- Количество слайдов: 18
Terms 10 Definitions and Questions
Shareware A marketing method for software, whereby a trial version is distributed in advance and without payment. A user tries out the program, and thus shareware has also been known as 'try before you buy', demoware, trialware and by many other names. Shareware is distributed on the basis of an honor system. Most shareware is delivered free of charge, but the author usually requests that you pay a small fee if you like the program and use it regularly. By sending the small fee, you become registered with the producer so that you can receive service assistance and updates. You can copy shareware and pass it along to friends and colleagues, but they too are expected to pay a fee if they use the product. Shareware is inexpensive because it is usually produced by a single programmer and is offered directly to customers. Thus, there are practically no packaging or advertising expenses. Note that shareware differs from public-domain software in that shareware is copyrighted. This means that you cannot sell a shareware product as your own.
Freeware Copyrighted software given away for free by the author. Although it is available for free, the author retains the copyright, which means that you cannot do anything with it that is not expressly allowed by the author. Usually, the author allows people to use the software, but not sell it. You are also free to distribute it to anyone you want, provided the distribution is an unmodified version of what you downloaded from the provider’s web site. In fact they encourage you to distribute their Freeware is provided on an "as is" basis and no technical support is usually available.
Adware Advertising-supported software is any software package which automatically plays, displays, or downloads advertising material to a computer after the software is installed on it or while the application is being used.
Vaporware (or vapourware) is software or hardware which is announced by a developer well in advance of release, but which then fails to emerge, either with or without a protracted development cycle. The term implies deception, or at least a negligent degree of optimism; that is, it implies that the announcer knows that product development is in too early a stage to support responsible statements about its completion date, feature set, or even feasibility. There is a similarity between vaporware and a species of hoax; both involve promoting a product or event which cannot later be produced. There have been a number of hoaxes in technological fields, wherein the hoaxter promises that proof of his offering will be forthcoming -- eventually. Examples include Clonaid, the Raelian company which promised proof of human cloning; or any number of perpetual motion machine "inventors". The distinction may be that in vaporware, the proponent truly does intend to produce the advertised product, while in hoax, he knows the product does not exist or cannot be produced.
Crippleware is a controversial form of shareware. It is a term of distinction used to differentiate between types of shareware software. Other types of shareware include nagware, demoware, freeware, and adware. Crippleware programs are free versions of computer programs, lacking the most advanced or even the crucial features of the original program. One of the canonical examples of crippleware is a word processor that cannot save or print. Crippleware versions are made available in order to increase popularity of the full program without giving it away for free. The authors of crippleware defend their marketing practices by noting that regular shareware versions are often cracked, so that the author is not paid for his work. Users who disagree with crippleware argue that they cannot test the program under real life conditions and therefore do not know whether to buy it. In comparison Nagware may be a less obstructive way to encouraging registration of shared software. But, this type of software can also be cracked to disable the nagging feature.
Nagware is a term of distinction used to differentiate between types of shareware software. Other types of shareware include demoware, crippleware, and even spyware. Nagware (also known as annoyware) is a type of shareware, that reminds —or nags— the user to register it by paying a fee. It usually does this by popping up a message when the user starts the program or, worse, intermittently while the user is using the application. These messages can appear as windows obscuring part of the screen or message boxes that can quickly be closed. Some nagware keeps the message up for a certain time period, forcing the user to wait to continue to use the program. The intent, of course, is that the user will become so annoyed with the messages that he/she will register it just to get rid of them.
Vapor/Cripple/Nag Ware Q/A Q: When was the term vaporware first used? A: OVATION, from Ovation Technologies. The term vaporware was first coined to describe this integrated software package for DOS. Announced in 1983, it never shipped.
Open Source Open source is software where the source code (the instructions in code that were used to write the program) is made readily available to users for download. Most open source software is completely free to all users. Once obtained, users are free to modify and develop the source code to make improvements or new programs. These suggestions and modifications are taken into account in the production of a final end product. Most open source programs specify that any modifications have to be released as open source software as well.
GPL The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project (a project to create a complete free software operating system). It has since become one of the most popular licenses for free software. The latest version of the license, version 2, was released in 1991. The GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), another commonly-used license, is a modified version of the GPL intended for software libraries. The GPL grants the recipients of a computer program the following rights, or "freedoms": n n The freedom to run the program, for any purpose. The freedom to study how the program works, and modify it. (Access to the source code is a precondition for this) The freedom to redistribute copies. The freedom to improve the program, and release the improvements to the public. (Access to the source code is a precondition for this) In contrast, the end-user licenses that come with proprietary software rarely grant the end-user any rights, and even attempt to restrict activities normally permitted by law, such as reverse engineering. The primary difference between the GPL and more "permissive" free software licenses such as the BSD License is that the GPL seeks to ensure that the above freedoms are preserved in copies and in derivative works. It does this using a legal mechanism known as copyleft, invented by Stallman, which requires derivative works of GPL-licensed programs to also be licensed under the GPL. In contrast, BSD-style licenses allow for derivative works to be redistributed as proprietary software.
Creative Commons The Creative Commons is a not-for-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others to legally build upon and share. The Creative Commons website enables copyright holders to grant some of their rights to the public while retaining others, through a variety of licensing and contract schemes, which may include dedication to the public domain or open content licensing terms. The intention is to avoid the problems which current copyright laws create for the sharing of information. The project provides several free licenses that copyright holders can use when they release their works on the web. They also provide RDF/XML metadata that describes the license and the work to make it easier to automatically process and locate licensed works. They also provide a 'Founder's Copyright' contract, intended to re-create the effects of the original U. S. Copyright created by the founders of the U. S. Constitution.
Open Source/GPL Q/A Q: How do you make money on open source software if you have to give the source away? A: You -can- sell your code. Red Hat (a distributor of LINUX) does it all the time. What you can't do is stop someone else from selling your code as well. That just says that you need to add extra value to your code, by offering service, or printed documentation, or a convenient medium, or a certification mark testifying to its quality. http: //www. opensource. org/advocacy/faq. php
UNIX was developed in 1969 by AT&T’s Bell Laboratories as an operating system for microcomputers. UNIX is an operating system that allows for multi-tasking and multi-user computer use with one operating system. UNIX marked the beginning of universal operating systems, mainly because its original language was such that it could be installed on virtually any computer. Because of portability, flexibility, and ease of possibility the UNIX system has developed into a common operating system that can be found on just about any computer today. Furthermore, the system contributes to the success of our daily used programs, software, hardware, etc.
Linux Developed in 1991 by a software developer by the name of Linus Torvalds from Finland. Linux is also an operating system. However, this system was designed to provide personal computer users a free operating system. There are many distributions of Linux, which contain different sets of free applications and different default settings. Comparable to the traditional and usually more expensive UNIX systems, Linux provides a suitable alterative to Windows. Yet, Linux doesn’t have as many users as the Windows Operating Systems.
BSD Berkeley Software Distribution Named this because of AT&T’s permission for Berkeley students to further develop the source codes for their UNIX System. Berkeley students found new ways to use the operating system by virtually rewriting all the codes thus creating a more accessible operating system. BSD has produced descendants that operate in ways unexpected by the original UNIX System. Some descendants from BSD are Dragon. Fly BSD, Pico. BSD, Open. BSD, Mir. BSD and many more. BSD allowed for further advancement to the UNIX System.
A Note on BSD The core of the Mac OS X operating system is known as Darwin integrates a number of technologies, including Mach 3. 0, operatingsystem services based on 4. 4 BSD, highperformance networking facilities, and support for multiple integrated file systems. Most Darwin libraries and utilities are derived from the Free. BSD project (http: //www. freebsd. org/). Mac OS X has adopted Free. BSD as a reference code base for BSD technology.
UNIX / Linux / BSD Q/A Q: Name this figure:
UNIX / Linux / BSD Q/A A: Tux, the Linux mascot