states Monitoring & Evaluation of Croatian MET l l l Only a few EU states have adopted and implemented a comprehensive ECTS-based system of monitoring and evaluation of students’ performance Most EU states have announced and shown their programmes (websites) in terms of ECTS – i. e. credits assigned to the complete programme (180), each year (60) and individual courses (Dubrovnik, Rijeka, Split, Zadar) The system of credits is not always the same The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

Still unclear: l l What contents is covered by each credit? What are the Still unclear: l l What contents is covered by each credit? What are the methods of assessment? Mutual recognition of certificates / diplomas / degrees How to establish the networking between EU and other MET institutions in order to increase the efficiency if MET The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

5. National vs. international stakeholders in the maritime industry and education l l l 5. National vs. international stakeholders in the maritime industry and education l l l The European/Croatian seafarer – an endangered species Decline of interest in seafaring – impact on owners – Labour cost (officers): EU vs ‘third’ countries enrollment in MET lower than study places (marine engineers!!!) Lack of concentration - the Croatian Maritime University? The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

Reasons l l increased attractiveness of the shore-based careers, thus diminishing the former advantage Reasons l l increased attractiveness of the shore-based careers, thus diminishing the former advantage of comparably higher wages in shipboard employment; “unwillingness of qualified young people to join an industry with a bad image in socio-psychological conditions for shipboard personnel. ” separation from the family (though only temporary) and being deprived of a private life of own choice, decreased quality of life on board, primarily as a consequence of shortened lay times in ports and followed by a number of other sociological reasons. The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

6. Conclusions l l l l Change of circumstances (economic, technological, social) over the 6. Conclusions l l l l Change of circumstances (economic, technological, social) over the last two decades Proactive measures needed: (e. g. Croatian Ministry of the Sea & Transport, . . . ) Make sea careers more attractive Make studies / programmes at MET more adaptable to the requirements of the owners Offer academic & vocational courses Concentrate MET resources & institutions Reverse the negative trends (a requirement on all stakeholders The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007

THANKS! University of Rijeka Faculty of Maritime Studies Boris Pritchard bopri@pfri. hr www. pfri. THANKS! University of Rijeka Faculty of Maritime Studies Boris Pritchard [email protected] hr www. pfri. hr The 10 th European Manning & Training Conference, Dubrovnik, 23 th & 24 th May 2007