- Количество слайдов: 98
SPEED LIMIT WORKSHOP PRESENTED BY CALTRANS AND CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL
WORKSHOP PRESENTERS o ROBERTA Mc. LAUGHLIN, PE, TE, PTOE n n n CALTRANS DIVISION OF TRAFFIC OPERATIONS OFFICE OF SIGNS AND MARKINGS o SERGEANT KEVIN DAVIS n n CALIFORNIA HIGHWAY PATROL PLANNING AND ANALYSIS DIVISION
WORKSHOP PROTOCOL o PUT PHONES ON SILENT MODE o STAY FOCUSED o PROVIDE INPUT, BUT AVOID LONG PERSONAL EXPERIENCES o USE INDEX CARDS FOR QUESTIONS TO ADDRESS AT END OF SESSION o LOCATION OF RESTROOMS o NO FOOD OR DRINK IN AUDITORIUM
AUDIENCE (BY SHOW OF HANDS) o CALTRANS HQ’S o CALTRANS DISTRICT o PUBLIC AGENCY TRAFFIC DEPARTMENT o PUBLIC AGENCY (NOT TRAFFIC). . . THERE’S MORE ON NEXT SLIDE
AUDIENCE (CONT’D) o LAW ENFORCEMENT o COURT OFFICIALS o ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS o ATTORNEYS o ANYONE NOT LISTED ABOVE
GREETINGS FROM CALTRANS HQ & HOST DISTRICT o ROBERT COPP, HQ n DIVISION CHIEF, TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DIVISION o CHARLES GRAY n SR TRANS ENGR, DISTRICT 11 OFFICE OF TRAFFIC OPERATIONS
PURPOSE OF WORKSHOP • WHY • HOW • WHO • WHEN • WHERE
TODAY’S TOPICS o SPEED LIMIT HISTORY o JULY 1, 2009 CHANGES o CALIFORNIA TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES COMMITTEE (CTCDC) o CALIFORNIA VEHICLE CODE (CVC) o CALIFORNIA MANUAL ON UNIFORM TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES (CA MUTCD)
TODAY’S TOPICS (CONT’D) o ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC SURVEYS (E&TS) o SPEED ENFORCEMENT o COURT’S REVIEW OF SPEEDING CITATIONS o INFORMATION SHARING o ANSWER YOUR QUESTIONS o RESOURCES FOR FUTURE REFERENCE
NOT ON TODAY’S AGENDA o DEBATING WHAT HAS ALREADY BEEN DISCUSSED WITH CTCDC o SIGN DETAILS AND LOCATIONS o ROADWAY CHANGES TO SLOW DOWN VEHICLES
BRIEF HISTORY OF SPEED LIMITS IN CALIFORNIA o EARLY DAYS OF SETTING SPEED LIMITS o WHY 85 TH PERCENTILE? o CALTRANS TRAFFIC MANUAL o FEDERAL HIGHWAYS MUTCD o CALIFORNIA MUTCD o CTCDC
EARLY DAYS OF SETTING SPEED LIMITS o 1901, CONNECTICUT n 8 MPH IN CITIES o 1926, UNIFORM VEHICLE CODE n FIRST PUBLISHED REQUIRED MOTORISTS TO DRIVE AT SPEEDS “REASONABLE AND PRUDENT” o 1941 COMMITTEE ON SPEED REGULATION n RECOMMENDED 80 TO 90 TH PERCENTILE
WHY 85 TH PERCENTILE? o ANALYTICAL SUPPORT FROM THESE STUDIES: n n n 1964 SOLOMON 1968 CIRILLO RTI 1970 o REPRESENTS UPPER BOUND OF THE PREFERRED DRIVING SPEED o CORRESPONDS TO UPPER BOUND OF SPEED RANGES WHERE CRASH RATES ARE LOWEST
DATA ANALYSIS • • • > 1 SD from Mean
CALTRANS TRAFFIC MANUAL o SUPERCEDED IN MAY 2004 WITH MUTCD AND CALIFORNIA SUPPLEMENT http: //www. dot. ca. gov/hq/traffops/signtech/ signdel/trafficmanual. htm
FEDERAL MANUAL ON UNIFORM TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES The 2003 Edition of the MUTCD with Revisions Number 1 and 2 Incorporated, dated December 2007, is available in both PDF and HTML. http: //mutcd. fhwa. dot. gov/kno_2003 r 1 r 2. htm
CALIFORNIA MANUAL ON UNIFORM TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES o. CA MUTCD http: //www. dot. ca. gov/hq/traffops/signtech/mutcdsupp/index. htm
CALIFORNIA TRAFFIC CONTROL DEVICES COMMITTEE o. CTCDC “This committee is the vehicle by which the Department fulfills its obligation to consult with local agencies and the public, before adopting rules and regulations prescribing uniform standards and specifications for all official traffic control devices used in California. ” http: //www. dot. ca. gov/hq/traffops/signtech/newtech/
MAKING CHANGES TO THE CA MUTCD o FEDERAL CHANGES o LEGISLATIVE CHANGES o CHANGES IN CVC o REQUESTS FROM OTHERS
MAKING CHANGES TO THE CA MUTCD o STAFF PREPARES PROPOSED CHANGES TO TEXT AND AGENDA ITEM FOR CTCDC o CTCDC HOLDS PUBLIC MEETING n SCHEDULED THREE TIMES A YEAR o CALTRANS CONCURRENCE o TRAFFIC OPERATIONS POLICY DIRECTIVE (TOPD)
WHY DID SECTION 2 B. 13 NEED CHANGING?
SPEED LIMIT CONCERNS o PROPOSED SB 848 (2007) CORBETT n CHANGES TO E&TS PROCESS n ROUND DOWN BELOW 85 TH PERCENTILE n ELIMINATE E&TS FOR “SPEED TRAP” o SPEED LIMITS CREEPING UPWARD o APPLYING 5 MPH REDUCTION o POLITICAL PRESSURE TO LOWER SPEED LIMITS
BACKGROUND INFORMATION o 1996 TRAFFIC MANUAL The speed limit normally should be established at the first five mile per hour (mph) increment below the 85 th percentile speed. However, in matching existing conditions with the traffic safety needs of the community, engineering judgment may indicate the need for a further reduction of five mph.
o MUTCD 2003 Guidance: When a speed limit is to be posted, it should be within 10 km/h or 5 mph of the 85 th percentile speed of free-flowing traffic.
o 2004 CALIFORNIA SUPPLEMENT Guidance: When a speed limit is to be posted, it should be established at the nearest 10 km/h or 5 mph increment of the 85 th percentile speed of free-flowing traffic.
o 2004 CALIFORNIA SUPPLEMENT The posted speed may be reduced by 10 km/h (5 mph) from the nearest 10 km/h or 5 mph increment of the 85 th percentile speed, where engineering study indicates the need for a reduction in speed to match existing conditions with the traffic safety needs of the community.
CHANGES TO 2006 CA MUTCD (TOPD 09 -04) The speed limit shall be established at the nearest 5 mph increment of the 85 th percentile. If the 5 mph reduction is applied, the E&TS shall document in writing the conditions and justification for the reduced speed limit and be approved by a registered Civil or Traffic Engineer.
SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION OVER LAST TWO YEARS o SEVERAL MEETINGS WITH CTCDC o LOTS OF LETTERS AND E-MAILS o SUBCOMMITTEE MEETINGS n n n WITHIN 5 MPH vs NEAREST 5 MPH APPLYING 5 MPH REDUCTION p DOCUMENTATION OF JUSTIFICATION 50 TH PERCENTILE p “HARD FLOOR” vs “SOFT FLOOR”
SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION (CONT’D) o 3/19/09 -- SPECIAL HEARING WITH DIRECTOR KEMPTON AND COMMISSIONER FARROW o 5/15/09 -- DIRECTOR KEMPTON ISSUES DECISION o 7/1/09 -- TOPD 09 -04 ISSUED
TRAFFIC OPERATIONS POLICY DIRECTIVE 09 -04 o FIND IT AT THIS WEBSITE http: //www. dot. ca. gov/hq/traffops/signtech/ o CHANGES TO CA MUTCD n n n “should be within” 5 mph to “shall be to the nearest” 5 mph reduction approved by CE or TE Document reasons for 5 mph reduction
QUESTIONS? o ABOUT THE MATERIAL SO FAR o ABOUT THE PROCESS FOR CHANGING CA MUTCD o WHERE TO GO FOR MORE INFO
CALIFORNIA VEHICLE CODES FOR SPEED LIMITS o SECTION 627 “ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC SURVEY” o SECTIONS 22348 -22366 GENERAL SPEED LAWS o SECTIONS 40801 to 40805 OTHER SPEED LAWS o SECTION 40802 “SPEED TRAP”
CVC and CA MUTCD COMPARISION o CVC n n NEED FOR E&TS DELEGATES E&TS PROCEDURES TO THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SPEED LIMITS SET BY LEGISLATION USED FOR CITATIONS
CVC 627 “ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC SURVEY” 1. PREVAILING SPEEDS* 2. ACCIDENT RECORDS 3. HIGHWAY, TRAFFIC AND ROADSIDE CONDITIONS NOT READILY APPARENT TO THE DRIVER *NO SPECIFIC MENTION OF 85 TH %TILE
CVC 22358. 5 “…PHYSICAL CONDITIONS SUCH AS WIDTH, CURVATURE, GRADE AND SURFACE CONDITIONS OR ANY OTHER CONDITION READILY APPARENT TO THE DRIVER, WOULD NOT REQUIRE SPECIAL DOWNWARD SPEED ZONING. ”
CVC and CA MUTCD COMPARISION o CA MUTCD n n CRITERIA FOR SELECTING VALUE OF SPEED LIMIT E&TS ELEMENTS p SAMPLE FORMS p REPORT FORMAT n n n SIGNS TO USE NATIONAL STANDARDS CALIFORNIA MODIFICATIONS
85 TH PERCENTILE SPEED o FOUNDATION FOR SETTING APPROPRIATE SPEED LIMITS o EXCEPTED PRACTICE FOR MANY YEARS o BASED ON STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
DATA ANALYSIS • • • > 1 SD from Mean
10 MPH PACE
EXERCISE o LET’S LOOK AT HANDOUT OF 2006 CA MUTCD: PAGES 2 B-7, 8, 9 & 10 E&TS PROCEDURES PAGES 2 B-86, 87, 88, 89 SAMPLE CHARTS
TIME FOR A BREAK
ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC SURVEY PROCEDURES o RENEWAL TIME PERIODS o COLLECTING DATA o WRITING REPORT o DISTRIBUTION OF REPORT
E&TS RENEWAL PERIOD o 5 YEARS o 7 YEARS o 10 YEARS
COLLECTING DATA o RADAR EQUIPMENT o LOCATION o CONDITIONS o SIZE OF SAMPLE
WRITING REPORT o FORMAT o GRAPHICS o SIGNATURES
DISTRIBUTION OF E&TS o ENGINEER’S OFFICE FILE o LOCAL COURT SYSTEM o LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCY
ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC SURVEY o SIGNED AND APPROVED BY REGISTERED ENGINEER (CIVIL OR TRAFFIC) o DOCUMENT REASONS FOR USING 5 MPH REDUCTION
REVIEW DATA FOR ONE YEAR o EXISTING POSTED SPEED LIMIT o 85 TH PERCENTILE SPEED o 50 TH PERCENTILE SPEED o NEW SPEED LIMIT o ACCIDENT HISTORY BEFORE AND AFTER
SPEED LIMIT ENFORCEMENT
California Highway Patrol Enforcement of Speed Limits Lieutenant Dana Sampson Sergeant Kevin Davis
Effective Speed Management Engineering n Enforcement n Education n
Why is enforcement so important? People are more likely to be injured or killed in a traffic collision than as a result of a crime. n Almost 1/3 of collisions are speed related. n 53, 132 injury related and 620 fatal collisions caused by speeding in CA in 2007 (SWITRS). n
Why is enforcement so important ? Deterrence - Enforcement is critical to ensure compliance and change behavior. n Specific – Direct contact with violators. n General - Visual presence / deterrence. According to NHTSA, more than half of all traffic stops result from speeding violations.
Why is speed enforcement so important ? Leads to other types of criminal apprehension: n Drugs – In 2006, 41 percent of all narcotic seizures by the CHP originated with a speed stop. n DUI – In 2006, speeding was a factor in approximately 25 percent of DUI injury collisions.
Enforcement Strategies n Establishment of rational limits n Public Education n Strict Enforcement for noncompliance
Types of Speed Enforcement Pacing (speedometer) n Radar / Lidar Automated (illegal in CA 21455. 6 VC) n Aerial n n
Advantages of Lidar and Radar Highly Accurate. n Officer safety - eliminates need for pacing / following a speeding violator. n Effectiveness – Can be utilized on roads with limited opportunities for conventional enforcement. n
Types of Speed Limits Maximum Prima Facie n n
Maximum Speed Limits 22349(a) VC – 65 mph on any highway. * ETS not needed to enforce maximum speed limits.
Maximum Speed Limits n n 22349(b) VC – 55 mph on 2 -lane undivided highway. 22406 VC – 55 mph for specified commercial vehicles. • 3 or more axles, or towing another vehicle, school bus, etc. 22356 (b) – 70 mph on specified freeways. * ETS not needed to enforce maximum speed limits. n
Prima Facie Speed Limits “On the face of it. ” n Posted speed limits which are reasonable and prudent under normal conditions. n 22350 VC, Unsafe speed for conditions. n
Prima Facie Speed Limits Must be supported by ETS when radar or lidar is used. Exceptions: School Zones n Construction Zones n‘Local Streets and Roads’ n • http: //www. dot. ca. gov/hq/tsip/hseb/crs_maps/
Speed Trap Law History n 1923 - Section 155, California Vehicle Act. n 1950 s – Police radar technology developed. n Legislature later enacted laws restricting use of radar. n Today - Section 40802 VC.
Speed Trap Law CVC Section 40802 Speed Trap is either of following: Time / distance Prima facie speed limit not justified by ETS (when radar or lidar is used) n n
Speed Trap Law CVC Section 40802 Roadway must be surveyed every 5, 7, or 10 years n 7 years if… • Officer POST certified (24 hour radar course / 2 hour lidar). • Radar / lidar conforms to NHTSA standards (CPL). • Independent equipment calibration within 3 years (IACP Certification). n 10 years if engineer certifies no significant changes in roadway or traffic conditions.
Speed Trap Law CVC Section 40802 NHTSA Standards – Radar and Lidar n n IACP Conforming Products List (CPL) – www. theiacp. org Police. Services – Executive. Services – Professional. Assistance – Radar. Lidar. Testingand. CPLs Independent Certification every 3 years – provided by IACP
Speed Trap Law Section 40803 VC No evidence as to the speed of a vehicle…shall be admitted in any court…when based upon or obtained by…a speed trap.
Why is valid ETS important for enforcement ? People v. Goulet (13 Cal. App. 4 th) 1992 n Speed traps bring disrespect to law enforcement and the courts…if prima facie speed limit is set without being justified by ETS…it cannot be enforced by any means involving the use of radar.
Why is valid ETS important for enforcement ? One common example… People v. Perez, Orange County 2005 n Defendant - 53 mph on lidar n Posted speed limit - 35 mph n 85 th Percentile – 44. 2 mph n Case dismissed !
Final Thoughts Effective speed management requires a collaborative effort among all stakeholders: n Engineers n Law enforcement n Judiciary
TIME FOR A BREAK
PROBLEMS WITH E&TS IN COURTS o EXPIRED AND NOT RENEWED WITHIN 5, 7 OR 10 YEAR PERIOD o NO JUSTIFICATION FOR SPEED LIMIT “WAY BELOW” THE 85 TH PERCENTILE
SPECIAL SPEED ZONES o SCHOOL ZONES o TRUCK SPEED ZONES o CONSTRUCTION ZONES o VARIABLE SPEED LIMITS
SPEED LIMITS IN SCHOOL ZONES
SCHOOL ZONE SPEED LIMITS o CA MUTCD n n n Section 7 B. 11 School Speed Limit Assembly Section 7 B. 12 Reduced Speed School Zone Ahead Sign Section 7 B. 13 End School Zone Sign
SCHOOL ZONE SPEED LIMITS o CALIFORNIA VEHICLE CODE n CVC 22352 – 25 mph p “SCHOOL” warning sign, up to 500 ft away p During school hours p If no fence or physical barrier, while in use by children, posted with “SCHOOL” sign o No E&TS required p Prima facie speed limit
SCHOOL ZONE SPEED LIMITS o Assembly Bill 321 (October 2007) n Expands 25 mph zone to 1000 ft n Allows 15 mph within 500 ft of school n TOPD 08 -06 Sets up trial period (9/08 to 9/10) o Modified CVC 22358. 4 – 15 mph and 25 mph n Local ordinance or resolution needed n In residential district n Maximum of two lanes n Maximum speed limit of 30 mph on each side of school zone
TRUCK SPEED LIMITS
TRUCK SPEED LIMITS o CVC 22406 – n Maximum speed limit of 55 mph p. Vehicles towing anything p. School bus p. Farm labor vehicle p. Transporting explosives p 3 or more axles p. Trailer bus
TRUCK SPEED LIMITS ON DESCENDING GRADES o CA MUTCD Section 2 B. 13 n n n History of runaway commercial vehicles Descending grades longer than 1 mile Provide physical profile showing length and gradient Downhill speed profile for 3+ axle vehicles with gross rating of 10, 000 lbs Analysis of truck collisions Posted speed on low side of pace
CONSTRUCTION ZONES o No E&TS required for radar enforcement o CVC 22362 n n Speed reduction only during working hours Signs covered or removed when no work going on o CVC 21367 n n Speed reduction in place 24 hours a day Recommend only 10 mph reduction
CONSTRUCTION ZONES o CA MUTCD Section 6 F. 104(CA) for Road Work/Speed Zone o DISCUSSION AT CTCDC MEETING 9/24/09 San Jose
VARIABLE SPEED LIMITS o IN CVC 22355 o PRACTICE IS NEW TO CALIFORNIA o CAN BE USED ON FREEWAYS o NEEDS TO IMPROVE ORDERLY MOVEMENT AND SAFETY o ISSUES STILL BE SORTED OUT ON I 80 CORRIDOR NEAR BERKELEY
SPEED LIMIT CHANGES CAN AFFECT. . . o Yellow light change interval o Length of passing zones on two-lane highways o Signal progression on arterial networks
YELLOW LIGHT CHANGE INTERVAL o Posted speed limit o 85 th percentile surveyed speed o Posted speed limit plus 5 or 10 mph o Review location of vehicle detectors (See CA MUTCD Section 4 D. 10)
LENGTH OF PASSING ZONE
PASSING ZONES o CA MUTCD n n Table 3 B-1 Section 3 B. 02
RESOURCES AND REFERENCES o FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION o INSTITUTE OF TRANSPORTATION ENIGNEERS o OTHER STATE’S DOT o CASE LAW o NATIONAL MOTORISTS ASSOCIATION www. motorists. org
REFERENCES Transportation Research Board -1998 Committee for Guidance on Setting and Enforcing Speed limits http: //onlinepubs. trb. org/onlinepubs/sr/sr 254. pdf
REFERENCES Automobile Club of Southern California 1998 Public Information Pamphlet (currently out of print, available on-line) www. dot. ca. gov/dist 05/traffic/Realistic-Speed-Zoning. pdf
REFERENCES o NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION (NHTSA) n www. nhtsa. dot. gov p Speed-Related Information SPEED MANAGEMENT WORKSHOPS
MANUAL OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING STUDIES o Shows in detail how to conduct several transportation engineering studies in the field. Discusses experimental design, survey design, statistical analyses, data presentation techniques, and report writing concepts. Provides guidelines for both oral and written presentation of study results. Includes useful forms for various transportation studies. Edited by H. Douglas Robertson. Publisher: ITE, Item #TB-012 Pages: 624 pp. Publishing Date: 01/00
CONTACTS IN CT HQ’S o Johnny Bhullar, CA MUTCD Ph: 916 -654 -7312 Email: [email protected] ca. gov o Roberta Mc. Laughlin, SPEED LIMITS Ph: 916 -651 -1248 Email: [email protected] ca. gov o Devinder Singh, CTCDC Ph: 916 -654 -4715 Email: [email protected] ca. gov
ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS? ? ? SEND CARDS UP FRONT.