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Systematic Analysis of Evolution Patterns in Bio Medical Systems Dr. Sara Greenberg Holon Institute Systematic Analysis of Evolution Patterns in Bio Medical Systems Dr. Sara Greenberg Holon Institute of Technology 1 Dr. Sara Greenberg

What is systematic innovation? A set of knowledge tools methods which can enable systematic What is systematic innovation? A set of knowledge tools methods which can enable systematic development of innovative problem solving. 2 Dr. Sara Greenberg

TRIZ was founded in 1946 by a Russian engineer and scientist, Genrich S. Altshuller TRIZ was founded in 1946 by a Russian engineer and scientist, Genrich S. Altshuller (Oct. 15 1926 - Sept. 24, 1998) "Теория решения изобретательских задач" או בעברית: "תיאוריה רשניה " איזוברטאטלסקיך זאדאץ 3 Dr. Sara Greenberg

 Genrich S. Altshuller Genrich S. Altshuller "תאוריה היא מרשימה יותר ככל שהנחותיה פשוטות יותר, ככל שהיא מקשרת בין יותר סוגי דברים שונים וככל שתחום הישימות שלה רחב יותר" אלברט איינשטיין 4 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Evolution – were it all begins. . . 5 Dr. Sara Greenberg Evolution – were it all begins. . . 5 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Laws of Technological Systems Evolution • • Evolution in stages. Evolution towards increased ideality. Laws of Technological Systems Evolution • • Evolution in stages. Evolution towards increased ideality. Non-Uniform development of system elements. Evolution towards increased dynamism and controllability. Increased complexity and then simplification. Evolution with matching and mismatching components. Evolution towards Micro-level and increased use of fields. Evolution towards decreased human involvement. 6 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Evolution in stages 7 Dr. Sara Greenberg Evolution in stages 7 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Lines of System Development Lines of System Development "Life Lines" Technical Systems by G. S. Altshuller Efficiency γ β α t Number of Inventions t Level of Invention t Profit t I II III 8 Dr. Sara Greenberg IV

Evolution in stages The Driving Forces of Technological Evolution Ideality, Innovation, Consumers, Resources Envelope Evolution in stages The Driving Forces of Technological Evolution Ideality, Innovation, Consumers, Resources Envelope curve 4 3 2 1 t 9 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Evolution in stages Development of Electronics 10 Dr. Sara Greenberg Evolution in stages Development of Electronics 10 Dr. Sara Greenberg

What is a Contradiction? P An improvement in one characteristic of a system results What is a Contradiction? P An improvement in one characteristic of a system results in the degradation of another characteristic. Traditionally addressed by compromise, sacrifice or trade-off P’ No compromise! Y Y= -f(X) Y= f(X) Contradiction = Barrier Prevent from Achievement of the Most Desirable Result Y=C 11 X Dr. Sara Greenberg

Evolution in stages Development of hearing aids Digital Aids Transistor Aids Carbon aids Horns Evolution in stages Development of hearing aids Digital Aids Transistor Aids Carbon aids Horns Trumpets 12 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Evolution Towards Increased Ideality The main driving force for system evolution is increasing main Evolution Towards Increased Ideality The main driving force for system evolution is increasing main system useful functions by elevating value and decreasing the harmful effects: Σ Useful Functions ` Value = Σ Costs + Σ Harm. Functions Σ Functionality Ideality = Σ Costs + Σ Harm 13 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Evolution Towards Increased Ideality • • • Landing lights on airport runway Biological glue Evolution Towards Increased Ideality • • • Landing lights on airport runway Biological glue Melting stitches in surgery No-stitch surgery Drugs with no “side effects” Stem cells therapy 14 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Non-Uniform Development of System Elements The process: Every sub-system evolves according to its own Non-Uniform Development of System Elements The process: Every sub-system evolves according to its own S-curve Contradiction & problem solving New system variant 15 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Evolution Towards Increased Dynamism and Controllability Inventions: Improving Systems 16 Dr. Sara Greenberg Evolution Towards Increased Dynamism and Controllability Inventions: Improving Systems 16 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Evolution Towards Increased Dynamism and Controllability Evolution for Cell Phone Design Monolithic System with Evolution Towards Increased Dynamism and Controllability Evolution for Cell Phone Design Monolithic System with one joint System with many joints Completely Elastic System Field F Monolithic Telephone Two-piece Telephone Three-piece Telephone with a flexible casing 17 Dr. Sara Greenberg Telephone with projected Keyboard/Image Projection Keyboard Projection Image

Evolution Towards Increased Dynamism and Controllability Segmentation of objects and substances Transition pattern 18 Evolution Towards Increased Dynamism and Controllability Segmentation of objects and substances Transition pattern 18 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Evolution Towards Increased Dynamism and Controllability Line of Increasing Flexibility suggests that the lens Evolution Towards Increased Dynamism and Controllability Line of Increasing Flexibility suggests that the lens systems should evolve through the following stages: ? 19 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Substance – Field Analysis 20 Dr. Sara Greenberg Substance – Field Analysis 20 Dr. Sara Greenberg

The Evolution of the Microscope 21 Dr. Sara Greenberg The Evolution of the Microscope 21 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Evolution Towards Micro-level and Increased Use of Fields Macro- and bio-nanoequivalence of robot components Evolution Towards Micro-level and Increased Use of Fields Macro- and bio-nanoequivalence of robot components From: Biomimetics, Biologically Inspired Cohen-Technologies. Edited by Yoseph Bar 22 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Evolution Towards Micro-level and Increased Use of Fields A vision of a nano-organism: carbon Evolution Towards Micro-level and Increased Use of Fields A vision of a nano-organism: carbon nanotubes (CNT) form the main body; peptide limbs can be used for locomotion and object manipulation, a biomolecular motor located at the head can propel the device in various environments. 23 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Transition Patterns Complication of Geometrical Shape of Systems and Objects Transition “Point – Line Transition Patterns Complication of Geometrical Shape of Systems and Objects Transition “Point – Line - Surface – Volume” Complication of geometrical shape Volume evolution Volume Cylindrical Spherical Complicate Surface evolution Surface One curvature Double curvature Complicate Lines evolution Line 2 -D curve 3 -D curve Point 24 Dr. Sara Greenberg Complicate

Functions of Biological Surfaces The functions of biological surfaces: • • Adhesion Friction Filtering Functions of Biological Surfaces The functions of biological surfaces: • • Adhesion Friction Filtering Sensors Wetting phenomena Self-cleaning Thermoregulation Optics 25 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Technological systems directed evolution 26 Dr. Sara Greenberg Technological systems directed evolution 26 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Evolution Potential Radar Plot Structure (Dynamization) 27 Dr. Sara Greenberg Evolution Potential Radar Plot Structure (Dynamization) 27 Dr. Sara Greenberg

System Evolutionary Potential Radar Plot Increased use of fields Increased use of resources Evolution System Evolutionary Potential Radar Plot Increased use of fields Increased use of resources Evolution toward micro-levels Decreased human involvement 28 Dr. Sara Greenberg

! תודה רבה 29 Dr. Sara Greenberg ! תודה רבה 29 Dr. Sara Greenberg

“Ideal” Book - System Function Sony® Reader 30 Dr. Sara Greenberg “Ideal” Book - System Function Sony® Reader 30 Dr. Sara Greenberg

What are the application of systematic innovation? • • Product improvement New product development What are the application of systematic innovation? • • Product improvement New product development Process improvement New process development 31 Dr. Sara Greenberg

 כיצד פותרים בעיות טכנולוגיות? רמה % מהפתרונות מקורות מידע + מספר הנסיונות לפתור כיצד פותרים בעיות טכנולוגיות? רמה % מהפתרונות מקורות מידע + מספר הנסיונות לפתור בעיות שימוש בכלים של TRIZ תכונות הפתרון 1 פתרון הנראה בנקל %23 ידע אישי )01~( אין שימוש בכלים "המצאתיים" )אין הגדרת . (contradictions פתרון הנראה בנקל שיפור פשוט של המערכת אינו פותר בעיה אמיתית. 2 שיפור קל %54 ידע בתוך כלל החברה )001~( שימוש ב- inventive principles )עקרונות ה"מצאתיים"( לפתרון בסיסי של ") contradictions סתירות"( לא פותרים את כולן. שיפור קל של המערכת. 3 שיפור משמעותי %91 ידע מתוך כלל התעשיה )0001~( "פתרונות TRIZ סטנדרטיים" ופתרון של ") contradictions סתירות"( בתוספת של שימוש באפקטים פיסיקליים, כימיים גאומטריים וכו. שיפור משמעותי של המערכת. 4 תפיסה חדשה %4< מדע ומידע מיחוץ לתעשיה )000, 001~( , ARIZ חוקי התפתחות מערכות. תפיסה חדשה מתקבלים פתרונות חדשים. מערכת חדשה המלווה בהחלפת הטכנולוגיה. 5 תגלית %3. 0< )000, 1~( פריצת דרך מדעית. תגלית מדעית, מהפכנית. 23 טרנזיטורים, לייזרים, נפתח עידן חדש. Dr. Sara Greenberg

Discover the core of a problem with TRIZ Administrative Contradiction System (one problem with Discover the core of a problem with TRIZ Administrative Contradiction System (one problem with dozen of sub problems) Thinking Functional Analysis Technical Contradiction Trimming Root Cause Analysis Physical Contradiction Technology Transfer Patents 33 Dr. Sara Greenberg More. .

Super-systems In the Present Super-systems requirements & ones values F 1 1 2 3 Super-systems In the Present Super-systems requirements & ones values F 1 1 2 3 4 5 F 1: 0 System’s output functions & ones values F 1 5 4 3 2 1 F 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 F 2: +3 F 2 3 2 1 Super-systems In the Present In the Future F 3: -2 F 3 1 2 3 4 5 F 1 F 5: + F 1 1 2 3 5 4 3 2 1 F 5 F 4: F 4 5 4 3 2 1 Starting point of the project, existing system - subject of the project 34 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 F 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 6 5 4 3 2 1 F 3 In the Future 1 2 3 F 5 F 4 5 F 3 3 2 1 Developed system – result of the project Improving Systems with TRIZ Dr. Sara Greenberg 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1

Technical contradictions Step 1. Create list of parameters of the given system. Truck: Speed, Technical contradictions Step 1. Create list of parameters of the given system. Truck: Speed, Stability, Fuel consumption, Air drag friction, Weight of cargo, Power of engine, Safety Step 2. Select your “favorite” parameter and change its value. Truck: Speed ↑-> increase Step 3. Analyze interactions between “changed” favorite parameter and other parameters of the list. Select conflicting pairs. Each conflicting pair means Technical Contradiction (TC) Speed ↑ <-> Stability ↓ => conflict – TC Speed ↑ <-> Fuel consumption ↑ => conflict – TC Speed ↑ <-> Air drag friction ↑ => conflict – TC Speed ↑ <-> Weight of cargo => not a conflict Speed ↑ <-> Power of engine ↑ => conflict – TC 35 Speed ↑ <-> Safety ↓ => conflict – TC Dr. Sara Greenberg

Problem solving example How to miniaturize the size of the printer? Restriction of reduction Problem solving example How to miniaturize the size of the printer? Restriction of reduction in the printer size is the standard width of the most widespread А 4 paper which makes 210 mm. Contradiction: The printer should be the size of an А 4 paper dimensions and should be less then the dimensions of an A 4 paper in order to be portable. The contradiction was resolved by separation in space by using a geometrical effect. The sheet of a paper can be rolled up in a tube using less space. 36 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Portable Printer Solution The printer head in formed in a circle. Printer-ring stretches out Portable Printer Solution The printer head in formed in a circle. Printer-ring stretches out the sheet of a paper roll up in a tube. The new printer is almost three times less, than its portable competitors working under the old circuit. 37 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Solving Contradictions Altshuller’s Matrix Physical Contradiction Identification of Key Problem/ Conceptual Direction AC Route Solving Contradictions Altshuller’s Matrix Physical Contradiction Identification of Key Problem/ Conceptual Direction AC Route 2 Route 1 Standard EC IFR EC Altshuler’s Matrix Separation Strategic PC IDEA 38 Secondary Problem Solving Dr. Sara Greenberg 38

Engineering Contradictions Formulating the Technical Contradiction AC Inventive Problems written in the form of Engineering Contradictions Formulating the Technical Contradiction AC Inventive Problems written in the form of ‘If - then - but’ EC/TC Technical Contradiction for the Airplane Wing s. EC IF IFR THEN BUT we increase the area of the wing It generates more lift the weight of the wing increases Matrix S 39 Dr. Sara Greenberg 39

Engineering Contradictions and Altshuller’s Matrix AC EC/TC Identifying Specific Parameters Identify the parameters in Engineering Contradictions and Altshuller’s Matrix AC EC/TC Identifying Specific Parameters Identify the parameters in the Engineering Contradiction s. EC Area and Weight are two parameters in the Engineering Contradiction of the airplane wing problem IFR Matrix S 40 Dr. Sara Greenberg 40

Engineering Contradictions and Altshuller’s Matrix AC EC/TC s. EC Identifying Typical Parameters Identify from Engineering Contradictions and Altshuller’s Matrix AC EC/TC s. EC Identifying Typical Parameters Identify from Altshuller’s list those Typical Parameters that are similar in meaning to the Specific Parameters or are derivatives of Specific Parameters IFR Altshuller’s Typical Parameters Matrix S 41 Dr. Sara Greenberg 41

Altshuller’s Matrix - Table of different combinations of conflicting parameters 42 Dr. Sara Greenberg Altshuller’s Matrix - Table of different combinations of conflicting parameters 42 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Engineering Contradictions and Altshuller’s Matrix AC Typical Parameter for Area Identifying Typical Parameters EC Engineering Contradictions and Altshuller’s Matrix AC Typical Parameter for Area Identifying Typical Parameters EC Specific Parameters Typical Parameters Area of moving object s. EC Area of Wings Weight of a stationary object Weight of a moving object IFR Length of a moving object Weight of Wings Matrix Length of stationary object Strength Typical Parameter for Weight S 43 Dr. Sara Greenberg 43

Engineering Contradictions and Altshuller’s Matrix AC IFR: EC Increasing the Area of moving object Engineering Contradictions and Altshuller’s Matrix AC IFR: EC Increasing the Area of moving object (Area of wings) will not increase Weight of a moving object (Weight of wings) s. EC IFR Matrix S 44 Dr. Sara Greenberg 44

TC 2 3 4 5 Area of moving object Improving Parameters Length of stationery TC 2 3 4 5 Area of moving object Improving Parameters Length of stationery object Length of moving object AC Weight of moving object 1 Worsening Parameters Weight of stationery object Altshuller’s Contradiction Matrix EC 1 Weight of moving object + - 15, 8 29, 34 - 29, 17 38, 34 2 Weight of stationery object - + - 10, 1 29, 35 - 3 Length of moving object 8, 15 29, 34 - + - 15, 17, 4 4 Length of stationery object 35, 28 40, 29 - - + 17, 7 10, 70 5 Area of moving object 2, 17 29, 4 - 14, 50 18, 4 - + IFR Matrix S 45 39 Parameters Inventive Principles Dr. Sara Greenberg 45 39 Parameters

Engineering Contradictions and Altshuller’s Matrix Description of the Inventive Principles AC Number Name 2 Engineering Contradictions and Altshuller’s Matrix Description of the Inventive Principles AC Number Name 2 EC Taking out s. EC 17 IFR Another dimension Description of Inventive Principles • Separate an interfering part or property from an object, or single out the only necessary part (or property) of an object • • To move an object in two- or three-dimensional space Use a multi-story arrangement of objects instead of a single-story arrangement Tilt or re-orient the object, lay it on its side Use 'another side' of a given area • • 29 Pneumatics • Use gas and liquid parts of an object instead of solid parts (e. g. inflatable, and filled with liquids, air cushion, hydrostatic, hydro-reactive) hydraulics 4 Matrix Asymmetry • If an object is asymmetrical, increase its degree of asymmetry S • Change the shape of an object from symmetrical to asymmetrical 46 Dr. Sara Greenberg 46

Engineering Contradictions and Altshuller’s Matrix q Pneumatics and hydraulics The Exhaust gasses are released Engineering Contradictions and Altshuller’s Matrix q Pneumatics and hydraulics The Exhaust gasses are released in such a way that they are a functional extension of the wing. They contribute to generating lift and do not add weight to the airplane. (from US Patent N 4 648 571) 47 Dr. Sara Greenberg 47

Separation Principles Solving Physical Contradictions Separation upon condition In Space In Demands Separation in Separation Principles Solving Physical Contradictions Separation upon condition In Space In Demands Separation in space Separation in time 48 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Inventive principles 49 Dr. Sara Greenberg Inventive principles 49 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Principle 3. Local quality • Change an object's structure from uniform to non-uniform, change Principle 3. Local quality • Change an object's structure from uniform to non-uniform, change an external environment (or external influence) from uniform to non-uniform. • Make each part of an object work in the conditions that are most suitable for its operation. • Make each part of an object fulfill a different and useful function. Example: Non-uniform winding for uniform heating An infrared lamp heats a semiconductor wafer. The wafer edge cools more quickly making the temperature higher in the center. Can a uniform heating be achieved? The heater spiral is wound with more windings at its edges. This gives more heat at the edges than in the center, provides a uniform temperature over the entire surface of the wafer 50 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Transition from Technical to Physical Contradiction 51 Dr. Sara Greenberg Transition from Technical to Physical Contradiction 51 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Effects: Physical, Chemical, Geometrical, Biological 52 Dr. Sara Greenberg Effects: Physical, Chemical, Geometrical, Biological 52 Dr. Sara Greenberg

Separation principle: Space 53 Dr. Sara Greenberg Separation principle: Space 53 Dr. Sara Greenberg

What does the Solution of Problem Mean? It Means – We Found a Way What does the Solution of Problem Mean? It Means – We Found a Way to Change Values of System Parameters • • • • Chemical Deformation Electric field Electromagnetic wave and light Fluid Force, energy, and momentum Geometric Magnetic Mechanical and sound wave Motion and vibration Process Quantity Radioactivity Solid Surface Thermal 54 Dr. Sara Greenberg