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TEMPUS BOPROCRO project Site visit to the University of Groningen, 7 -11 May 2005 Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands, 9 May 2005 Robert Wagenaar Director of Undergraduate and Graduate Studies Faculty of Arts / Chair Dutch team of Bologna promoters / National and international ECTS and DS counsellor / Joint co-ordinator Tuning project (Europe and Latin America)
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands Basic data: 1982 1999/ 2000 2002/ 2003 1999 Introduction of new university study programmes: from two cycles to undivided one cycle programmes; reduction of length from 5 to 4 years ; Introduction of Dutch credit point system (42 credits per year; 1 credit = 1 week of full time study) Prolonging of university studies in natural sciences from 4 to 5 years Introduction of two cycle system: bachelors of 3 years and masters of 1 to 2 years; Replacement Dutch credit system by ECTS based credit system (60 credits per academic year) Second half 1990 th urge for change Dutch educational system to make it more comparable to other educational systems: Bologna Declaration welcomed by Dutch Higher Education Institutions
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands Period 2000 -2002 Preparation of two (three) cycle system based on Bologna Declaration In practice: • Designing new bachelor and master programmes • Restructuring academic calendar: introduction semester system • Modularisation of study programmes • Transition to ECTS based credit system (period 20022004) • Introduction in many institutions of major-minor system in bachelor studies
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands Dutch Educational System (based on Higher Education and Research Act of 1993): n Binary system of higher education • Research oriented education (research universities) • Professional higher education (universities of professional education) n Third branch: International education (training courses for highly specialized knowledge for relatively small number of students)
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands Basic information: Public Higher Education n 14 research universities: 9 general, 1 agricultural, 3 technology and 1 Open University n 49 Universities of Professional Education n Number of students (2003/2004): 513. 000 of which 187. 000 in research universities and 326. 000 in universities of professional education Privately funded higher education institutions n 62 institutions n Number of students (2004): 60 -70. 000 of which 20% receive public finance
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands Why need was felt for changes in educational programmes? n n n To further the comparability and compatibility of programmes of studies and transparency in higher education To accommodate diversity and autonomy in higher education. To develop a common language which is understood by academics and stakeholders alike. To facilitate the shift from a staff centred approach to a more learner oriented approach to education (from input to output). To facilitate new forms of education as well as mutual recognition in a lifelong learning society. To promote higher levels of employability and citizenship through education.
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands The answer to accommodate these changes: • More autonomy for Higher Education Institutions • Launch of a semi independent national accreditation authority: 2002 NAO (Dutch Accreditation Organization) • Introduction of a two-cycle system based on the concept of learning outcomes and competences (linked to and basis for accreditation) • Introduction of ECTS based credit system
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands What did this mean in practice? 1. Re-design of study programmes on the basis of new concepts 2. Introduction of broader or more flexible first cycle programmes 3. Strong changes regarding student interest: less interest for traditional mono-disciplinary studies and growing interest for interdisciplinary approaches. 4. Introduction of modularization 5. Taking employability more into account in the design and delivery of study programmes 6. Growing national and international competition between higher education institutions 7. Development of a quality culture at institutional level.
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands Main challenges (1): Introducing the change of paradigm (new concept): n Student centred approach: profiles, learning outcomes (generic and subject-specific), competences, levels n Clear distinction between first and second cycle Was this challenge met? Only partly! n The issue of cut or kink: most university programmes have not been set-up yet as independent entities. n Only in the Universities of Professional Education is the concept of competences fully introduced. n Most programmes of research universities are still very much staff oriented.
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands Main challenges (2): n n n Introducing first cycle or bachelor programmes with following features: Addressed to more general (applied) academic education and training Less specialized and more flexible (for example) on major-minor concept Focus on development of generic competences (besides subject specific knowledge, understanding and skills) Introducing second cycle or master programmes with following features: Both student centred and (applied) research oriented Focus on subject specific competences
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands Definitions Learning outcomes: Statements of what a learner is expected to know, understand and/or be able to demonstrate after completion of learning. They can refer to a single course unit or module or else to a period of studies, for example, a first or a second cycle programme. Learning outcomes specify the requirements for award of credit. [learning outcomes are formulated by academic staff]
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands Definitions Competences: Competences represent a dynamic combination of knowledge, understanding, skills and abilities. Fostering competences is the object of educational programmes. Competences are formed in various course units and assessed at different stages. [competences are obtained by the student]
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands Main challenges (3): How to make first cycle programmes more flexible? Preconditions: n Preserve academically sound programmes based on comparable and compatible international level n Prevent evening of programmes as a result of broadening n Ensure that entrance conditions of second cycle programmes are met Implementation: n Horizontal or vertical
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands Models bachelor programmes vertical horizontal 30 30 30 60 30
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands Main challenges (4): How to make first cycle programmes more flexible? Modularization a pre-condition for: n n n student-centred programmes? making higher education more flexible? phrasing profiles and (re)designing (new) programmes introducing and implementing level indicators? organising programmes on the basis of learning outcomes and competences? assure and enhance quality of programmes?
Bologna Process and Developments in the etherlands Main challenges (5): Introduction of a quality culture at institutional and programme level? Key elements at programme level: Educational Process: n (educational) aims (degree / (educational) programme profile n learning outcomes and competences to be attained/achieved n degree / educational programme build-up and order of programme components (to realize progression) n coherence of degree / educational programme n division of workload over the semester and academic year n feasibility of programme n teaching, learning and assessment methods n connection of secondary and higher education n international cooperation and student mobility Educational product / outcome: n study rate /pace, cessation of study and change-overs / switch-overs (output) n output of 1 st and 2 nd cycle n employability Required facilities and means: n structural and technical facilities n staff and material means n student support: student
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands State of affairs implementation main action lines (since Berlin summit) 1. Three cycle system 2. Recognition of Studies (introduction ECTS) 3. Quality Assurance (internal and external) All action lines Bologna Process: 1. Adoption of a system of easily readable and comparable degrees 2. Adoption of a system essentially based on two cycles 3. Establishment of a system of credits 4. Promotion of mobility 5. Promotion of European co-operation in quality assurance 6. Promotion of the European dimension in higher education 7. Lifelong learning 8. Higher education institutions and students 9. Promoting the attractiveness of the European Higher Education Area 10. Doctoral level (third cycle)
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands √ 1. Introduction of a two- (three) cycle degree system § From 2004 -5 onwards: 94% of higher education degree programmes offered in two cycle system § From 2002 -3 onwards: 82% of higher education degree programmes offered in a two cycle system
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands √ 2. Recognition of degrees and periods of studies § Lisbon Recognition Convention has been signed. Ratification is in process and requires new legislation § Accreditation of programmes has been introduced. It should provide positive hallmark to HE programmes of good quality and facilitate recognition of Dutch degrees abroad. § Work on the establishment of a national qualification framework is expected to start in 2005. The framework will be based on profiles, levels, ECTS-credits and workload as well as learning outcomes and competences. § A working group has been installed to advise on the naming of Dutch degrees (to make these better comparable and compatible internationally) to facilitate fair recognition.
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands √ 3. Quality assurance § The Netherlands has a long standing system of quality assurance of higher education programmes § Until 2002 the system was based on external evaluation (on the basis of a peer review system) § In 2002 this system has been replaced by a system based on accreditation and external evaluation. Accreditation of programmes is based on extend reports of an independent evaluation body according to a set of guidelines of the national accreditation organisation (NVAO). § All degree programmes have to be accredited before 2010
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands Recent developments: • End 2004: Introduction in national law of the obligation to submit Diploma Supplement (automatically and free of charge) to all graduates from 2005 on. • End 2004: Start of the design of a new law for higher education to be introduced in 2007. Will open possibilities to organize joint programmes and award joint degrees.
Bologna Process and Developments in the Netherlands More detailed information about the Bologna Process and developments in the Netherlands can be found in the national stocktaking report produced for the Bologna follow-up group by the Dutch Ministry of Education (BFUG) as input for the Bergen conference. . .