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T H E A L C H E M I C A L P E R I O
• The Alchemical Period was the longest, the most amplitudinous, and the most mysterious of all periods of Chemistry. • It lasted from the III to the XVII century. • It was closely associated with Astrology and Mystics. • The main goal of The Alchemical Period was the philosopher stone, by which base metals could be changed to gold.
A L C H E M Y O F A L E X A N D R I A This period is the most classical and the most popular. It bases on Aristotle’s study about 4 primary elements. The main subjects of this period were Metals, each of which corresponds to a heavenly body. Exactly in this period the idea of transmutation of metals was introduced. This thing made a search for the Philosopher Stone the main goal of the alchemists for many centuries ahead.
A L C H E M Y I N T H E A R A B E A S T • In this period the idea of Elixir of life was proposed by Jabir Ibn Haiyan. He postulated that Philosopher’s stone could be not only change metals to Gold, but also to treat all diseases and give immortality. A great contribution to the development of natural sciences was made by the alchemists of this period.
ALCHEMY OF RENAISSANCE • At the period o Renaissance Alchemy was linked its goals with metallurgy, mining and medicine. • But with penetration of Alchemy in Europe its popularity grew in scope. But in line with real masters-alchemists a number of charlatans and deceivers grew. Many people have been deceived, and many commit crimes. • Also entirely all the Kings kept the court alchemist and expected prescription recipe of the preparation of Gold.
Church considered alchemy as diabolical source of obscurantism and superstition. Also the poet Dante Alighieri called it fraudulent science that wouldn’t bring nothing good for the world. But we can not deny the role of alchemy for development of modern chemistry. They say: Alchemy is the mother of modern chemistry. Exactly in the alchemical laboratories sulfuric, nitric, hydrochloric acid, aqua regia, and many drugs were first obtained.