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Supporting teachers and children in school: lessons from Wales “Supporting Parents, Children and Teachers: research and practice” Copthorne Hotel, Cardiff 7 th March 2012 Professor Judy Hutchings Centre for Evidence Based Early Intervention Bangor University Email: j. [email protected] ac. uk
Overview of presentation l The IY parent, child and teacher programmes l Child and teacher programme content l Developing the programmes in Wales l l Evaluation and research on the child and teacher programmes in Wales Current school based research in Wales
The Incredible Years Programmes Teacher Programme 6 full day sessions held monthly Child Dinosaur treatment Programme: 6 children, 18 - 22 weekly sessions Infant (eight sessions) 0 - 12 months toddler 1 - 3 year olds (13 sessions) programmes School Readiness Programme: 4 pre-school sessions 2 – 4 years Child Dinosaur Classroom Programme: 3 year curriculum, 2 sessions per week, 30 weeks Pre-School BASIC Parent Programme: 14 -18 weekly sessions, 3 – 6 years School Aged BASIC Parent Programme: 10 - 12 sessions, 6 - 12 years ADVANCED Programme: 9 sessions helping adults communicate & problem solve 3
Components of effective interventions that are in the IY programmes (Hutchings et al 2004) - new skills must be modelled and rehearsed - (non-violent) sanctions for negative behaviour and relationship building, praise and rewards - - practice or ‘homework’ - programmes should emphasise principles rather than prescribe techniques - interventions work best when delivered early
Fidelity in Incredible Years programmes l l l Content – social learning theory Process – collaboration, individual goals, shared problem solving Fidelity tools - training, manuals, supervision, certification etc.
How the IY programmes achieve implementation with fidelity l l l detailed leader manuals videotapes books and materials for parents structured leader training, basic 3 day plus consultation days ongoing supervision a leader certification process a network of trainers and mentors
Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Programme
Goals for the teacher programmme l l Increase positive and nurturing teaching styles Decrease negative or harsh teaching style Promote parent-teacher collaboration Promote supportive school environment - with focus on social-emotional development
• Teacher Programme Content l l l l Building positive relationships with students Building parent-teacher collaborations Increasing parent involvement Importance of teacher attention, encouragement and praise Preventing problems: proactive teaching Decreasing inappropriate behavior Promoting positive social/emotional skills literacy & problem solving in the class
TCM research results • Children in intervention classes had fewer conduct problems and were more ready for school (friendly, follows directions, on task, engaged) than control children. • Intervention teachers were more supportive of student efforts than control teachers • Teachers and parents were satisfied with the programme and that it met their goals for their children’s social development
The Incredible Years Child Dinosaur School social skills and problem solving programmes
Goals for child programme l Decrease aggressive and oppositional behavior when it first starts l Strengthen children’s social competence & self -regulation l Promote children’s academic competence school engagement and school readiness l Develop children’s problem solving skills
Dinosaur Child Programme Content • New Friends and School Rules • Succeeding in School • Understanding Feelings • Problem Solving • Anger Management • Talking with Friends and Being Friendly 13
Dinosaur School Small Group and Classroom Models Small group therapeutic version l 6 children per group (2 leaders) l 2 hours weekly, 20 -22 weeks l High rates of reinforcement, reinforcers, l Circle time and small group practice Classroom universal version l Taught 2 -3 times per week, 60 lessons plans, per year for three years KS 1 l Presented in: 20 -minute large group circle time l Practiced in: 20 -minute small group activities l Promoted in lunch, recess, choice time 14
Dina research outcomes l Improved peer relationships l Greater academic engagement l l More problem solutions and more pro-social problem solutions Reduced behavioural problems
Child and teacher programmes in Wales l l l l 2000 Pilot Dino therapy programme for referred children in NHS 2002 Pilot of teacher and child classroom programmes 2004 Roll out of child and teacher programmes in Gwynedd Positive Estyn feedback 2006 RCT of teacher programme 2009 Pilot Dino treatment in school 2010 RCT Dino treatment in schools
First Therapeutic Small Group Dina evaluation l l l Delivered in CAMHS service 9 children, aged 7 - 11, mean 9 yrs 3 mos. 4 PRU, one excluded, 1 LD special school, 3 mainstream with support 4 ADHD, 3 with medication 82% mean attendance
Results Effect sizes of changes l l l ECBI-I 165. 75 - 13. 38 p <. 05 effect size. 83 SDQ impact score 5. 75 - 2. 13 p <. 01 effect size 1. 91 SCRS 180. 81 - 136. 75 p<. 05 effect size 1. 03
Behaviours most frequently reported as having improved: l Helping with chores l Anger control l Problem solving, compromising, concentration l Friendship skills and listening to, and following, instructions
Parent report l l Child 4’s mother: We go visiting people, he has calmed down a hell of a lot. At one time he’d kick off in anybody’s house. He didn’t care who it was and he’d be touchin all their ornaments, the lot. To be fair now, its not very often he seems to kick off. He seems to be able to behave himself more now. Child 6’s mother: I used to find it hard to take him shopping, you know, the two of them, cos he wanted to go into the shops, he wanted to stay, but now he’ll come out, you know, when I say.
l l Child 7’s mother: We went out for a meal in an Italian restaurant… Three or four people commented on [child’s name] within an hour on how good he had been and isn’t it lovely being able to come out like this and sit and have a meal…We’ve been in a restaurant before and he’s actually jumped on the table, actually, literally jumped onto the middle of a table in a restaurant.
Child 3’s mother: l But his behaviour has changed in such a way, I mean, he’s accepted into school, he’s accepted by everybody else now. He’s not a pain anymore. Because he was really excluded before by everybody…. But he’s noticed people wanna do more with him, adults want to do more with him because he’s behavin’ whereas before it’d be like, God!
Classroom Dina development in Wales Presentation on small group Dina for local Health and Education staff l Two champions emerged from Gwynedd Education service l Classroom Dino training funded for local teachers l Pilot classroom Dino with small scale evaluation l
Initial classroom Dina evaluation l l l Teachers from two schools trained Implementation in one school All school staff introduced to the underpinning classroom management principles Supervision and feedback provided Parent and teacher feedback collected
Reception class data l l l Small sample, at start of school year Not all children had difficulties at outset Significant improvement on parent reported SDQ p<. 05
Parent interviews l Improvements in children’s vocabulary and attitude to school work reported “he seems happier, he’s able to get what he wants to say out – he’s less frustrated”
l l She’s apologising a lot if she does things to upset her brother - on her own now, we don’t have to tell her He counts to three when he is angry and uses his “ignoring” muscle when someone annoys him
School staff interview l l l The kids all know the Dino rules and are more polite to each other All the children are beginning to learn and use the principles I think its becoming a happier school. The atmosphere is changing, the teachers are getting used to praising. It used to be don’t do that! Now that’s ignored and good things are concentrated on. . the kids are taking more responsibility for their own behaviour
Initial trial of TCM programme l l l Head teacher in first Dino school had learned the TCM curriculum from the book and used it with all school staff (canteen staff, playground staf, f etc) whilst implementing the first Dino trial We concluded TCM gave the essential underpinning teacher skills for Dino School and ran two trial TCM courses Pilot TCM study including teacher satisfaction and classroom observation
First teacher pilot 2002 l l l 23 teachers, 22 women, 2 Local Authorities 2 -32 years teaching mean 17 yrs 15 KS 1 (4 - 7 year olds), 2 KS 2 (8 - 11 year olds), 3 heads, 3 special needs 5 days of training, mean 4. 7 attendance, Teacher satisfaction and interview
Teacher Report: Teacher Satisfaction Questionnaire
Teacher responses “It was good to share experiences with other teacher in similar situations – I no longer felt I was alone. I just wish I’d had this course as part of my teacher training!” “I liked the fact that useful strategies were highlighted. The flexibility of the course – in terms of being able to select the strategies that would work better for me was great. ”
“I do not raise my voice half as much as I used to, and give a lot more praise. Rather, I think before reacting, and it is good to focus on good behaviour in the classroom – something that I generally tended to ignore in the past. This had such a positive effect on the children’s behaviour to each other too. ”
“I feel I can engage the children’s attention better. They seem to have more respect for me and other pupils. They love being involved in making up rules, and finding strategies to solve problems. The best course I ever attended!” “It was refreshing to come back to the staff-room after the training, not having to say that the best thing about the course was the lunch! It definitely has been a worthwhile experience for me, and for my pupils, and I am eager for other members of my staff to receive this training. ”
“I am completely transformed! My views on dealing with misbehaviour have changed radically – and for the better – as reflected in my pupils. I have been going on about the course to my staff – and it’s just a shame that some teachers fail to realise the applicability of adopting a new perspective. I think the only way that they would benefit would be if they all had the opportunity of attending the course. ”
Pilot TCM observation study 2004 l l Direct observation in classroom by blind observers 30 minutes, frequency counts of teacher and child behaviour 21 classrooms 10 trained teachers, 11 untrained
Results: pilot study l l l l Trained teachers: Used more direct commands Allowed longer time allowed for compliance Increased teacher praise Children show Reduced non-compliance/increased compliance Increased positive behaviours to both teachers and pupils
Full scale roll out of TCM and Dino in Gwynedd l l l County decision on roll out TCM and Classroom Dino Four volunteer schools per year Part-time secondment of head teacher to do training and supply cover funded By 2005 - 16 schools trained and running classroom Dino programme School inspection results good Project taken to scale with full time secondment of head teacher to train remaining 80 schools over a three year period - completed in 2008
The teacher classroom management RCT study summary of findings l l 12 classrooms 11 schools Observed teacher and child behaviour High, moderate and low risk children identified using the teacher completed Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)
Significant changes in teacher behaviour l l More positives Less negatives More praise Clearer commands
Changes in Pupil Behaviour l l l More on-task behaviour Less non-compliance More compliance Less negative behaviour to teacher Less negative to other children Generally more positive and less negative
Ysgol Abercaseg, Bethesda, Gwynedd School Inspectors report 2006 l Pupils personal and social development is promoted effectively through activities such as Ysgol Dina, circle time and school council. …. This is an outstanding aspect of the provision and it makes a key contribution towards the family ethos generated throughout the school.
l The school has played a prominent role in developing the Webster. Stratton programme. As a result there has been a significant improvement in pupils attitudes towards learning and the overall standard of their behaviour
l The nursery and reception children are completely at ease in class and are able to concentrate for increasing periods as they take part in the various activities. They behave well and complete their work with genuine enthusiasm and understanding. During ‘Ysgol Dina ‘ sessions they relate well to each other and discuss their feelings with ease.
Oldford School, Welshpool, School Inspectors report 2007 l During PSE sessions, with puppets Dina and Wally, children showed exceptional sensitivity to the problems of others and how difficulties might be resolved
Ysgol Bro Lleu (2008) l Pupils’ spiritual, moral, social and cultural development is fostered very effectively by a coherent strategy which incorporates and brings together aspects of the curriculum, personal and social education, circle time, services, the use of the ‘Webster-Stratton’ scheme and procedures for promoting good behaviour and developing emotional intelligence. The strategy ensures that there is progression and balance across the school and the manner in which it is implemented is an outstanding feature of the school.
Gwynedd (2008) l The local authority has adopted the Webster-Stratton programme in all its primary schools to target poor behaviour. . . As a results, incidences of challenging behaviour in primary schools have reduced
Latest development: school based small group Dina programme l Additional academic skill coaching for high-risk children may not be effective without basic social and emotional competencies l Many schools in North Wales have teachers trained in IY TCM and deliver the IY Classroom Dina Curriculum l Would an additional dose of the Dino curriculum delivered in the small group therapeutic format help them?
The Bro Lleu trial l l The idea was piloted in one school Teachers and classroom support staff trained to deliver it Trial of 10 sessions Results showed children in cause for concern range benefited Gwynedd partnered with us to get funds for a larger RCT
Current Dina trial l l l £ 400 k from Lottery grant 22 schools, three counties trained teachers and classroom support staff, supply cover funded 225 KS 1 children identified by teacher SDQ as ‘cause for concern’ Randomly allocated 1: 1 to intervention or W/L control All materials and supervision Trial is ongoing but enthusiasm from teachers
Research measures l l l Demographics (child and teacher) Parent report on child behaviour and own mental wellbeing Teacher report on child behaviour, academic attainment and teacher stress Child problem solving test Classroom observation Peer interaction observation
Preliminary feedback - Phase 1 schools l Good partnership between researchers, seconded teacher and schools l Teachers prepared well for sessions l Set individual goals for children l Reinforce the work in the classroom l Praised children for effort l Children were solving problems on yard and could explain how they succeeded l Support for children who had difficulties with home activities for various reasons
Current situation l l l 13 phase 2 schools now delivering 150 participants in phase 2 (79 in phase 1 in 9 schools) Project protocol published Final data collection June – August 2012 Project funded to June 2013 Results out over the coming year
l Taking parenting into school to strengthen home-school links
Delivering the School Readiness parent programme in Schools l l A four session parent programme to prepare children for school and build home-school links Two sessions on play, two on promoting children’s interest in books School staff delivering it to parents of newly enrolled pupils, we are evaluating it with a Ph. D student Positive response from schools, results due later this year
Other projects in the pipeline l l l MRes to do further work on a sensitive scoring scheme for the Schedule of Growing Skills MREs to evaluate early implementation of the Ki. Va antibullying programme Ph. D funded for PREPARE a web based parenting programme to develop children’s school readiness
l l Application for funding for a development officer to work with local Authorities in delivering evidence based programmmes effectively A grant application with Oxford and Cape Town Universities to develop and evealuate a programmme for carers of vulnerable children including HIV orphans
Conclusions l l l The IY parent programmes have been taken up across Wales and the UK, The child and teacher programmes less well developed in UK but Wales is taking the lead It is important to establish that these programmes work here Teacher, parent and child responses are enthusiastic Estyn reports are positive Good quality research trials in Wales show that child and teacher behaviour improves
Thank you j. [email protected] ac. uk