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th 8 October Earthquake Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus) th 8 October Earthquake Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus)

 o What are Earthquakes? 8 th October Earthquake o Details of the Kashmir o What are Earthquakes? 8 th October Earthquake o Details of the Kashmir Earthquake Causalities of the Kashmir Earthquakes o Total loss and Damage o Rescue and Relief Programs o Foreign response o o Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus)

What really are Earthquakes? o Earthquake are the shaking of the Earth’s surface caused What really are Earthquakes? o Earthquake are the shaking of the Earth’s surface caused by rapid movement of the Earth’s rocky outer layer. Earthquakes occur when energy stored within the Earth, usually in the form of strain in rocks, suddenly releases. This energy is transmitted to the surface of the Earth by earthquake waves. Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus)

 October Earthquake o The Kashmir earthquake of 2005 was a major seismological disturbance October Earthquake o The Kashmir earthquake of 2005 was a major seismological disturbance (earthquake) that occurred at 08: 50: 38 Pakistan Standard Time on October 8, 2005 with the epicenter in the Pakistan. It registered 7. 6 on the moment magnitude scale making it a major earthquake. As of 8 November, the Pakistani government's official death toll was 87, 350. Some estimate that the death toll could reach over 100, 000. Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus)

Details of the Earthquake o o Kashmir lies in the area where the Eurasian Details of the Earthquake o o Kashmir lies in the area where the Eurasian and Indian tectonic plates are colliding. Out of this collision, the Himalayas began uplifting 50 million years ago, and continue to rise by about 5 mm/year. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) measured its magnitude as 7. 6 on the moment magnitude scale, with its epicenter at 34° 29′ 35″N, 73° 37′ 44″E, about 19 km (11. 8 miles) northeast of Muzaffarabad, Pakistan [7], and 100 km (65 miles) north-northeast of Islamabad (Pakistan). The hypocenter was located at a depth of 26 km (16. 2 miles) below the surface (USGS). The Japan Meteorological Agency gave it a magnitude of 7. 8. The earthquake is classified as "major" by the USGS. The earthquake caused widespread destruction in northern Pakistan, as well as damage in Afghanistan and northern India. The worst hit areas were Pakistan-administered Kashmir, Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), and western and southern parts of the Kashmir valley in the Indian-administered Kashmir. It also affected some parts of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the city of Karachi experienced a minor aftershock of magnitude 4. 6. There have been many secondary earthquakes in the region, mainly to the northwest of the original epicenter. 147 aftershocks were registered in the first day after the initial massive quake that hit at 8: 52 am, one of which had a magnitude of 6. 2 (a tremor of magnitude six is rated as a "strong" earthquake). Twenty-eight occurred with a magnitude greater than five during four days after the principal quake and even eleven days after, there were still major quakes. For example, on 19 October there were a series of strong aftershocks one with a magnitude of 5. 8], which occurred about 65 km (40. 5 miles) northwest of Muzaffarabad. There have been more than 978 aftershocks with a magnitude of 4. 0 and above, as of 27 October and these continue to occur daily. Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus)

Casualties o o o Most of the casualties resulting from the earthquake were in Casualties o o o Most of the casualties resulting from the earthquake were in Pakistan where the official death toll has topped 84, 000 and is expected to continue to rise, putting it higher than the massive scale of destruction of the Quetta earthquake of May 31, 1935. 1, 300 deaths have also been confirmed in India. As Saturday is a normal school day in the region, most students were at schools when the earthquake struck. Many were buried under collapsed school buildings. Many people were also trapped in their homes and, because it was the month of Ramadan, most people were taking a nap after their pre-dawn meal and did not have time to escape during the quake. Reports indicate that entire towns and villages were completely wiped out in Northern Pakistan with other surrounding areas also suffering severe damage. Thousand of remote villages ae there in which people are in need of medical attention, food, clean water and shelter and the 120, 000 survivors that have not yet been reached. Location Dead Pakistan (NWFP & Kashmir) 87, 350 100, 000 India (Kashmir) 1, 360 6, 266 Afghanistan 3 0 Total 90, 000 106, 000 Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus) Injured

Damage in Pakistan o o o o An assessment of damaged buildings in Muzaffarabad Damage in Pakistan o o o o An assessment of damaged buildings in Muzaffarabad and the surrounding area, by the Earthquake Engineering Center of the University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, showed that about 60% of the buildings in urban areas were unreinforced solid concrete block masonry buildings and it was the collapse of more than 60% of these buildings that was responsible for the majority of deaths and injuries. Pakistani television reports widespread severe damage to Balakot (almost completely wiped out), Garhi Habibullah, Rawalakot, and Muzaffarabad (near the epicenter) where 30, 000 are thought to have died. The quake triggered landslides, burying entire villages and roads in many areas of North-West Frontier Province and Pakistan-administered Kashmir. Hundreds of thousands of buildings are thought to have collapsed or sustained severe damage. One of two residential towers (Margalla Towers in F-10 sector, Islamabad), believed to contain up to sixty apartments each, collapsed in the earthquake in Islamabad. Pakistani government officials at the site stated the number of people affected by the collapse was in the hundreds, most of whom are feared dead. Efforts by rescue workers are ongoing. Over fifty-two people were rescued from the collapsed residential "Marghalla Towers". A team from the International Rescue Corps at the site said they located three more victims on the Sunday morning using audio detection equipment after the difficult task of arranging total silence at the crowded rescue site. The Karakoram highway is blocked at several points, hindering relief efforts. Damage to buildings and several casualties have been reported in surrounding provinces of Punjab and Balochistan. Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus)

Presented The wrecked Margalla Towers in Pakistan by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Presented The wrecked Margalla Towers in Pakistan by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus)

 Rescue and Relief Efforts o o Relief efforts in many remote villages are Rescue and Relief Efforts o o Relief efforts in many remote villages are hampered, as roads are buried in rubble and many affected areas remain inaccessible. Heavy equipment is needed to clear the roads and to rescue survivors buried under the earthquake wreckage, as many rescuers are still picking the rubble with pickaxes and their bare hands, looking for survivors. Rescue effort are also affected by the numerous aftershocks that continue to rattle the region and put rescue workers in danger as they search through the wreckage for survivors. In many areas there is no power, or adequate food or water; there is also the danger of disease spreading , including measles. Distributing relief supplies to the victims is especially urgent as the victims face the risk of exposure to cold weather due to the region's high altitude and the approaching winter. Food, medicine supplies, tents and blankets have been identified by relief workers as essential items. On October 10, the United Nations warned that the earthquake left 2. 5 million people homeless and they are in need of shelter. The UN made an appeal to raise US$272 million to help victims. On October 13, snow started to fall on the Indian side of Kashmir. Many regions are facing an increasing threat of being cut off from help as snow forces closures of even more roads in the mountainous region. Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus)

Relief efforts in Pakistan o o o o o In Northern Pakistan and Pakistan-administered Relief efforts in Pakistan o o o o o In Northern Pakistan and Pakistan-administered Kashmir, the Pakistan Army has been directed to extend all out help to the civilian population in the quake-hit areas. All civilian and military hospitals have been directed to deal with the situation on an emergency basis. The Government of Pakistan opened President's Relief Fund (Pakistan) for Earthquake relief operation, where donations can be made and also appealed for International Aid as the magnitude of the disaster becomes clear. Earthquake relief blankets, tents, medicine, warm clothes, food and many more supplies are needed. Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) has offered free delivery of goods from anywhere in the world to Pakistani Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz spoke on the telephone with authorities in four provinces plus Azad Kashmir, and directed them to utilize all machinery and make all possible efforts to help the victims. He said the entire federal administration, civil and military authorities have been alerted, and relief goods have been provided to them for the victims of the quake. Most of the roads are closed in the Northern Sector near the earthquake, and some have been completely washed out or blocked by landslides, so the Pakistani army is flying supplies in by helicopter. In Garhi Habibullah, a town 205 miles (328 km) from the devastated city of Balakot in north-west Pakistan, Kashmiri fighters known as the mujahideen put aside their weapons and spent two days in helping rescue dozens of girls who were trapped in a collapsed building of a girls' school. On October 10, Monday, survivors were still being found and rescued from the wreckage including a 2 -year-old girl in Islamabad. Then on Wednesday, a Russian rescue team rescued a 5 -year-old girl in Muzaffarabad who has been trapped for nearly 100 hours. On October 14 the Pakistan government agreed that unaccompanied children from the disaster should be taken to the SOS Children emergency shelter in Islamabad for family tracing in a central database and help. The Pakistani people from all regions and walks of life donated a huge amount of relief supplies in both goods and money for the earthquake victims which is unprecedented in the history of nations. The magnitude of this disaster is so vast that the Government alone cannot provide relief to the people affected by this earthquake. The response of the people of Pakistan to help the government in its relief efforts has been overwhelming in the shape of donations, relief goods and volunteers working in the hospitals and the earthquake hit areas. The injured are being ferried from remote areas to the hospitals of Rawalpindi and Islamabad through helicopters every day. The relatives of these injured patients follow them to the twincities by road and pursue a long and painful search for their loved ones. Devastated with heavy losses of human lives and homes, these poor people often travel on foot from one hospital to another looking for their injured loved ones. Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus)

Humanitarian aid reaches the devastated far flung areas of Northern Pakistani Soldiers carry tents Humanitarian aid reaches the devastated far flung areas of Northern Pakistani Soldiers carry tents away from a U. S. Army CH-47 Chinook helicopter here October 19. Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus)

International response o o o Many countries, international organizations and nongovernmental organizations have offered International response o o o Many countries, international organizations and nongovernmental organizations have offered relief aid to the region, in the form of donation as well as relief supplies including food, medical supplies, tents and blankets. Rescue and relief workers were sent to the region from different parts of the world and they brought along rescue equipment, including helicopters and rescue dogs. The United Nations has appealed for donations to raise at least US$272 million to help victims of the quake. Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus)

International Aid o Aid from Tunisia, Afghanistan, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, International Aid o Aid from Tunisia, Afghanistan, Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Japan, Kuwait, Malaysia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Nepal, South Korea, Singapore, Turkey, U. A. E, Norway, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Canada, Cuba, United states and New Zealand are reaching Pakistan everyday Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus)

Estimate of International Aid o On November, 19, 2005 it was estimated that the Estimate of International Aid o On November, 19, 2005 it was estimated that the international community as a whole pledged about 5. 8 billion USD Which almost the amount equal to Pakistan’s one year Budget Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus)

Thank you Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus) Thank you Presented by Bilal Khalid Lahore Lyceum School (Main Campus)