Supernationalism n Why Do States Cooperate with Each

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Supernationalism n Why Do States Cooperate with Each Other? n Future of world’s sovereign Supernationalism n Why Do States Cooperate with Each Other? n Future of world’s sovereign states challenged by globalization n States are willingly transferring authority to regional organizations n Established primarily through economic cooperation

Supranationalism n Definition n Growing trend to organize political and economic affairs at the Supranationalism n Definition n Growing trend to organize political and economic affairs at the international level rather than national level n n Refer to entities in which three or more countries form an alliance for cultural, economic, or military reasons. Created so that states can collectively reach a common goal they may not be able to reach independently n Issues n If a country threatens other states, supranational organizations may impose sanctions n Punishments in the form of economic and/or diplomatic limits n n Example: Iraq Growth of Supranational alliances challenges conceptions of state sovereignty n Often must give up some powers n Example: European Union n Countries were reluctant to give up their currencies and covert to the Euro

Political and Military Cooperation n International and regional organizations were established primarily to prevent Political and Military Cooperation n International and regional organizations were established primarily to prevent a third world war in the twentieth century and protect countries from a foreign attack n Some examples: n n n n League of Nations (post WWI) United Nations Warsaw Pact NATO ASEAN European Union African Union

United Nations n Created at the end of WWII by Allies n n n United Nations n Created at the end of WWII by Allies n n n Three major increases n Comprised 49 states in 1945 By 2007 had 192 members n n n 1955: liberated European countries 1960: 17 new countries from Africa 1990 s: 26 former communist countries and microstates Today more than 200 member states n Most extensive supranational organization ever established

United Nations n Members can vote to establish a peace-keeping force n n n United Nations n Members can vote to establish a peace-keeping force n n n UN often lacks enough troops to maintain peace Any one of 5 members of permanent security council can veto peace operations Tries to maintain neutrality n Can request states to contribute military forces Plays an important part in trying to separate warring groups in Eastern Europe, Middle East, and sub-Saharan Africa n n Difficult in many cases n n Bosnia and Herzegovina Despite shortcomings represents a forum where all states can meet and vote on issues without resorting to war

Regional Military Alliances n In addition to joining the United Nations, many states joined Regional Military Alliances n In addition to joining the United Nations, many states joined military regional alliances after WWII n n Led to emergence of two superpowers U. S. and U. S. S. R. Era of Two Superpowers n n Both U. S. and U. S. S. R. deployed forces into different regions of the world Balance of power n Roughly equal strength between opposing alliances n Both demonstrated they would use military power if needed n U. S. S. R. n n Hungary, Czechoslovakia U. S. n Dominican Republic, Grenada Panama

Military Cooperation in Europe n Post WWII most European States joined one of two Military Cooperation in Europe n Post WWII most European States joined one of two military alliances n NATO n n n Designed to maintain a bipolar balance in Europe Agreement between 16 states Prevent Soviet Union from overrunning West Germany and other smaller countries Expanded to include former Communist countries Warsaw Pact n n Military agreement among Communist Eastern European to defend each other 7 members in 1955 Provided Soviet Union with a buffer of allied states between it and Germany disbanded

Regional Organizations n Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) n n Includes Regional Organizations n Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) n n Includes U. S. , Canada, and Russia Plays limited role 35 states in Western Hemisphere n n Cuba was a member, suspended 1962 Promotes social, cultural, political, and economic links among member states 53 Countries Established in 2002 Replaced Organization of African Unity (1963) n n Especially in Caucasus and Balkans Organization of American States (OAS) n n Forum for countries concerned with conflicts n n n Founded in 1975 n Africa Union (AU) n 56 members n n n New organization has placed more emphasis on promoting economic integration in Africa n n Founded to seek an end to Colonialism and apartheid in Africa China’s involvement? Commonwealth n n UK and 52 once British colonies Economic and cultural cooperation

Economic Cooperation n Economic power is becoming more important than military power n n Economic Cooperation n Economic power is becoming more important than military power n n n China, Japan and Germany superpowers Russia has slipped in strength Leading superpower not US or Russia but the EU led by Germany n Economic supranationalism n the integration of three of more states for achieving collective economic goals n Example: European Union

European Union Formerly known as: n n Became European Union in 1992 Once more European Union Formerly known as: n n Became European Union in 1992 Once more states joined Established in 1958 n n Main goal is to promote development within the member states through economic cooperation Also called Common Market European Community n n A European parliament is elected by the people in each of the member states simultaneously European Economic Community (1958) n n n Included: Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany Designed to heal scars of WWII n Had economic, political, cultural, and judicial integration goals n n The Euro Might become a military alliance as well in future

Members of EU n Members n Original countries n n Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Members of EU n Members n Original countries n n Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, West Germany 1980 s- 12 countries 21 st century- 27 countries New member states n n Croatia is expected to become the 28 th member state of the EU on 1 July 2013 There are five candidate countries: Iceland, Macedonia, Montenegro Serbia and Turkey.

New World Order n During Cold War, world divided into pro-communist and anti-communist n New World Order n During Cold War, world divided into pro-communist and anti-communist n n Economically n Many superpowers dominate the market n World power was balanced in such a bi-polar world n n n Geopolitical transition has occurred since fall of Soviet Union n United States European Union China Militarily n United States maintains superpower status n Increasingly challenged by terrorism and other types of warfar

WHY HAS TERRORISM INCREASED? WHY HAS TERRORISM INCREASED?

Terrorism by individuals or organizations n Terrorism is the systematic use of violence by Terrorism by individuals or organizations n Terrorism is the systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demands n Terrorists attempt to achieve their objectives through organized acts that spread fear and anxiety throughout the population n Terrorists consider violence necessary as a means of bringing widespread publicity to goals

Terrorism by Individuals and Organizations n Term terror first used during French Revolution 1793 Terrorism by Individuals and Organizations n Term terror first used during French Revolution 1793 n Today Terrorism used to describe actions of groups operating outside government n Distinguishing terrorism from other acts of violence sometimes difficult

Terrorism against Americans n 1988: Pan Am Flight 103 n n n Lockerbie, Scotland Terrorism against Americans n 1988: Pan Am Flight 103 n n n Lockerbie, Scotland Killed 259 aboard, plus 11 on the ground 1993: World Trade Center n n 1996: Saudi Arabia n n n Car bomb Damaged building Killed 6, injured 1, 000 1995: Oklahoma City n n 1998: US Embassies n n Car bomb Killed 168 people in Federal Building Both Kenya and Tanzania Bombed Killed 190, wounded 5, 000 2000: USS Cole n n n Truck bomb killed 19 US Soldiers, injured more than 100 Targeted American apartment complex Bombed while in Yemen Killed 17 US Servicemen Others n Ted Kaczynski – the unabomber n Killed 3 people, injuring 23 others

Pan Am Flight 103 Pan Am Flight 103

World Trade Center 1993 World Trade Center 1993

Oklahoma City 1995 Oklahoma City 1995

1996 Saudi Arabia 1996 Saudi Arabia

1998: US Embassies 1998: US Embassies

2000 USS Cole 2000 USS Cole

September 11, 2001 n WTC and Pentagon attacked n Over 3, 000 died n September 11, 2001 n WTC and Pentagon attacked n Over 3, 000 died n n n 93 on American Airlines Flight 11 65 on United Airlines Flight 175 2, 605 at the WTC 64 on American Airlines Flight 77 125 at the Pentagon 44 on United Airlines Flight 93

Al-Qaeda n Responsible for most attacks in 1990 s, as well as Sept. 11 Al-Qaeda n Responsible for most attacks in 1990 s, as well as Sept. 11 n Founded by Osama bin Laden n n Moved to Sudan but was expelled for attacks against American in 1994 n Issued a declaration of war against US in 1996 because of US support of Israel and supporting Saudi Arabian monarchy n Issued a fatwa (religious decree) arguing the Muslims had a duty to wage a Holy War against the U. S. Moved to Afghanistan in 1980’s to support fight against Soviet Union n Saudi billionaire n Called the fight a jihad Recruited Muslim militants Returned to Saudi Arabia after war ended, but was expelled

Al-Qaeda n Means “foundation” n Created in 1990 to unite jihad fighters n n Al-Qaeda n Means “foundation” n Created in 1990 to unite jihad fighters n n Membership around 20, 000 n n n Located in 34 countries n n Several “cells” Most live in ordinary society, called sleepers Implicated in several bombings Not a single unified organization n n Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Britain, Egypt, Jordan Number unknown Use religion to justify attacks

Al-Qaeda cells n Cells n n n Spain Kenya Jemmah Isamiyah n n n Al-Qaeda cells n Cells n n n Spain Kenya Jemmah Isamiyah n n n Southeast Asia Concentrated in Indonesia Several bombings n n Oct 12, 2002 - killed 202 Aug 5, 2003 - killed 12 Sept 9, 2004 - killed 11 Oct 1, 2005 - killed 23

State Support for Terrorism n Several Middle East states have supported terrorism in recent State Support for Terrorism n Several Middle East states have supported terrorism in recent years by: n n n Provide sanctuary for terrorists wanted by other countries Supply weapons, money, and intelligence to other terrorists Plan attacks using terrorists n Libya n Accused of sponsoring terrorists in 1986 bombing of Germany nightclub n n n US relations poor with Libya since 1981 U. S. responded with air strikes in Tripoli and Benghazi Libyan agents planted bombs on Pan Am Flight 170 in 1988 as well as on UTA Flight 772 UN Sanctions followed Libya “renounced” terrorism in 2003

Afghanistan n Civil war began in 1973 when king was overthrown n Removal of Afghanistan n Civil war began in 1973 when king was overthrown n Removal of Taliban unleashed new struggle for control of Afghanistan n n 5 years later a bloody coup was led by Soviet Union n n Sent in 115, 000 troops into Afghanistan in 1979 to quell the Muslim fundamentalists rebellion Soviet Union withdrew in 1989 and the Soviet-backed government fell by 1992 n Taliban gained control over most of the country n 6 years of Taliban rule came to an end in 2001 following US invasion n n Went after terrorists Taliban harbored bin Laden Taliban were able to regroup

Iraq n Saddam became president in 1979 n Iraq is divided into 150 tribes Iraq n Saddam became president in 1979 n Iraq is divided into 150 tribes n n Iran-Iraq war 1980, ended in stalemate in 1988 n n 1988 Hussein gassed Iraqi Kurds 1990 Hussein invaded Kuwait n Led to Operation Desert Storm (U. S. led) n Allowed to stay in power as long as he disabled weapons program n U. S. linked Saddam to Al-Qaeda n n U. S. invaded in 2003 Changed to a focus on a new regime change after no WMDs found Most Iraqis have loyalty to tribes not government n n Ethnic groups split into regions Sunni vs Shiite war

Iran n Hostile with U. S. since 1979 revolution n n The pro-US shah Iran n Hostile with U. S. since 1979 revolution n n The pro-US shah was overthrown Ayatollah Khomeini proclaimed Iran an Islamic Republic Rewrote constitution of Iran Today US worried about: n n Iran harboring and aiding terrorists Building nuclear weapons

Pakistan n Created after Partition in 1947 n War of Terror has spilled into Pakistan n Created after Partition in 1947 n War of Terror has spilled into Pakistan n Pakistan is multi-ethnic state n n Overwhelmingly Muslim Taliban controls border with Afghanistan n n Rugged, mountainous area Hid bin Laden in Pakistan




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