‘ Style’ or ‘stylistics’ Different situations

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‘ Style’ or ‘stylistics’ ‘ Style’ or ‘stylistics’

Different situations  of communication Different manners  of expressing the thoughts Different functional styles Different situations of communication Different manners of expressing the thoughts Different functional styles

stylistics stylistics

Linguistics Functional styles Expressive means  and devices  of language Linguistics Functional styles Expressive means and devices of language

Michail Lomonosov 18 th  century Lofty style and low style of speech Michail Lomonosov 18 th century Lofty style and low style of speech

Stylistics Middle 20 th  century Singled out Stylistics Middle 20 th century Singled out

V. V. Vinigradov The colloquial style aim of communicating The official  and scientific styles aimV. V. Vinigradov The colloquial style aim of communicating The official and scientific styles aim of informing The publicist and belle-letters styles Emotional impactaim of

communication direct indirect The colloquial style official scientific publicist communication direct indirect The colloquial style official scientific publicist

Particular relations  between  the interlocutors Particular attitude  of the speaker  to whatParticular relations between the interlocutors Particular attitude of the speaker to what he says. Choice of style depends on Informal style Emotionally colored ‘ cold’ style neutral. Two types of Stylistic information

Emotionally colored speech lofty Solemn Passionate Ironic Wrathful Sarcastic low Humorous Derogatory Rude Disapproving Endearing Emotionally colored speech lofty Solemn Passionate Ironic Wrathful Sarcastic low Humorous Derogatory Rude Disapproving Endearing

Stylistic differences. Language means phonetic lexical grammatical Stylistic differences. Language means phonetic lexical grammatical

English vocabulary bookish colloquial neutral child kid Infant offspring English vocabulary bookish colloquial neutral child kid Infant offspring

bookish neutral colloquial ancestor Retire, withdraw Proceed commence father Leave, go away Continue start daddy Getbookish neutral colloquial ancestor Retire, withdraw Proceed commence father Leave, go away Continue start daddy Get away, get lost go on Come on!, get started 1) daddy, ancestor, father 2) Get away, retire, leave, get lost, withdraw, go away 3) continue, proceed, go on 4) commence, start, Come on!, get started

Neutral words Denotational meaning bookish colloquial have Connotations (additional meaning)  Neutral words Denotational meaning bookish colloquial have Connotations (additional meaning)

connotation Humorous: Derogatory: ( непочтительный ) An endearing: ( ласкательный ) Rude: Ironical: Beak ( =nose),connotation Humorous: Derogatory: ( непочтительный ) An endearing: ( ласкательный ) Rude: Ironical: Beak ( =nose), Shut up, mummy, Brain-wash, to kick the bucket, Rot, shut your trap, trash, Daddy, stuff

C O N N O T A T I O N An endearing: Derogatory: Humorous: Rude:C O N N O T A T I O N An endearing: Derogatory: Humorous: Rude: Ironical: Beak ( =nose), to kick the bucket Rot, trash, stuff (=silly) Daddy, mummy Shut up, shut your trap Brain-wash, a pretty kettle of fish

Stylistically colored words Good Bad Ugly Beautiful etc.  Stylistically colored words Good Bad Ugly Beautiful etc.

English Standard Non-Standard Fixed in written language, TV speech, radio, etc dialects varieties Used on theEnglish Standard Non-Standard Fixed in written language, TV speech, radio, etc dialects varieties Used on the territory of GB The English language of the USA, Canada, Australia, etc.

dialects Northern  + Scottish dialect Southern +’cockney’ dialects Northern + Scottish dialect Southern +’cockney’

Scottish dialect The Gaelic language The Scottish Ex. : Bairn (=child)    auld (=old)Scottish dialect The Gaelic language The Scottish Ex. : Bairn (=child) auld (=old) Haggis (=pudding) loch (=lake) House [hu: s] down [du: n] Stone [stain] bone [bain] Dance [daens] last [laest] Hear [ia] heart [a: t]

American English British English fall can mail vacation sick candy gotten cent er autumn tin postAmerican English British English fall can mail vacation sick candy gotten cent er autumn tin post holiday ill sweets got cent re

English vocabulary archaic poetic historisms neologisms barbarisms Hark! (=Listen) thou (=you) Behold! (=Look)  whilst (=while)English vocabulary archaic poetic historisms neologisms barbarisms Hark! (=Listen) thou (=you) Behold! (=Look) whilst (=while) Woe (=sorrow) realm (=kingdom) Knight, archer, ram ( таран) Городничий, бояре Computer, isotope, astronaut Alter ego, status quo, de facto