Скачать презентацию Swiss politics and political institutions 3 Government and Скачать презентацию Swiss politics and political institutions 3 Government and

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  • Количество слайдов: 21

Swiss politics and political institutions: 3. Government and Parliament Prof. Dr. Andreas Ladner i. Swiss politics and political institutions: 3. Government and Parliament Prof. Dr. Andreas Ladner i. MPA 2011

| ©IDHEAP – Andreas. Ladner@idheap. unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 | | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

Presidential vs. parliamentary systems „The White House“ § Presidential systems: US, South America (Chile, Presidential vs. parliamentary systems „The White House“ § Presidential systems: US, South America (Chile, Colombia, Peru, Argentina, . . . ), South Korea, Sudan, Uganda „No. 10 Downing Street“ § Parliamentary systems: Great Britain, Germany, Spain, Netherlands, Sweden, India, Singapore | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

Features Parliamentary systems § § § Majority of the parliament decides on the government Features Parliamentary systems § § § Majority of the parliament decides on the government If the party(ies) in power loses the majority a new government is needed (new elections) This system additionally needs someone at th top of the country, especially if the government is dismissed Centralization of power in the hands of the government and the majority in parliament High level of discipline within the parliamentary group in power The opposition controls the government | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | Presidential systems § § § Head of government is at the same time the head of the country Directly elected by the citizens His/her destiny does not depend on the parliament Independence of government and parliament (checks and balances) The parliament controls the president | 18/03/2018 |

Advantages of a presidential system § The President is directly elected § Separation of Advantages of a presidential system § The President is directly elected § Separation of power § Speed and decisiveness § Stability | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

Inconveniences of a presidential system § Tendency towards authoritarianism § Political gridlock between president Inconveniences of a presidential system § Tendency towards authoritarianism § Political gridlock between president and parliament § How to guarantee leadership change? | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

Advantages of a parliamentary system § It is easier to pass legislations § Bears Advantages of a parliamentary system § It is easier to pass legislations § Bears attractive features for nations that are ethnically, racially, or ideologically divided § Power is more evenly spread § More room for debates § Juan Linz: more successful for the transision to democracy | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

Inconveniences of a parliamentary system § No direct legitimacy of the prime minister through Inconveniences of a parliamentary system § No direct legitimacy of the prime minister through elections (? ) § Common destiny of prime minister and majority of the parliament § Members of parliament are restricted to support prime minister | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

France: semi-presidential system § The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which France: semi-presidential system § The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a president and a prime minister are both active participants in the dayto-day administration of the state. It differs from a parliamentary republic in that it has a popularly elected head of state who is more than a purely ceremonial figurehead, and from the presidential system in that the cabinet, although named by the president, is responsible to the legislature, which may force the cabinet to resign through a motion of no confidence. § The term was first coined in a 1978 work by political scientist Maurice Duverger to describe the French Fifth Republic, which he dubbed a régime semi-présidentiel. http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Semi-presidential_system | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

The Swiss system Swiss democracy: neither presidential (like for example the US) nor parliamentary The Swiss system Swiss democracy: neither presidential (like for example the US) nor parliamentary (like for example England). | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

The Government § Multi-party government (power sharing) § 7 Departments § Equal rights and The Government § Multi-party government (power sharing) § 7 Departments § Equal rights and duties for all members § President = primus inter pares § Joint decisions on all departments § A common „official“ position to be defended by all members | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

The Parties in Government ( | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. Ladner@idheap. unil. ch | | The Parties in Government ( | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

Steps towards the magic formulae – power sharing 17. 12. 1891: Joseph Zemp (CVP) Steps towards the magic formulae – power sharing 17. 12. 1891: Joseph Zemp (CVP) 11. 12. 1919: Jean-Marie Musy (CVP) 13. 12. 1929: Rudolf Minger (SVP) 15. 12. 1943: Ernst Nobs (SP) 17. 12. 1959: Hans-Peter Tschudi (SP, BS, 129) and Willy Spühler (SP, ZH, 149) ? | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

The Head of the Government changes every year (2003 -2008) 2004 2003 2006 2005 The Head of the Government changes every year (2003 -2008) 2004 2003 2006 2005 2007 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | 2005 2008 | 18/03/2018 | 2006

2009 -2011 2010 2011 2009 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. Ladner@idheap. unil. ch | | 2009 -2011 2010 2011 2009 | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

Federal Council § Since the very beginning of Switzerland the Government always counted seven Federal Council § Since the very beginning of Switzerland the Government always counted seven members with equal competences. The chairperson („president“) changes every year. § Art. 174 Federal Council The Federal Council shall be the supreme governing and executive authority of the Confederation. | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

Art. 175 Composition and election 1 The Federal Council shall have seven members. 2 Art. 175 Composition and election 1 The Federal Council shall have seven members. 2 The members of the Federal Council shall be elected by the Federal Assembly following each general election to the National Council. 3 They shall be elected for a term of office of four years from all the Swiss citizens who are eligible for election to the National Council. 4 In electing the Federal Council, care must be taken to ensure that the various geographical and language regions of the country are appropriately represented. | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

The meeting room | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. Ladner@idheap. unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 | The meeting room | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

Two principles § The principle of departements § The principle of collegiality | ©IDHEAP Two principles § The principle of departements § The principle of collegiality | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

| ©IDHEAP – Andreas. Ladner@idheap. unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 | | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |

The elections of the Federal Council http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Swiss_Federal_Council_election | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. The elections of the Federal Council http: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Swiss_Federal_Council_election | ©IDHEAP – Andreas. [email protected] unil. ch | | 18/03/2018 |